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Vol. XXXVII.-No. 1. SAN FRAN0IS0O, SATURDAY, JANUARY 5, 1889. { $8 8 f oS. c " e 



[Jan. 5, 1889 

Qo F^ESfO N D E N C E. 

Correspondent* ue alone responsible for their opinions. 

A New and Important Railroad 

Editors 1'bess : — For some time past com- 
plaint has been heard from the east side of the 
San Joaquin valley of the exactions practiced by 
the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, coupled 
sometimes with a lack of courtesy on the part 
of the company's employes. Voioing these 
grievances, the Fresno Expositor of recent date 
declares the time has come when the interests 
of the people inhabiting the belt of country 
indicated demand the construction of a com- 
peting road, extending along the foothills of 
the Sierra from Stockton to the head of the 

Having vainly appealed to the great corpora- 
tion for a correction of these evils, these people 
are ready now to entertain propositions look- 
ing to the early construction of a rival road 
over this route. They stand ready to liberally 
subsidize any company undertaking the work, 
this subsidy to consist of rights of way with 
land for depots, shops, ete., or of a large 
money donation, and possibly of both. 

This disaffection is not confined to the town 
of Fresno and vicinity. It is widespread, ex- 
tending to all classes and interests along that 
section of the valley reaching from the line of 
the Central Pacific road to the foothills, includ- 
ing the latter and the mountain country to the 
east. It is a community of malcontents, the 
entire population pledging their patronage to 
anv new company entering the field. 

Encouraged by these liberal offers, and know- 
ing how rapidly this section of the State is be- 
ing populated and it9 great need of additional 
transportation facilities, a company known as 
the Stockton, Fresno and Southern Railroad 
has lately been incorporated for the purpose of 
building a road over the route here spoken of, 
this company including among its Incorporators 
and officers some of our best known citizens 
and most substantial business men. 

The total length of the projected road, as 
shown by the report of the company's engineer, 
is 175 miles, the country traversed being ex- 
tremely favorable for railroad construction. 
There will be no sharp curves or heavy grades 
on the line. The greater portion of the road 
will be built on grades of less than 15 feet to the 
mile, much of it on a dear: level, while the 
--nount of excajratioaj ■ n * n» 

•M^ " ii - „ 1 PjfiS** 1 "' «U 1-3 

idges . nec«fl'r'ry | herded rji they jt 
will be lees than six n..i<>«, though thsre will be I Bees <'? well,. a». 
several Urge riv- "A nnm(-on» creeks to be white sage from whic 

quisites. They have abandoned this policy as 
impracticable, and because they have found it 
more profitable to enoonrage other parties 
to build these lateral lines to become feed- 
ers to their main trunks. No country re- 
quires these local roads so much as Califor- 
nia, as the wagon-roads here become almost 
impassable during the wet season. At the rate 
this SUte is filling up with inhabitants it will 
not be long till we shall see it gridironed with 
these highways after the manner common in 
the Eastern States, every hamlet, mining camp 
and important agricnltural district being in this 
manner connected with the general railroad 
system of the country. H. D. 

Cloverdale Precinct, San Bernardino 

Editors Press: — Commencing at Box 
Springs, on the C. S. R. R., about five miles 
east of Riverside, and running from there to 
the San Jacinto lake, ten miles east, is a sec- 
tion of country that until within a year or two 
was considered unfit for human habitation. A 
few families have moved in, taken up Govern- 
ment land and bought of the R. R. company, 
and what was onoe a sheep range is now being 
transformed into happy homes of prosperous 

The soil consists of decomposed granite, and 
near the foothills retains moisture to a wonder- 
ful degree. Water is obtained for domestic 
purposes by running cuts in the foothills, where 
it is found in the clay seams between the 
granite. No one in the neighborhood has failed 
to find it by digging. 

The crops have been mostly barley for hay 
and grain, and the yield has been very satisfac- 
tory. There was a small amount of oorn ma- 
tured without irrigation. Potatoes did well. 
Beans filled well, but were taken by the rab- 
bits after the barley was gone. Several va- 
rieties of fruit trees were carried through the 
summer without watsr; among them were 
apples, peaohes, pears, plums, cherries, figs and 
quinces, as well as grapevines, both rooted and 

Our nearest postoffice is at Alessandro, about 
seven miles distant, on the C. S. R. R. , where 
there is a commodious hotel and a tine depot. 

The boom is bursted, but the rains have come 
and every one is trying to get as much grain 
in the ground as possible, and the result will 
be a better boom than th« speculative one that 
is gone 


The climate an'' 
I try, -.n< 

south fro 


•m wc pr~ueeu 

• W^-Will Consist 
'. .*uotnue,' Merced Chow- 
°' °V-4( U |]j Joaquin and Ring's, the 
so being Bear, Mariposa, Cotton- 
...more and Dry. 
~' . ing out rolling stock, depots, etc., the 
entire cost of constructing the road, whioh is to 
he single track, standard gauge, is estimated at 
$2,086,201 — present annual gross earnings at 
$3,068,050. Deduct from this on account of 
operating expenses, fixed charges and sinking 
fund, $2,151,370. leaves to be distributed to 
shareholders $917,680. These estimates per- 
tain to the income and outgo of the first year, 
following which both the gross and the net rev- 
enues of the company will be year by year 
largely increased. 

The articles to be carried over this road include 
all the leading California staples, such as grain, 
flour, lumber, wine, wool, fruit, hogs, sheep, 
cattle, etc., the freight on the two items of 
wheat and barley amounting to $1,140,000 an- 
nually. It is calculated that there will be 
transported over the road yearly 3000 carloads 
of fruit, 1000 carloads of cattle and 2,500,000 
gallons of wine. 

As laid out, it bisects the richest agricultural 
section of the State, the counties immediately 
tributary to it forming one of oar foremost grain, 
grape and fruit growing distriots. The most of the 
soil is a deep, sandy loam, exceedingly fertile, 
nearly the whole country being so level that ir- 
rigation, where required, can be practiced with 
the greatest facility, there being at the same 
time an abundance of water available for the 
purpose. The cereal crops, however, do not as 
a general thing need this aid, nor is it imperative 
in the culture of fruits and vines in more than a 
few localities. Recourse to irrigation is often 
had, not so much that it is sn absolute neces- 
sity as because it tends to enrich the 
soil and insure beyond contingency a boun- 
tiful crop. The agricultural territory tributary 
to the projected road amounts to over one and 
a half million acres. This, however, includes 
only the valley lands proper, the foothill re- 
gion, the best portion of the State for fruits 
and grapes, and the site of the gold fields, with 
the vast extent of timbered mountains beyond, 
being also tributary to Jhe road. The forests 
on these mountains being among the finest in 
California, would send down incalculable quan- 
tities of lumber. That this road when built 
will dn a heavy transportation business admits 
of no doubt. 

Had not this company undertaken the con- 
struction of a railroad along this belt it would 
all the same have been done. The old compa- 
nies no longer seek to dominate the entire 
railroad system of the State, nor do they claim 
every eligible local route as one of their per- 


'v;n repor* r-iog 


in are well si?!'' 1 , to 

lc~ i- en 
■t.iit - 
Srw I ,;ice of 

g ^-r «.u;*p 

ress in th^ fn't*» ' 
L S. Lifif 

Santa Barbara County Nol.os. 


the rest 

mm with 

Editors Press: — In common 
of the State this county has been 
abundant rainfall, about ten 
fallen up to date. The rain hat 
ually as to be absorbed as rapidly 
has thus been saved. All nature is . 
pastures are green. Many strangers t 
able looking for small tracts of land fo. 
Much more of this class are coming in \ 
tion to the usual amount of travel than 
been customary for some time. The la. 
ranches are being cut into small farms mot 
and more each year, and the supply of oattle, 
hogs, sheep and horses must therefore be pro- 
duced more and more yearly by the small farm- 
ers in order to keep up to the demand. 

Aronnd Santa Barbara and Carpinteria arte- 
sian water has been found in such paying quan- 
tities and shallow depths that new wells are 
being sunk constantly, adding to the laree 
number of wells now flowing. Mr. O. K. 
Thurmond, the postmaster at Carpinteria, 
has lately sunk a well which sends the 
water out of the top of a pipe 20 feet 
from the ground, and he supplies a oonsid 
erable portion of the residents of the village 
with water, piping it wherever wanted. There 
are several other wells in the valley equally 
good as this one, and they certainly are a great 
boon to the possessors. 

There is a great demand for fruit and nut 
trees throughout this section. Hundreds of 
acres of walnuts will be set out this winter and 
more would be set out if the trees were ob- 

The beans and walnuts raised this season 
have not as yet all been marketed. The walnut 
market has been depressed by the holders of 
last year's California and Chili walnuts in San 
Francisco, who hoped by this means to work 
off their stocks ahead of the new crop, This 
year's crop is short in quantity but very fine 
in quality and of large size, and should com- 
mand higher prices than it does. Beans also 
were short in quantity and farmers have been 
backward about selling. However, the major- 
ity of the crop has been sold and that at good 

Business of all kinds is very dull, but all are 
hoping for livelier times soon. The holiday 
trade has been retarded somewhat by the in- 
clement weather, as the weather has been quite 
stormy and windy for a few Hays. 

L. B. Cadwell 

41 Pomona't Retreat," Carpinteria. 

Coming Meeting of the American Po- 
mological S ciety. 

Editors Press : — At the last meeting in 
Boston, the society unanimously accepted an 
invitation from the Florida Horticultural Soci- 
ety to hold its next meeting in that State. 
This will be the first time that a meeting has 
been held in the extreme South. The enthusi- 
asm with which the proposition to go to Florida 
was received, and the extensive preparations 
being made by the nomologists of the South 
for the reception of their Northern friends, 
give promise of the most successful meeting 
ever held. 

The session will open at ten o'clock on Wed- 
nesday, Feb. 20, and continue three days. 
It was expected to hold the meeting at Sanford, 
beginning Feb. 6, but it has been found neces- 
sary, owing to lack of time for suitable prepa- 
ration, to postpone it until the 20th, and at the 
request of the Florida Society, to hold the ses- 
sion at Ooala instead of Sanford. Ocala is 
located in the central part of the peninsula, in 
the midst of the orange region, nine-tenths of 
all the oranges grown in the State being pro- 
duced within a radius of 80 miles. The cli- 
mate is salubrious and healthful. No cases 
of yellow fever have occurred in that region, 
and the direct railroads leading to Ocala from 
the North pass through none of the districts 
where it has existed. No fear, however, need 
be entertained of visiting any portion of the 
State on this account. Since the occurrence of 
severe frosts the last quarantine, that of Jack- 
sonville, has been raised, and the tide of winter 
travel has now set in. 

Among the attractions offered by the people 
of Ocala as inducements to hold our meeting 
there, are the Florida International and Sub- 
Tropical Exposition, which opens in January, 
the commodious buildings of which are tendered 
for the use of the society. The leading places 
of interest in the State are easily accessible 
from this point, and the local attractions in- 
clude the famous groves of Lake Weir and 
Dunnellton, and the wonderful Silver Springs, 
the finest of the kind in the world. 

Arrangements will be made for unusually low 
rates on roads entering Florida, and for excur- 
sions within the State. Full particulars in 
regard to these will be announced later. 
Where no other arrangements exist, delegations 
should secure special rates to Ocala from their 
nearest member of the General Passenger 
Agents' Association. 

It is hoped that all Pomologlcal, Horticul- 
'.ural and Agrit '.tural Societies in the United 
■ , and British Provinces will send delegates, 
«uch numbers as they may deem expedient, 
%tl persons interested in the cultivation of 
'& invited to be present and become 
'.''of the society. Persons bo desirous 
nit the fee, $4 for biennial membership, 
life membership, to the treasurer of 
r V. Mr. Benjamin G. Smith, Cam- 
' '., who will give a receipt for the 
the holder to all the courtesies 
'if reduced railroad |and hotel 
(oh are accorded to members. It 




ir> ire 
ate. etc 

-retary be notified as 
Orai-^ho- of members 

0> -'.-able 
ut pracff' 

] •. i ..ii, in ordei ' proper ar- 
eata ma)' be made for their reception 
1*1 Invl \tion is extended to ladies to 
- meetii t, beoome members, and take 
proc 'dings. An attractive pro 
pre) ation, a full account of 
•ear ter. It includes papers 
v t best pomologists of the 
fr .its and methods of culti 
- of judging fruits, of trans 
farksting, diseases and' their 
't. n' origination and introduction 


preferum* f* 
5 pr*'V 1 

vt ch 
anL Jls< 
vation, the p, 
porta t! J - ~u raH 
remedalSr^ inirti «' tf\ 
of new vai 

The socie. 
of fruits. Se 
offered by the ht\ 
exhibit! to be mau 
to be made by a coi 
American Society. * 
medals will be made . i 

Packages intended for exl 
addressed, freight or express 
to J. O. Clark, Ocala, Fla. 

Prosper J. Berckmans. i jt 

Note— Until the Florida meeting, th 
of the secrttary, A. A. Crozier, wi" 1 
Department of Agriculture, Wash. ..on 


Fruit for the Paris Expositf' 

Editors Press: — It being impossib' «o ad- 
dress letters to the many growers of citrus 
fruits, I have thought to publish, through ;ou< 
columns, a statement to the effect that f us de- 
partment is making efforts to exhibit the/oi,V' 
and other fruits of the entire country at 
Paris Exposition in 1889. As I jwwt, <s 
matter in charge, I hope to h*ve vplvfttae, I- 
lections of the citrus fruit* in particular 4 * to 
this office for that purpose. Aooordir ' ul- 
ings of the Commiasionrr-General de- 
manded that all spec' <>*ns be he- ' eady for 
shipment by January I. I t. ust that this 
may be oomplied with • 'be many persons in 

your State who feel ready to co operate. All 
expenses, such as expressage, will be paid here, 
or the parties reimbursed if tney prepay such 
charges. H. E. Van Deman, 

Nomologist in charge of fruit exhibit. 

A California Fig Exhibit. 
The fact that California is now pioducing the 
true Smyrna fig of commerce, with another ex- 
ceedingly choice variety, the White Adriatic, 
has rendered it desirable that an exhibit of figs 
be sent to Paris during the coming exposition 
in that city, that the people of Europe may be 
able to Bee as great a variety of the products of 
California soil as possible. The Department of 
Agriculture of the United States has recognized 
the important bearing of the faot that the true 
fig of commerce is successfully grown here, and 
has requested G. P. Rixford of this city to se- 
cure an exhibit for the Paris Kxpotition, ap- 
pointing him the department's agent for that 
purpose. Mr. Rixford will act as requested, 
and asks fig-growers to prepare packages of 
figs, put up in a tasteful manner, and to send 
them to him, care of the State Viticultural 
Commission. He requests that they be sent by 
express, which can be done without expense to 
the sender, as arrangements for paying express 
charges have been made. Every package ex- 
hibited will be credited to the person contribut- 
ing it. 

As the exhibit is to be representative of the 
whole fig industry, samples of not only dried 
fruit, but crystallized, pickled or preserved by 
any method, are desired. Any further par- 
ticulars may be had by addressing G. P. Rix- 
ford, 528 California street, San Francisco. 

P^HE JSt/tBIsE. 

Quinine for Pinkeye. 

Mr. L. Brodhead, superintendent of the 
famous Woodburn Stock Farm, Lexington, 
Kentucky, uses quinine for pinkeye and kindred 
diseases, and gives the following recipe: 

Give a weanling from 15 to 20 grains a day. 
We generally give this quantity once a day, 
but when first taken and the fever is high, give 
about 15 grains twice a day, morning and even- 
ing; if the attack is mild, only one dose a day, 
and continue until the disease leaves the 
system. The quinine allays the fever, is good 
for the inflamed throat, is a fine tonic, and so 
far has cured every oase we have had, to the 
number of 150. In the spring we had several 
very severe cases that I am sure we should 
have lost but for quinine. These were year- 
lings, and we gave 20 grains twice a day. 
Older horses can take 60 grain* a day in two 
doses. Whenever there is fever, nee quinine 
freely, no matter what the disease. It is almost 
a specific for lung fever and pneumonia. I 
have cured two cases of lockjaw in sucklings 
this Bummer with quinine and atrophia, 20 
drops of the latter to the dose. We are not 
particular to weigh the quinine, but guess at a 
dose. Put it on a spoon and place it on the 
tongue, without elevating the head or exciting 
the animal. We pull the tongue to one side, 
insert the spoon, turn it over and wipe it on 
the tongue. It is easy to administer, and the 
animal gets it all. It is perfectly safe, and 
there is little, if any, danger in giving too 
much. I have used quinine for four or five 
years, and always with good results. 

Nervous Horses. — Finely bred, intelligent 
horses are very often nervous. They are quick 
to notice, quick to take alarm, quick to do 
what seems to them, in moments of sudden 
terror, necessary to escape from possible harm 
from something they do not understand. That 
is what makes them shy, bolt and run away. 
We cannot tell what awful suggestions strange 
things offer to their minds. For aught we can 
tell, a sheet of white paper in the road may 
seem to the nervous horse a yawning cha<-m, 
'■ «•«»■ ' " ' - **•• "wj ol « 

' ' ft 

warn on 

until h I \ _ „u the noiae simply as a 

I nuis4L.ce u« material objects as only 

' trivial 1 1 'ngs liable to get hurt if they are in his 
|w .. .tav not learn all that in one lessen, 
I oontinue the lesson and you will cure all bis 
vousness. — Horvman. 

A Bill has just been introduced into Congress 
that ought to become a law. It provides that 
in all National elections the payment of money 
for the vote of any person shall be unlawful, 
and the person violating the law shall, upon 
conviction, be disfranchised for not less than 
six years nor more than ten, and during the said 
period be dicqualifieH to hold any office of trust 
or profit under the United States. 


Jan. 5, 18fc9.] 



The Sacramento River Overflow. 

Sacramento, Dec. 21. — A convention was 
held in Pioneer hall this afternoon for the pur- 
pose of considering plans for caring for the 
fljod- waters of the Sacramento and improving 
the stream. BetweeD 50 and 60 delegates were 
in attendance. A. Boschke, civil engineer, 
submitted and explained a plan he had devised 
for carrying off the surplus waters. He pro- 
posed to construct two parallel levees, 2000 
feet apart from a point near Colusa to tidewa- 
ter; other parallel levees to be constructed 
from B'ltte slough to a point near Grand island. 
He believed canals would thus be formed suffi- 
cient to carry all the flood-waters, which 
would result in reclaiming half a million acres 
of tule lands. He thought the expense would 
not exceed $1,500,000. This plan was discussed 
generally, and finally Sparrow Smith offered 
the fol'owing resolution, which was adopted: 

Resolved, That an executive committee be ap- 
pointed by the convention, to whom this whole sub- 
j j ct matter be referred, with instructions to carry 
forward this work to a successful bsue; and that to 
this end they are thereby invited and empowered to 
form any organization, or invoke any engineering 
skill or legislative aid necessary to this purpose; and 
that in the united interests of the State and the 
United States Governments, which have control of 
ail navigable streams, the committee be instructed 
to seek the counsel of Major W. H. Heuer of the 
United States Army Engineering Corps, now in 
charge of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. 

On motion of Mayor Gregory of Sacramento 
it was resolved that the committee should con- 
sist of three members from each county repre- 
sented in the convention, and the following se- 
lections were made: Colusa— W. S. Green, A. 
H. Rose, George F. Thacker; Solano— R. S. Eg- 
beit, G. H. Glide, E. T. Upham; Sutter— J. B. 
Tisdale, E. Boffenberger, Philip E. Dresher; 
Yolo— O. A Lovdal, Dr. G. M. Dixon, Tbos. 
C. Snider; Yuba— J. C. White, B. F. Dam. Dr. 
C. E. Stone; Sacramento— E. K. Alsip, R. S. 
Cirri, W. A. Johnston. This committee or- 
ganized by electing W. A. Johnston president 
and G. G. Picket secretary. The latter was 
instructed to ask the Board of Supervisors of 
San Joaquin county to name three members of 
the committee. George Ohleyer of the Yuba 
City Farmer offered the following resolution, 
which was unanimously adopted: 

Whereas. The Sacramento is the chief naviga- 
ble river of California, draining fully one-half of the 
State, including the great Sacramento valley, and 
carrying annually on its bosom not less than 500,000 
tons of wheat and other products, notwithstanding 
the railroads on cither side of it, the river being to 
the State what the Hudson river is to the State of 
New York, with a vastly widening use coniDared to 
the Hudson; and whereas, fully one-half of the navi- 
gability of the river has been destroyed by the proc- 
ess of hydraulic mining, which dumps its debris into 
the river and its tributaries, thus raising the beds of 
the streams, widening the channels and reducing 
the depth of water and navigability; and whereas, 
this process has been declared illegal by the highest 
courts, both Federal and State, under common law; 
now therefore be it 

Resolved, That we, in convention assemb'erl, as 
representatives of the Sacramento valley and its 
waterways, demand at the hands of Congress such 
legislation as will guarantee the safety and restora- 
tion of its chief river and the execution of the laws 
and decrees prohibitory of the cause of the evil. 

The meeting then adjourned to the call of the 

An Incorporation May Give Away 

An action was brought by John Applegarth 
and others against T. J. McQuiddy and others 
in Tulare county to compel an accounting from 
the directors of a ditch and canal company for 
losses claimed to have been sustained by the 

poration was organized for the purpose of irri- 
gation would not of itself compel the presump- 
tion that the corporation was organized for the 
purpose of selling the water in its canal or ditch 
tor irrigation purposes. It would be entirely 
legal for an irrigating canal and ditch company 
to be incorporated to distribute water gra- 

If from the allegation of incorporation, as ex- 
pressed in the complaint, it is not necessarily 
to be presumed that the purpose for which the 
corporation was incorporated was to sell water 
for irrigating purposes, then there is nothing 
contained in the pleading which alleges the 
violation of any existing obligation on the part 
of the defendants. Having violated no obliga- 
tion which was binding on them, tbey cannot be 
made to respond in damages for failing to tell 
the water. 

The allegation in the complaint with respect 
to frand on the part of the defendants is not 
sufficient; for, while it is alleged that the di 
rectors fraudulently distributed the water for 
irrigation purposes by doing so gratuitously, 
there is no allegation that any duty to sell the 
water rather than to give it away was imposed 
upon them; hence there were no facts alleged 
in the complaint which constituted the supposed 

We therefore advise that the judgment be 
affirmed.— Foote, C. We concur: Belcher, C. 
C, Hayne, C. 

The Court : For the reasons given in the 
foregoing opinion the judgment is affirmed. 

Irrigation for Valley Fruit. 

The following paper was read at the last meet- 
ing of the Sutter Horticultural Society by J. J. 
Pratt, superintendent of the Sutter cannery: 

In response to the invitation given by this 
society, the following reply is made with pleas- 
ure. It may be that the invitation was given 
more as a challenge than with a view of any ex- 
pected gain from an argument in favor of irri- 
gation; however, let this be as it will, we are all 
interested in the prosperity of our country, and 
the writer is particularly interested in having 
the best fruit grown for canning purposes that 
it is possible to raise. 

There are two things that are absolutely nec- 
essary for the highest success in growing fruit. 
The first is to plant the proper variety, and the 
second one is to force the fruit to a good size. 
There need be no fear of spoiling the flavor of 
the fruit, as it always follows in the same de- 
gree of perfection as the fruit itself. 

The principal place of market for our fruits is 
in the East, and they are there able to grow 
most of the fruit of ordinary quality that they 
can use, and th«y can do it at a much lees expense 
than it can be done here. Th,ej\e circumstances 
and the freight charges render competition djf . 
ficult. But proper efforts to raise nothing .. 
desirable varieties, and these to full size, 
give us a product for which there is an in 
iog market with but little competitio 

Small-size fruit and large size fruit ha 
tically no relation to each other as ' " alue. 
When they are sold, especially to ner, 
they are separated from each oth 40 to 

entirely different markets. 

We have a climate particul. ptad to 

the growth of the peach. The » and dry 
summers are just w 1 - '- j"to promote 

rapid cir£ J--*--/ 18 ' 1 s ' v orous growth. 

Bat to maintain the grow... „ake advantage 
of the climate there must be good supply of 
moisture at the roots, otherwise the dryness of 
the atmosphere becomes a detriment. It is 
claimed by some that the usual rainfall is suffi 
cient if the ground is properly cultivated and 
the fruit sufficiently thinned. While thinning 
and cultivation are important, and with good 
rainfall, satisfactory fruit will be the result on 
young trees, provided the thinning has been 
sufficiently done. But how is it when *be trees 
are older and make demands for m als for 

the air by evaporation. Nearly one-half of 
every plant is composed of pure water, and the 
other half is taken directly from the atmos- 

The substance of which vegetable tissue is 
made is by the chemist named cellulose. It is 
just the same thing in composition in wood and 
in soft cellular tissue, in the tender pot herb 
and in the old tree. It is composed of six parts 
carbon, ten hydrogen and live oxygen. Plant 
food must contain these elements in some shape 
or other. Now, water is composed of hydrogen 
and oxygen, and in the same proportion that 
they exist in cellulose or plant fabric. There- 
fore water forms these two elements. The 
third element, carbon, is obtained from carbonic 
acid gas, which is a component of the atmos- 
phere, making about 1 2500 part of its bulk. 
Plants take it in by their leaves. Every cur- 
rent of breeze that stirs the foliage brings a 
fresh supply. Starch is exactly the same chem- 
ical compound, made of carbon and the ele- 
ments of water. Sugar, another principal vege- 
table product, also has the same compound of 
carbon and water; only a little more water. 

Thus the importance of water is apparent. 
Now imagine fruit trees producing 400 pounds 
of fruit each. 

The object of this paper is to impress on the 
minds of the growers the importance of raising 
the largest and best fruit possible, and while 
the writer fully believes that proper irrigation, 
careful thinning and thorough cultivation are 
a'l necessary to accomplish the desired results, 
and that irrigation itself is just what is neces- 
sary to perfect a large crop of fruit, and that 
the time is not far distant when a thorough sys- 
tem of irrigation will be established, he does 
not expect to convert the non-irrigationists. 
But he does hope to create an interest that will 
cause numerous experiments to be made, and 
that before another year at this time we will 
have thi actual results for argument. 

Swine at the Fat-Stock -how. 



large crops ' Wi" not the 
j». oh an 

■;ave to be 

cent th- jjy and profits 

ft • n ° d nc>'." p08ed t0 lrrl 8 a 

is of 

•ifiit 1 

'id five or six that 
^as the one just past, 
what is the result 
,,, come? We have had 
.8 of fine fruit, and made a 
>n, and then comes the off 

, ed. We mubt do one of two 
to step out of the market which 
.e, and give up the field to those 
. provided themselves against such an 
, je, or else we are forced to put a 
»i\d less desirable fruit on the market 
I t v >ranH, the result of which can easily 
rragined. Thus, the importance of growing 
"ij orm grade of fruit from year to year, and 
t. '-e best that is possible, is apparent, and 
ett tffort should be exerted to that end, 
whet. ; v it be done by irrigation or other 

The necessity of water in the form of rain or 
otherwise is admitted, but the great importance 
of it cannot be fully realized unless one knows 

Uodq a, com- 

(.hint, as in this case, . »< 18 

incorporated under and by v"le 1 of 

the State of California," that ' _„i poration so 
mentioned is a corporation organized for yvfit, 
and that such an allegation is sufficient t; < 'y 
clare that it is so organized. i^a ,„..„. 

The proposition thus asserted is not oorreci,' k hat water does for plants. To thoroughly 
for it may happen that, as a matter of fact, a - tow this, a study of vegetable physiology is 
corporation incorporated under the laws of this I 1 ■ ired. The usual theory is that the use of 

r is to dissolve properties in the soil, and 
<iix hem into solution, so that the roots might 
t ' qem up with the water, and they be car- 
ri 1 the circulation of the plant in the 

form oi "p, up through t K « tree to the leaves, 
where ib is' assimilated. During the process of 
assimilation large quantities of water pass off into 

State to operate an irrigating canal is not one 
designed for profit. It is true that, as a matter 
of evidence, it might be presumed that such a 
corporation was organized for profit, bat such 
presumption would not necessarily arise as a 
matter of law. 

Because the complaint alleged that the cor- 

Meeting of t 

"tiiu crti^i 
mention of the iasi 
Society, although we have 

From the report of the rer t 
Show iu Chicago, which we fir 
Review, we collate a few sta' 1 
the size, growth, etc., of 8' -remium 
animals. We take those instances only in 
which weights or meat,*., mts are given in 
cor — f; with ages, so the ita may have I ~~ 
some gen»- ' .-.gnificance: j^wj, "~ I draw nis expense- 

The :ntrd premium for Berk .ur'e barrow of ' 
this £ "ent to Robin Hood Boy, owned by 
Mr. i-Mhhiird. This barrow was standard 
with good coat of hair, and tairly good 
ral form, thoug' '' 'reartth 

jf back and well-sprung ril \. > weighed 517 
pounds. His hight from the ground at the 
shoulder was 2 feet 4 inches; at hip, 2 feet 6 
inches; length. 4 feet 9 inches; heart girth, 5 
feet 6 inches; flank girth, 5 feet 8 inches; thick- 
ness through crop, 1 foot 6 inches; and width 
across the loin, 1 foot 4 inches. His grand- 
mother, Robin Hood Belle 5th, won 14 prizes 
at 15 fairs in four years. 

Mr. Hibbard won also the first premium for 
Berkshire barrow under six months with Dandy 
Boy 2d, a first-class pig, standard marked and 
weighing 217 pounds. He measured as follows: 
Hight at shoulder, 1 foot 10 inches; at hip, 2 
feet; length, 3 feet 6 inches; heart girth, 3 feet 

11 inches; flank girth, the same; thickness 
through crop, 1 foot 1 inch; width across loin, 
1 foot. 

The premium for best pen of Berkshires was 
awarded to H. H. Clark & Co., on Duke, Dan 
and Don. The first named, 12 and under 18 
months, weighed 411 pounds; the next, 6 and 
nnder 12 months. 360 pounds; and the last, 
under 6 months, 206 pounds. 

The first premium for Poland China barrow, 

12 and under 18 months, went to H. H. Clark 

6 Co. for Tom, weighing 512 pounds, with 
standard Berkshire markings, though not the 
Berkshire form. This barrow won also the 
sweepstakes over all 12 and under 18 months, 
and was the yearling in best pen of Poland- 
Chinas in the show. His measurements were : 
Hight at shoulder 2 feet 3 inches; at hip, 2 feet 
4.V inches; length, 4 feet 6 inches; heart girth, 
5 feet f>\ inches; flank girth, 5 feet 7 inches; 
thickness through crop, 1 foot V. inches; width 
across loin, 1 foot 7 inches. 

In Poland-Chinas, 6 and under 12 months 
o'd, the first and third premiums went to H. 
H. Clark & Co., the first for Dick and the 
third for Handy. Dick won also the sweep- 
stakes over all for 6 and nnder 12 months, and 
was in the best pen of Poland-Chinas. His 
weight was 443 pounds; hight at shoulder, 2 
feet; at hips, 2 feet \\\ inches; length, 4 feet 6 
inches; heart girth, 5 feet 2 inches; flank rrirth, 
5 feet 2 inches; thickness through crop, 1 foot 

7 inches; width across loin, 1 foot 5 inches. 
Dick was a good Poland-China in form, remark- 
ably good on nnderline, even on sides, and good 
in hind as well as in fore quarters. In color 
and markings he was a standard Berkshire, ex- 
cept black switch and a little white on left ear. 
Handy, the winner of the third premium in 
this ring, was a fairly good barrow, weighing 255 
pounds, with rather too long a nose, though 
better marked for a Berkshire than a Poland 
China. He measured in hight at shoulder 1 
foot 1 OA inches; at hip, 2 feet 1 inch; length, 3 
feet 7 inches; heart girth, 4 feet 2 inches; flank 

girth, 4 feet 2 inches; thickness through crop, 
11 inches; width across loin, 1 foot. 

The tendency to bring the Poland-China m 
nearly to the Berkshire form and markings 
more plainly seen at each succeeding show. Is 
not this an injury to the Poland-China cause ? 
It certainly excites suspicion that they are not 
being bred true to their records, though there 
is no real ground for such suspicion. When a 
prominent breeder was asked to explain why 
his Poland-China were becoming so much 
like Berkshires, and he replied, " We do it by 
selection," he gave an answer that may have 
meant either one or two very different mf thods. 
The one, the perpetration of fraud by selecting 
Berkshire boars, or the other, fair and honora- 
ble, viz.: the selection of Poland-China stock 
showing the most Berkshire blood and the 
greatest tendency to return to the Berkshire, 
one of tbe original breeds used in making 
up the Poland China hog. 

Duroc Jersey Rsds were exhibited by Thos. 
Bennett, Rossville, 111., and Quincy McBride, 
Burton. Mich. 

The first premium barrow, 12 and nnder 18 
months, was Mr. Bennett's 7th District, weigh- 
ing 542 pounds, a large, showy hog, measuring 
in hight at shoulder, 2 feet 4 inches, at hip 2 
feet 5 inches, length 4 feet 10 inches, heart girth 
5 feet 5 inches, flank girth 5 feet 9 inches, 
thickness through crop 1 foot 7 inches, width 
across loin 1 foot 6 inches. 

The second premium was won by Mr. Me- 
Bride's barrow, Uippie Boy, weighing 609 
pounds. He was 2 inches higher at shoulder 
and 3 inches higher at hip than the first pre- 
mium hog, though an inch shorter in length of 
body; the same thickness through crop, and 1 
inch narrower across the loin. 

The third premium for this age of Duroc Jer- 
sey Red was given to Mr. Bennett's Princeton, 
weighing 496 pounds, the best barrow for the 
butcher in the ring, and would by almost any 
judge have been given first place. He meas- 
ured in hight at shoulder 2 feet 3 inches, at hip 
2 feet 4 inches, length 4 feet 4 inches, heart 
girth 5 feet 3 inches, flank girth 5 feet \\ 
inches, thickness through crop 1 foot 7 inches, 
width across loin 1 foot 6 inches. 

The first premium for barrow, 6 and under 12 
months, went to Mr. Bennett for Little Dick, 
and second premium to the same for Rossville. 
Little Dick was very much the handsomest of 
the two, and on the whole the best. Rossville 
was even and smooth, though somewhat leggy. 
He was 2 inches longer than Little Dick, 1 inch 
less in heart girth and 1 inch greater in flank 
girth, though an inoh less in width across loin. 

v>'1j: .• 1 > t>ii i 

■re 10 S1&.I.W 


has precluded 
^'Mpod #?sJk~ 
of Mr. Pratt on Rose-Growing a . 

at the meeting. It was the fourth moV w j, 9 £a.- 
semblage and was held in tbe rooms of the 
State Board of Horticulture. A fair gathering 
of members was present, and on the table 
in front of the president were a number of ger- 
anium cuttings and cut roses that provoked the 
unbounded admiration of all present. Among 
the varieties of geraniums exhibited were the 
following: Grand Chancellor Faidheit, Belle 
Nanaceme, Arc en Ciel, Alphonse Karr, Re 
Utnberto, Flocon de Nige, Queen of the West, 
Jules Fartique, La Traviata, Louis Ulbach, 
Gloire de France and Alphonse Daudet. Sev- 
eral jars filled with different varieties of roses 
in partial bloom were exhibited, and on one 
corner of the table stood a very fine specimen of 
the Kin-hau orange tree, sent by H. H. Berger 
& Co. of this city. Although pot-grown, an 
abundance of oblong fruit decorated the 
branches. When this variety of orange tree is 
but two feet high, it is no unusual thing for the 
branches to bend with the weight of fruit, so 
wonderfully prolific is this miniature specimen 
of Japanese growth. 

The minutes of the previous meeting having 
been read, F. Ludeman of San Francisco, Mr. 
and Mrs. Coates of Napa City, Miss Mary A. 
Varney of Moore Station, and John Rock of 
San Jose were elected members of the society. 

The secretary reported an increasing interest 
in the society, as evidenced by the numerous 
demands for circulars and pamphlets in the 
city as well as in the country. 

An eminently interesting and practical paper 
was then read by Frederick A. Miller of San 
Francisco on " Spring Flowering Bulbs." He 
defined the methods for the cultivation of hy- 
acinths, crocuses, snowdrops, tulips, narcissus, 
remmculus, and the eight distinct species of 
lilies which have been successfully grown in 

The remarks of Mr. Miller aroused general 
interest, and by a unanimous vote he was asked 
to continue the paper at the next meeting. 

Horace G. Pratt of Fruitvale read a paper 
on "Rose Culture," which gave rise to an in- 
teresting discussion. 

A committee was appointed to consider about 
the holding of a spring exhibition as a prelimi- 
nary to a grand floral congress to be held a year 

It was also decided to establish a question- 
box in the society, in which can be placed any 
question the members may desire to be enlight- 
ened upon. 


[Jan. 5, 1889 


Correspondence on Orange principles and work and re- 
ports of transactions of subordinate Granges are respect- 

full)' solicited for this department. 

Executive Committee Meeting. 

A special meeting of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the State Grange of California, 
P. of H., will be held at the office of the 
Secretary, 220 Market street, S. F., at 1 
o'clock P. M., Friday, January 11, 1889. 

W. L. Oveehiser, 
A. T. Dewey, Chairman. 
Secretary State Grange of Cal. 

Joint Installation of San Joaquin 
County Granges. 

To the Officers and Patrons of all the Sub- 
ordinate Granges in San Joaquin County: — A 
majority of the Granges of this county have 
agreed upon having a joint installation of 
the officers of the San Joaquin county sub- 
ordinate Granges in Lodi hall on January 
16th, commencing at 9:30 A. M., with a basket 

The Master says come, the Secretary says 
come, all say come — and doubtless they will 
come by the multitude. 

J. D. Hoffman, 
Secretary of Committee. 
Lodi, Dec. 30, 1888. 

The Tule Basins. 

Three Days Anions? Grangers. 

Every now and then, in the discussion of 
the debris evil, the tule basins of the valley 
are mentioned in certain quarters as suitable 
places wherein to settle the material washed 
out of the mountain by the hydraulic giant. 
Such a scheme has again come to the front 
as a possible relief to the dethroned methods 
of mining. The Farmer has on several oc- 
casions pointed out the impracticability and 
undesirability of the scheme, and since it 
has again been mooted we will renew once 
more our objections. 

The tule basins — or winter lakes, as we 
may call them — are as necessary to the Sac- 
ramento valley as a safety-valve from com- 
plete periodical inundation, as are the de- 
pressions upon the globe th£j nil ' ii ' l 
waters of the seas. The Creator causeti uie 
waters to separate from the soil, and then 
animals appeared, to reside on the lands 
and in the waters, and hy-nnd-by tb© ooil 
began to be cultivated. Such were the 
natural processes by which the great interior 
vhIU 1 ^* cf-t>lifornia were created. That 
these w~ere once inland seas is self-evident; 
that natural causes divided the soil from 
the water and rendered it inhabitable, none 
will gainsay. Hence it is that we have a 
Sacramento and a San Joaquin valley, per- 
haps to-day the richest spots on earth. But 
they have been slow in forming, and are so 
nearly a " dead level " as to have caused the 
waters to leave behind them the finest allu- 
vial matter. The absence, then, of a cur- 
rent kept the mud within the inner bays 
and in time were separated into arable land, 
tule swamps and low-water channels. We 
say low-water channels, because these were 
never adequate to carry the waters at flood- 
tides to the lower bays and to the sea. Thus 
is explained the presence of the tule basins, 
which are known to hold ihe flood-waters 
with safety to the arable land, until they 
have time to pass away through the chan- 
nels created to accommodate a low-water 

Now fill these depressions and it is as cer- 
tain as anything in nature can be that the 
channels must be vastly enlarged or the 
floods will spread as of yore from mountain 
to mountain, converting the valley into its 
original elements of mud and water. The 
wash proposed is not the alluvial element 
that made the valley, but comes from the 
bowels of the mountains, unfit to create any- 
thing except a desert to be blown about at 
the will of the winds, as witness the 50,000 
acres already so converted. That, so far as 
is known, not a single swamp- land owner 
desires such a reclamation, is the best evi- 
dence deducible that it is impracticable and 
undesirable. The late Wm. H. Parks, who 
was the best authority in the State in 
such matters, never wanted his swamp land 
reclaimed by the Banding process. 

There is yet one other objection, and one 
which is wholly insurmountable. It is sim- 
ply this: The objectionable matter can 
never be gotten there, even if the entire 
revenues of the General Government were 
applied to the scheme. A force that will 
down mountains must be met with a force 
that will dry up the seas to be effective!— 
Sutter Farmer. 

Edex Grange initiated two new mem- 
bers at its meeting on the 22d ult. 

Messrs. Editors : — The participation 
with our Grange in the anniversary exer- 
cises just whet up my appetite for more, so 
I accepted the general invitation of Temes- 
cal Grange to be present at their anniversary 
exercises. From the persons that are at the 
head of the Order and the manner in which 
it was announced, it was well known that it 
would be a grand success. 

This was a fair demonstration of what can 
be done when co-operation is fairly carried 
out. Eden Grange came down with their 
numbers and their talents, age and experi- 
ence, and they did not withhold any of their 
good things. They affiliated so completely 
that it seemed but one Grange, and I think 
it the grandest lesson in fraternal gatherings 
that I have witnessed in many a day. 

Grandmother Brooks was there and took 
her place as one of the Three Graces. I be- 
lieve Grandmother Brooks enjoys the Grange 
as much as any of the younger sisters, and 
fortunate is the Grange that claims her gen- 
ial manners and kind words. 

I will not go into the details of the order 
of exercises, as the Patron contained a 
good account of it, but will say that the day 
was not half long enough to hear from all. 
Usually on such occasions, when they get 
well warmed up, they are liable to get off 
some spicy and well-seasoned hits. 

The entertainment that the sisters had 
prepared for the physical was not second in 
its appreciation to that prepared for the 

Temescal Grange is fortunate in one re- 
spect, she has two brothers that are clergy- 
men (who are engaged in farming as well 
as preaching) and are splendid readers and 
speakers, and they frequently enliven the 
Grange with their eloquence. 

Bro. and Sister Overhiser improved finely 
on their trip to the National Grange. They 
look much younger and fresher. I believe 
it is inclined to make a person look and feel 
younger to go and exchange ideas and 
courtesies with representative farmers from 
all the States in the Union. 

In the evening several of us went to Sister 
Dewey's house and took tea with her. By 
invitation, a good company went to Bro. 
and Sister Frink's house, where we spent a 
,.t ej^ning. This brother and sister 
have things just about as handy as money 
and brains will make them, and they have 
the disposition to enjoy them Tt. is a pleas- 
ure to me to see persons with a competency 
who know how to enjoytt. 

When the evening was well spent, Sister 
Frink absented herself from the party, and 
in a few minutes we heard the rumbling of 
doors. Looking up, we saw her standing in 
the center of two large folding-doors — a 
living picture in an immense frame, with as 
handsome and inviting a background as I 
ever saw. The picture and background were 
the realization of some of my wild dreams. 
When I arose to my feet, I caught a bird's- 
eye view of that long dining-room table, 
which seemed as natural as life itself, and 
my critical eye failed to rind anything amiss 
in the perspective. It was an agreeable 

As it was an original picture and there 
were no copies for sale or to give away, we 
made a closer inspection. We found the 
frame large and substantial, the colors 
natural, the background made up of the 
substantials and realities of life. Sister 
Frink indulged us with a luxury that few 
have to dispense. It was a fine cup of tea 
grown in her yard and cured by her own 
hands. The ornaments and eatables on the 
table were fit for a Granger's wedding-feast, 
and were fully appreciated by the guests. 

Bro. Dewey threw out some hints as 
though we should have been notified of this 
so we could have been a little more sparing 
of an editor's table. My answer was that a 
keen appetite knows no distinction between 
an editor's and a banker's table. Bro. Steele 
and I, fearing an editor's beds might be like 
bis table, concluded we would tarry with 
Bro. Frink. 

Sunday forenoon Bro. Steele and myself 
went and heard the Master of Temescal 
Grange preach. We participated in the ser- 
mon, the singing and the contribution-box. 
From the text, " Remember the Sabbath 
day to keep it holy," he preached a good, 
wholesome, practical sermon. 

Sunday afternoon Bro. Dewey invited it 
seemed nearly all the Grange to meet at 
his house for dinner. I suspect that some 
of the brother's good neighbors saw the 
number of country cousins at his house and 
attempted to help him out. 

In the center of the table lay one of the 
largest of turkeys square on his back. It 
was like the upheaval of a small mountain 
on a desert plain. An appreciative appetite 
never inquires into pedigree or ownership. 
The editor thought the muscles that 

had been running a pair of shears and 
a pastebrush not sufficiently developed to 
attack such a monster, and invited the aid 
of some of the older members. All but one 
brother excused themselves as not being 
adepts at such work. The one brother said 
to me, in a low tone of voice, that he could 
put the fork in the bird's breast and never 
take it out until all was cut up. I replied, 
I would like to see him do it at his own 
table. He neither smiled nor said he would 
send me his card. I felt a good deal of sym- 
pathy for Sister Dewey as she helped her 
large family of 13 to their second Thanks- 
giving dinner. 

The afternoon and evening were passed 
very pleasantly in social intercourse and 
music. It was one of the most pleasant and 
realistic entertainments that it has been my 
lot to enjoy for a long time. 

Knowing that Bro. and Sister Frink were 
of a sensitive nature and easy to take offense, 
Bro. Steele and myself sacrificed our feel- 
ings in the matter and became their guests 
the second night. 

There being no juveniles at this house, I 
escaped a great embarrassment that usually 
falls to my lot when traveling with Bro. 
Steele. Being a greater-student of Chester- 
field than the brother, it usually falls to my 
lot to make the introductions. When Bro. 
Steele's name is mentioned in a large family 
where they have been sent to Sunday-school 
and taught the Ten Commandments, the 
younger members will soon begin to gather 
up what property belongs to them that is 
lying around loose. Before confidence can 
be fully restored, I am compelled to spell 
the name. 

Sister Overhiser and Bro. Steele go to the 
city, and Bro. Overhiser and myself go to 
Stockton. I go to Oak Home with the 
owner, and see him turn over the rich soil 
with his three gay plows and 15 head of 
horses. If the Worthy Master could get 
some purchase whereby he could drive the 
Grange through as he does his own business, 
we would soon be a healthy rival to Texas 
or Pennsylvania. 

These three days among Grangers have 
been the happiest that I have spent for a 
long time, and I thought it a pity that the 
days were so short. 

If the farmers will not come in and join 
the Grange and enjoy some of the good 
things of the earth, I am afraid more will 
fall tc our lot than we can justly endure. 

D. F. 

Bros. Overhiser, Steele, Fliut, Goodenougb 
and Dr. McKaig, and Sisters Overhiser and 
Sanders did just give us one of the happiest 
greetings we ever had ; so we don't mind 
the Lecturer's giving it away that an editor's 
bed and board are too hard even for " Flint" 
and "Steele" to endure. 

San Joaquin County Pomona Grange. 

Messrs. %Dmi!£:\ -^The third effort San 
Joaquin County Pomojik^J^ws made to 
have a meeting, succeeded amfwe"iPau*a fine 
day and a good meeting. It partook of a 
Pomona Grange meeting more than any 
meeting that has been held for a long time. 
After the election of officers, they got to a 
genuine business meeting, and a great inter- 
est was manifested in all the subjects that 
were advanced on the calendar of business. 
It was suggested that we hold the election 
for officers of this Grange biennially instead 
of annually, and a committee was appointed 
to prepare a program for the four regular 
meetings of each year, and, if the business 
could not be completed at the designated 
times, to hold special meetings to complete 
the program. The installation of officers 
will take place the fourth Thursday, or the 
28th day, of February. 1*89 Fraternally, 
J. D Ul'FFMAN, Sec. 

Lodi, Dec. 30, 1888. 

About Grain Bags. 

Messrs. Editors:— The article of Bro. 
farmer Huffman has my hearty amen, and 
let every farmer in the State requiring bags 
join in one united demand the bag 
fiends that have by their manipulations here 
and in India succeeded in nullifying, to a 
great degree, the effort of the farmers' legis- 
lation to turn their own prison labor, that 
they are taxed for, into some relief from 
this set of robbers. Let some united effort 
at once be made for our protection, for high 
rates of taxes, labor, freight and bags leave 
us to work for the powers that live by crush- 
ing us. L. F. Moulton. 

Colusa, Dec. 25. 

That laws securing to the people an ab- 
solutely secret ballot should be passpd by all 
the States, was declared to be the sentiment 
of the National Grange, at its last session. 

Work for the Australian Voting 

Some agitation is now being made in favor 
of a new and stringent law governing our 
svstem of voting, in order to prevent frauds 
through various unfavorable influences ex- 
erted upon elections under our present regu- 

ions. The Australian system, recently 
published in our columns, or something 
quite similar, seems to most popularly meet 
the opinions of those who are anxious for a 
reform. We believe that this is one of the 
most important measures for farmers, as well 
as all other good citizens, that will come be- 
fore the Legislature at the present session. 
The National Grange has declared in favor 
of strong action in this line. 

We should like to have it discussed by 
different writers in our columns. We urge 
every honest voter to take an interest in this 
matter, and in one way or another do some- 
thing to help bring about so desirable a re- 
form. Let it be the subject of debate in 
each Grange, at its first meeting if possible. 

We recommend that the Secretary of 
each Grange draw up a letter to the legislat- 
ive representatives of the district, to be 
signed by as many members of the Grange 
as possible, and forward it to the represent- 
atives without delay. 

Some of the points of advantage in the 
so-called Australian system of voting lie in 
the fact that illegal voting and counting of 
ballots are greatly curtailed, if not entirely 
prevented. Some of its important features 
maybe mentioned briefly as follows : All 
the ballots are printed by the State. Each 
ballot contains the names of the candidates 
of all parties. Each voter enters the ballot- 
ing-place separately, is provided with one 
ballot only by two attending Government 
officials. In an apartment by himself alone, 
the voter checks or marks such names as he 
desires to vote for. He then passes to the 
front of the ballot-box, deposits his ballot, 
and passes along some distance and out, 
no one but the two officers named being al- 
lowed to approach the voter in the voting 
apartment during the process of voting. All 
ballots not voted are accounted for and re- 
turned by the officials. This plan has 
worked well in other places, and it is be- 
lieved, if adopted in California, would pre- 
vent nearly ail the frauds and do away with 
most of the " political hangers-on " that the 
State is now cursed with. 

Pleasing Incident in Stockton Grange. 

Messrs. Editors:— At our Saturday's 
meeting the Worthy Master declared a re- 
cess, when Sister Hoot, wife of our Worthy 
Secretary, presented each member with a 
paper sack of .snowy popcorn, and each 
brother with a neat, round pocket-cushion 
filled with pins, as a fraternal New- Year 
tokeu of love and hope of success in 
the coming year. 

A hearty vote of thanks was tendered our 
sister whose heart is full of love for all that 
is won by patient toil and honest principle. 

Kind acis are mightier in our loved Ordvr 
than whole afternoons spent in telling that 
we don't do as we ought to, and combing us 
the wrong wav, with the best of intentions. 

Stockton, Dec. 30. W. D. A. 

The Lax Land Laws. — A correspondent 
of theVisalia Delta thus swells the cry in favor 
of repealing all enactments regarding pub- 
lic lands except the homestead law : There 
are a number of timber claims on the plains 
which the holders have allowed to go over 
a year without commencing improvements 
as called for by law. Most of them have 
been promptly contested by the settlers in 
this vicinity, but they are a great impedi- 
ment to close settlement of the country. 
What with railroad and school sections, 
absentee owners of homestead and pre- 
emption claims, and uncultivated timber 
claims, the actual settlers are widely scat- 
tered. It seems to be the almost unanimous 
opinion of actual settlers who are improving 
their lands, instead of relying on " improve- 
ment of witnesses" to obtain title to them, 
that all the land laws should be repealed 
except the homestead provisions. Uncle 
Sam has lavishly bestowed his land upon 
anybody as though he expected to annex 
the earth, buy the moon and foreclose a 
mortgage on Jupiter before the end of this 
century. Even those who are taking ad- 
vantage of his careless, even criminal, gen- 
erosity, realize that a halt should be 

A resolution was passed by the National 
Grange at its late session urging upon Con- 
gress the importance of passing a law so 
that the postmasters of this country shall 
be elected by the patrons of the different 
offices, and not appointed by the Postmaster- 
General as they now are. 

Jan 5, 1889.] 

fACIFie F^URAlo p RESS. 


Corned Beef and Vegetables. 

Messrs. Editors: — The following recipe 
appeared originally in the New England 

" Corned Beef. — Whoever neglects from 
ignorance or other cause to cure a quarter of 
beef, or more if the family is numerous, 
neglects a high privilege and loses a sub- 
stantial item and luxury from his table. 
The pickle should be made as follows : To 
six gallons of water add nine pounds of 
pure salt, three pounds of brown sugar, one 
quart of molasses, three ounces of saltpetre 
and one ounce of pearlash. Let these ingredi- 
ents be boiled and carefully skimmed as 
long as impurities from the sugar and salt 
continue to rise to the surface. When the 
water is ready to receive the rest of the 
materia], pour in the saltpetre only, and 
when dissolved and the water boiling, dip 
your beef, piece by piece, into the boiling 
saltpetre, holding it for a few seconds only 
in the hot bath. When the beef has been 
thus immersed and becomes quite cool, pack 
it in the cask where it is to remain. Then 
proceed with your pickle as at first directed, 
and, when perfectly cold, pour it upon the 
meat, which should be kept down by cover 
and stone. The immersing of the beef in 
hot saltpetre- water contracts the surface by 
closing the pores, and prevents the juices of 
the meat from going out into the pickle. 
The saltpetre absorbed by the contracted or 
cooked surface will modify the salt that 
passes through it, the whole producing tne 
most perfect result. 

" Beef cured in this manner will preserve 
its color, and cut almost as juicy and invit- 
ing as a fresh roast. It is as unlike the 
hard, blue, briny, knotted substance sold at 
markets and frequently cured at home, mis- 
called 'corned beef,' as a sirloin differs from 
a steak cut three inches back of the horns, 
and sold for a porter-house." 

I commenced operations at the point read- 
ing, " When the water is ready," etc., as I 
could not add all the ingredients mentioned 
to water, and then afterward " pour in salt 
petre only." It proved a success; only it 
did not keep a year as is claimed for " Pan- 
zy's" recipe. It is not now visible to the 
naked eye. Pork is now king ; for on a 
ranch in winter-time meat must be had. I 
have vegetarian tendencies and believe in 
the theory, but practically it is " Arise, 
Peter, slay and eat." 

Speaking of vegetarian tendencies re- 
minds me of vegetables. I have tried to 
dispense with nice fresh vegetables brought 
around by the Chinamen, but have only 
partially succeeded. The Chinamen used 
to come around very regularly, till l ist year 
they saw me sowing peas, lettuce, etc., and 
never since then have they been visible. I 
see plainly I am to be boycotted, or what- 
ever it is. So we have already strawberries 
and cabbages set out. Now if " Panzy," or 
the editor, or some equally good authority, 
will, each month, tell what vegetables 
should be put in the ground and how it 
should be done in California, not New Eng- 
land, they would favor every tenderfoot 
farmer among your readers, " of whom I 
am chief." And seriously I believe it would 
help old stagers, who do not like to acknowl- 
edge ignorance, and so do not grow vege- 
tables, but depend on the providence of 
Chinamen. Yours respectfully and thank- 
fully, J. W. Mackie. 

[The suggestion which Brother Mickie 
makes in the last paragraph in his letter is 
a good one, and we shall be happy to carry it 
out. To do so, however, we shall need the aid 
of readers in all parts of the State, from San 
Diego to Siskiyou, and from the seashore to 
the Sierras. Will you who have had ex- 
perience in the matter write us 

(1.) What vegetables you have succeeded 
in raising in yonr locality ; 

(2 ) At what time, and 

(3 ) la what manner you have planted, and 
what care you have given each variety ; also 

(4.) What vegetables — if any — you have 
tried with unsatitf ictory results. 

We suggest these questions for consideration 
in every Grange, and invite the Secretary to 
report discussions and conclusions. If you are 
not so fortunate as to have a Grange in your 
neighborhood, but are fortunate in having in- 
dividual experiences, please report them for 
the benefit of the "tenderfoot," and thus 
oblige both him and Ens. Press 1 

A National Children's Day is to be 
declared by the Master of the National 
Grange at some specified time each year. 
The custom of proclaiming Children's Day 
by the Masters of the Michigan State 
Grange has long been in use, and one that 
is looked forward to by the children and 
parents with great pleasure, and is al- 
most universally observed. It is believed 
that it would give to our Order an additional 
incentive if the Master of the National 
Grange would proclaim such a day. 

Grange Elections. 

San Joaquin Pomona. — S. W. Sollars, 
M.; R. Pixley, 0.; Sister Joseph Adams, 
L.; V. Jahant, S.; E. G. Williams, A. S.; 
A. A. Gurnsey, C; E. Fiske, T.; J. D. 
Huffman, Sec; E. R. Elliott, G. K.; Sister 
J. L. Beecher. P.; Sister W. B. White, F.; 
Sister A. J. Nelson, Ceres ; Sister S. C. 
Waters, L. A. S. 

Sierra. Valley. — N. N. Strang, M.; 
A. M. Haselton, O.; Mrs. M. Richard, L.; 
Mrs. R. Weed, S ; A. Hubbard, A. S.; Mrs. 
G. J. Johnson, C ; Mrs. R. L. Olsen, T.; 

A. E. Knear, Sec ; J. Hubbard, G. K ; Mrs. 

B. F. Lemmon, Ceres; Miss M. A. Lawry, 
F.; Mrs. Eva Hostetta, P.; Mrs. N. N. 
Strang, L. A. S. 

Wheatland.— Frank Kirsbner, M ; John 
Landis, O.; Mrs. L. Keyes, L ; Michael 
Horner, S.; A. Hollingshead, A. S.; Mrs. 
Mary Hammond, C ; Mrs. Lou Fraser, T ; 
I. W. Huffaker, Sec ; Hugh Morrison, G. K.; 
Mrs. L. W. Hamilton, P.; Mrs. C. K. Dam, 
F.; Mrs. P. Ostrom, Ceres ; Miss L'zzie 
Oakley, L. A. S.; Miss Rosa Ostrom, Or- 
ganist (appointed). 


Bennett Valley January 5 

Danville January 5 

Eden and Tciuesual January 12 

Elliott lanuary 12 

Enterprise January 5 

Magnolia lanuary 12 

Pescadero lanuary 5 

Roseville January 5 

San Joaquin ixminy ruuioua rebruary 28 

Washmgtou lanuary 5 

Woodbridge lanuary 8 

Yuba City January 5 

Note —The Secretaries ot Granges are requested to 
forward reports of all election and other matters of 
interest relating to their Granges and the Order. 

The Press Assists the Lecturer. 

Bro. Mortimer Whitehead, Lecturer Na- 
tional Grange, in his annual report to that 
body, said : 

None can doubt the good accomplished 
by our many good lecturers, and the grand 
service being performed by our Grange 
papers; but through them we can only 
reach a comparatively small portion of the 
great agricultural class. We must place the 
Grange and its work right at their firesides, 
in the local and other papers they already 
are taking. This will create an interest, a 
thirst for more knowledge, an inquiry for 
the "way;" then follows organization, a 
strengthening of our lines, and better sup- 
port to our own Grange press. The lecturer's 
voice does good, but to proceed, go with it, 
and follow after and complete the work, we 
must use the printed page, following the 
successful methods of business men, poli- 
ticians, churches, and all great reforms that 
are making progress. I could almost wish 
that it was one of our laws that Patrons in 
each county of our Uaion should be required 
to furnish their local papers with a column 
or more of items each week, of Grange 
principles, its work and progress. That the 
papers will publish such items I have no 
longer doubts, since some of the oldest and 
largest journals of our country have this 
year asked to be regularly supplied with 
our literature. Let us devise ways and 
means for more concerted and extended 
effort in this direction. 

Treatment of Tramps. 

The Portland Oregonian of Dec. 28th has 
some plain suggestions about the tramp 
question, as follows : 

Last evening Mr. Ira F. Powers visited 
the city jail at supper-time, to see if a couple 
of his strayed lambs had been perchance 
gathered into that fold. He was present 
when supper was served. A man went into 
the big cell with about a bushel of bread, 
which he placed under the table which sur- 
rounds one of the pillars. Hardly had he 
let go of it when a big tramp seized the 
basket and upset out all the bread on the 
table, and all hands grabbed for it. Some 
secured three or four pieces and some got 
none. Then a plate of a sort of Irish stew 
was served out to each, and a cup of coffee. 

" It was too good a supper for them," said 
Mr. Powers. " If the city will do as I want 
it to, build a place where these fellows 
can be kept apart from each other, and 
send them out to work on the streets, this 
city will soon get a bad name with this class, 
and we shall not have one tramp where we 
have a dozen now. 

"The tramps tell one another where the 
best jails are, and where they are best fed 
and least worked. I want the city to get as 
much notoriety as I have. Ask any of the 
tramp boys who come in here if they have 
heard of Ira Powers of the Boys' and Girls' 
Aid Society, and they will tell you they 
have, some in Salt Lake, others in San 
Francisco, Ogden, Missoula, Spokane Falls, 
Seattle, etc. By putting the boys in solitary 

confinement, they soon come to terms and 
promise to behave. 

"I have one in my store on trial now. 
He said he would do anything I wanted him 
to and mind what I told him if I would not 
send him to the jail, so I gave him a trial. 
Neither the men nor the boys care a snap 
for being sent to jail, if they are allowed to 
herd in a warm room, and are well fed and 
allowed to play cards, sing, and amuse them- 
selves by teaching each other all the wicked- 
ness they know; but if confined in separate 
cells and made to work, they will take pains 
to keep out of jail. The city needs a new 
jail with plenty of small rooms where vags, 
tramps, etc., can be kept by themselves." 

The Legislature. 

The California Legislature convenes at Sacra- 
mento on Monday next. The regular session is 
fixed for 60 days only. Any important bills 
which may be expected to be got through 
should be presented early. We have already 
called attention to the resolutions which the 
State Grange passed in favor of legislation as 
follows on the following subjects: County As- 
sessment Blanks, Enforcement Railroad Taxes, 
To Regulate Appropriations for and Prevent 
Gambling at Agricultural Fairs, and Concern- 
ing Convict Labor. 

The members proposing legislation on the 
above subjects and offaring resolutions which 
were adopted at the last session of the State 
Grange have been requested to form bills to be 
presented to the Legislature. So far we have 
received no bills for proposed enactment. We 
are quite certain, however, that several are be- 
ing prepared. We hope the authors of all the 
resolutions will show sufficient good faith and 
zeal to prepare, or cause to be prepared, suitable 
bills to carry out their opinions. 

This Legislative Committee should soon meet, 
organize, and commence work in good earnest. 
Let every Patron and farmer acquainted with 
more or less members of the Legislature who 
are farmers, write and urge them to hold a 
meeting for conference in order to use their 
united strength for securing the enactment of 
all good bills coming before the Legislature. 
Also, form "a destroying alliance" for killing 
every evil proposition which may be laid be- 
fore the Senate and Assembly. 

We also urge all knowing or thinking of any 
information whioh may be of value to the above- 
named Legislative Committee, to communicate 
the same to them. Furnish the names of any 
members with whom you are acquainted that 
our Legislative Committee might likely prevail 
upon to co-operate with in endeavoring to effect 
wholesome legislation. 

Frauds on Farmers. 

Although we have from time to time warned 
our readers against ever giving their autographs 
to strangers, under whatever pretenses they may 
seek to obtain signatures, we believe it will be 
salutary for many to have the following, from 
one of our E is tern exchanges, brought to their 

I do not think the subject of frauds which a 
certain class of men are perpetrating on the 
farming oommunity, should be dropped, and I 
think that every farmer who knows of any 
swindle should report it. There are a great 
many oomplex frauds. I use this term because 
their complexity makes them hard to under- 
stand until the farmer is hooked in for a consid- 
erable amount. Besides, the law upholds 
swindling to a certain extent. It doesn't make 
any difference how a swindler gets his name, 
so he attaches a note of hand to it and puts it 
in the bank — the farmer has the note to pay. 
If the law would not uphold innocent purchas- 
ers, who buy notes of strangers, a great deal 
of this swindling would soon be stopped. 

A few years ago, a well-to-do farmer close to 
Swits City, Ind., received a letter from some 
parties, making inquiries as to the country, its 
productiveness, soil, minerals, etc., a letter 
which almost any one would have answered, 
especially if he had his country's good at heart. 
A short time after he had answered the letter 
he was informed that a note of $700 was in one 
of the Indianapolis banks which had his signa- 
ture. The farmer was terribly surprised, as he 
had no paper out. So he went up to the city 
and found the note with his name attached, 
which, he says, was his handwriting, or had so 
close resemblance that he did not try to deny 
it, but how did it get there was the question. 
A long litigation was the result, but the inno- 
cent purchaser prevailed, and the farmer had 
the note to pay. 

About ten years ago one of these insinuating 
"daredevils " appeared in our county with his 
hay-fork. He swindled some 30 or 40 farmers 
to the amount in all of about $10,000. The 
farmers clubbed together and hired a lawyer to 
defend them. The innocent purchaser found 
out where the swindler lived and sent for him 
to use him as a witness. When he appeared 
the farmers used some " mild persuasion," 
when he admitted that he had swindled them. 
They had him arrested, and to-day he is repos- 
ing in the Illinois State prison. 

This summer a man oame to the directors of 
our school district. He said he was an agent 
of a school-furnishing house of Chicago and in- 

troducing maps. The directors told him ths 
they did not wish to purchase anything in I 
line until they had consulted the people. Aftei 
some conversation he proposed to call the di- 
rectors of the district together, but said that he 
would like to have them give their names, 
showing their willingness to meet. The meet- 
ing was never called, and a few days ago the 
directors were informed that the firm had 
shipped them maps to the amount of $43, as 
per order. The directors are terribly angry 
about it, and talk of litigation. 

I will relate another trick that is being 
played on the unsuspecting farmer in different 
portions of the country. A man drives up to 
the farmer's house, in a one- horse wagon with, 
perhaps, a half-dozen wagon-jacks, or some 
other worthless implement. He would be much 
obliged if the farmer would let them lie under 
his wagon-shed for a few days; his family is 
sick way up in Michigan, and he has been tel- 
egraphed for and has to go home, Of course, 
under the circumstances, the farmer grants him 
the privilege. So he stores the implements, 
gets in his wagon, and starts away. But after 
going some distance, he turns and comes back, 
and tells the farmer that he had forgotten to 
ask his name and postofBce, at the same time 
presents the farmer with a pencil and blank 
card. The unsuspecting man writes his name 
in full. The pencil is indelible. In a few days 
he is informed that there are a hundred or two 
wagon-jacks, shipped to him per order, and he 
cannot get out of it, as his name is genuine. 

One more trick is being played extensively in 
the more rural districts of the West. A finely 
dressed gentleman presents himself at the man- 
sion of one of the wealthiest farmers in the 
county, and informs the family that be is a col- 
porteur of a certain church, which is always the 
same church that his intended victim holds to. 
His satchel, well filled with bibles, proclaims 
the truthfulness of his assertion. He informs 
them that if any one in the family has not a 
bible, he is authorized to present them one free. 
After discussing the topics of the church and 
weather, if it is in the middle of the day he asks 
for dinner; if in the evening, he asks to stay all 
night. After being accommodated, he asks his 
bill, which, generally, he is told is nothing, but 
the bible man insists that they receive some- 
thing for the trouble he has caused the family, 
and states that the church pays his expenses. 
After explaining to the farmer how it is, the 
farmer takes his pay, after which the colpor- 
teur takes a little book out of his pocket and 
asks the farmer to sign his name and the 
amount of charge, stating at the same time that 
thiB would be a voucher upon which he can 
draw his expenses. The sequel to the whole is 
a note in the bank with the farmer's name to it, 
which is genuine, and he has to pay the inno- 
cent banker from $300 to $500. 

Now, brother farmers, these are but a few 
swindles that we as a tolerant class are subject 
to. We allow ourselves to be the victims of 
every blarneying agent, and bring upon our- 
selves such epithets as "green as a farmer," 
" hay-seed," and others. Now, I propose that 
our Legislatures pass an Act making a note of 
hand void, unless given in the presence of one 
or more witnesses, whose signature on the mar- 
gin would be proof of its genuineness; that such 
witness shall not be anyway responsible for the 
payment of such note, but merely witness. Do 
not put your name to anything a stranger pre- 
sent* you. 

Dues to the National Grange. — The 
following shows the amount of National 
Grange dues paid by each State Grange 
during the year : Alabama, $20 ; California, 
$98.80; Connecticut, $88.32; Georgia, $43.60; 
Illinois, $214.22; Indiana, $127.49; Iowa, 
$45.39; Kansas, $84.84; Kentucky, $29.34; 
Maine, $651.82; Maryland, $35.83 ; Massa- 
chusetts, $264.37 ; Michigan, $571.98 ; Min- 
nesota, $30.14; Mississippi, $51.56; Missouri, 
$182.60; Nebraska, $31.89; New Hampshire, 
$271.62; New Jersey, $85.53; New York, 
$817.71; North Carolina, $76.85; Ohio, 
$324.14; Oregon, $106.90; Pennsylvania, 
$515.45; South Carolina, $28.57; Tennessee, 
$12; Texas, $358.15; Vermont, $84.50; Vir- 
ginia, $35.45 ; West Virginia, $54.05 ; Wis- 
consin, $133.19 ; total, $5476.30. 

Roseville Grange will have its officers 
installed by Worthy Master Overhiser to- 
day. Worthy Lecturer Flint will probably 
be present at this meeting also. We hope 
there will be a goodly number of Patrons 
present We should get a good report from 
this important post of the P. of H. 

Government Receipts and Expenditures. 
Gen. Rosecrans, Register of the Treasury, has 
favored us with a oopy of his report to the 
Secretary for the fiscal year ending J une 30, 
1888— a volume of 203 octavo pages, mostly oc- 
cupied with tabular financial statements. The 
Register's Offioe was created to keep account of 
all receipts and expenditures of the Govern- 
ment, and its duties have grown larger and 
more complicated until 10S persons are now em- 
ployed in their fulfillment. 

Disappeared. — Chas. F. Merle, president 
and manager of the California Bonemeal and 
Fertilizer Co., and agent for N. K.,Fairbank & 
Co., a commission merchant who has lived in 
this city for 16 years, and was looked upon as 
a thorough business man, is missing since Deo. 



[Jan. 5, 1889 

Don't Marry a Man to Save Him. 

A cry comes ovtr from Oregon 
For a carload— not of women wan, 
But of women of blood and brain and brawn: 
" Come, marry these men to save them ! '' 

" There are thousands here in these haunts of sin 
Spending their money in game and gin; 
Corrupt without and corrupt within; 
Come, marry these men to save them ! 

" They have been somebody's pride and joy; 
Somebody's petted and pampered boy; 
Spoiled for the lack of a maiden coy; 
Come, marry these men to save them ! 

" You must be healthy, pure, and strong, 
Able to breast and bear the wrong, 
Willing to carry a burden along; 
Come, marry these men to save them ! 

" You must be leader, but always seem 
To be gentle and helpless as love's young dream, 
And leaned upon when you seem to lean; 
Come, marry these men to save them ! 

" You must be cleanly, and kind, and sweet, 
Making a path for their godless feet, 
Up to the grace of the mercy seat; 
Come, marry these men to save them I" 

O Woman! you're sold at a fearful price 
If you wed your virtue to that of vice, 
And trust your soul to a chance of device; 
Don't marry a man to save him ! 

A life that is pure needs a pure one in turn, 
A being to honor and not to spurn. 
An equal love that shall constant burn; 
Don't marry a man to save him ! 

A woman's life is a precious thing; 
Her love is a rose unwithering; 
Would you bury it deep in its early spring ? 
Don't marry a man to save him I 

You can pray for his soul from morn till eve, 
You can win the angels to bring reprieve 
To his sin-bound heart ; but you will grieve 
ll you marry a man to tave him ! 

God gives to woman a right to press 
Her claim to a man's best manliness; 
A woman gives all, should a man give less ? 
Don't marry a man to save him ! 

— Sarah A'. Ho/ton. 

Wives of America. 

[Original -By M. W ] 

I was sitting one day, not many weeks 
ago, at table d'hote in one of the many 
charming little hotels which are everywhere 
to be found in Paris, listening to an animated 
discussion between an American and a 
French gentleman regarding the women of 
the two countries as wives — that is, the 
women of the middle classes. Of course 
the Frenchman upheld his own country- 
women and the French laws. He contended 
that the wives of France were more heroic in 
assisting their husbands in the dreary toil for 
a livelihood than the women of America, 
who. he said, had no highrr ambition than 
to dress, look pretty, and flirt. 

Before proceeding further, I must here ex- 
plain some of the tules pertaining to mar- 
riage among the bourgeois class. It may 
not be generally known, but it is the fact 
nevertheless, that every girl who marries in 
France must have her ''dot 1 ' — that is to say, 
she must have a certain sum of money to 
bring her husband, which is either put in 
his business or is used to provide a home for 
the mutual benefit of both. When a girl is 
" in the market," no one cares to ask, "Is 
she pretty ? What is her age ? " but '• What 
is her dot ?" This refers to both classes, for 
in any case money must be religiously piled 
in the scales with the daughter of the house 
in securing a husband. 

Hut with the bourgeois, if the parents or 
relatives of the girl cannot give the amount, 
the godparents try to supply the deficiency. 
If this fails, the poor young woman has no 
alternative but to forego the matrimonial 
ties until she can by her own indusiry save 
up a sufficient sum worthy of being con- 
sidered the necessary " dot." It may take 
years to accumulate it, and when it has been 
accomplished, the suitor, who has been wait- 
ing all this time, marries her in the most 
matter-of-fact way, and they at once start in 
business together, becoming partners more, 
perh ips, in a commercial point of view than 
in the more finer feelings. True, they go to 
their vocations together and at night return 
home side by side, and the work of the day 
becomes a common interest. What annoys 
or interests one affects the other. They 
talk over the business of the day together, 

discourse on fortunate or unfortunate specu- 
lations while the husband eats his dinner 
with his " partner." In the evening he sits 
by the family hearth and reads the morning 
p iper with the partner, and together they 
look over the household expenses with the 
neat white-capped maid. You see it is much 
cheaper to pay the price fot a servant — a 
sort of maid-of-all-worK — than for that of a 
clerk in the business; so for this reason 
Madame gives up all the pleasures of do- 
mestic home life for the purpose of enriching 
the coffers a trifle more. 

To return to the dinner-table argument. 
My French friend concluded with: "No 
French girl goes to her husband in an im- 
poverished condition. What becomes of the 
poor girls of America?" 

Arriving at the conclusion that my oppo- 
nent had gone too far in underrating my 
countrywomen, I said: "What becomes of 
them ? They get the best husbands and 
protectors in the land. What do they bring 
their husbands? A true and happy heart, a 
yielding, loving nature, and a clinging con- 
fidence which makes eternal sunshine in the 
home circle. Flowers, though only to 
beautify, should grow beside the kitchen 
garden; and so with our lives. A respite 
Irom all thoughts of work is what man 
needs. This is what the American looks 
for in his gentle life partner. Surely a man 
in time will weary ol having only the com- 
panionship of his business associate, for 
there are sweeter ties than this. There are 
many hours in a man's life when he would 
fain fling aside for a brief while the cares 
and tumult of business and live over the 
poetry of his youth. Without this, existence 
would be a desert waste — a fever and a sad 
biting regret." 

I had then in my mind the English poet 
who said: 

" 'Tis sweet to hear the honest watch-dog's bark 
Bay deep-mouthed welcome as we draw near 


'Tis sweet to know there is an eye will mark 
Our coming and look brighter when we come." 

Is not this woman's sphere? Is it not one 
of the holiest missions on earth to spread 
gladness all around ? For whom else does 
the wife decorate her home with pretty rib- 
bons and sweetly scented blossoms ? Whose 
taste and fancy does she consider when pre- 
paring the evening meal? For whom does 
she change her dress and don a better collar 
and a bit of lace but for the one whose home 
she is the center of attraction? How many 
little hands and faces are daily washed and 
tangled locks arranged because papa will 
soon come home ? Surely women should 
strew life's pathway with roses wherever 
there is a manly heart to cheer or arm to 
protect. Yet I am very much afraid there 
are many wives who do not make their 
homes as attractive as they might for the 
man who labors and battles with the world 
all day, yet sighing for the kiss of welcome 
which never comes. 

Is it a marvel, then, that such a man will 
wander to the club-house, the wine-room and 
other objectionable places, and over a game 
of cards or a glass of grog seek the pleasure 
of forgetfulness ? To make home pleasant 
surely is woman's sphere. Let the husband 
feel there is no place on earth like home. 
Let it not be simply a dwelling where he 
can eat and sleep, but home in the fullest 
sense of ihe term, where the very atmos- 
phere breathes of sweet accord and thoughts 
sublime. To be the queen of his heart and 
home and seek no other throne, should be 
the highest aim of the truly perfect woman. 

After an extended European tour, where I 
saw women assisting in lakirg canal-boats 
up the Crinan and Caledonian canal, in 
Scotland, harnessed to wagons in Italy, as- 
sisting in Germany to build houses by carry- 
ing bricks up steep ladders, eking out a living 
by begging in the streets of London, and 
running hotels, butcher-shops and all other 
lines of business in France, I have a higher 
opinion— a veneration I should say — for the 
men of America than I ever had before; men 
who are willing to take our young girls who 
have no "dot" to bring with them, and who 
think only of making home happy for those 
who are willing to labor for them. 

On tiik Biktii of a Sox. — The editor of the 
Napa RnjtKler thus notices an est. con's, ar- 
rival at the estate of paternity: We congratu 
late our neighbor of the Reporter on bis af er- 
noon edition. Believe us when we tell you 
that a bov is a handy thing to have about the 
house. While very young he serves in place 
of an alarm clock and keeps his male parent 
running on schedule time, like a restaurant, at 
all hours of the day and night. Later he per- 
forms whatever mischief there is to be done on 
the premises and does it in much better form 
than the neighbors' chickens. The dirt neces 
sary for his comfort need not be hauled and paid 
for at 50 cents a load; he'll find it if he has to 
wade through mud up to his knees and go 
across lots on stilts to the other end of town 
after it. As to clothes, he doesn't mind much 
whether he has any or not. It is only when 

he first falls in love that he will care to observe 
cleanliness or wear a " boiled shirt." Because 
of him the " devil" in the office will get a rest, 
for you'll have a smaller one at home to scold. 
And then to think of his future, the fond hopes 
to be realized, the ladder you rear for him to 
climb as you say to yourself and friends, " I'll 
make an editor out'en o' him." Oh, we've 
been there. VVe know how " stuck-up" you 
feel; hence this tribute and with it again our 
sincerest congratulations. 

Women in Council. 

The following circular is being sent all over 
the country by Miss Frances E. Willard, who 
is well known on this coast: 

Miss Frances E. Willard of Evanston, 111,, 
president, and Mrs. May Wright Sewell of In- 
dianapolis, Ind., corresponding secretary of 
the National Council that was organized in 
Washington, D. 0., as the outcome of the 
great council of women held there last spring, 
are laying the foundations of a new and mighty 
work. Its purpose is to secure in every lead- 
ing city and town of the United States a 
" Women's Council," made up of the presi- 
dents of all societies of women, having a 
headquarters of its own, with an office secre- 
tary, and entering unitedly upon such lines of 
work as all the women can agree npon. It is 
believed that such a plan of interaction com- 
bined with the organic independence of each 
Bociety, will do away with the overlapping of 
plans that now lead to much waste of time and 

Also that it will broaden the horizon of 
every woman who belongs to an organized 
society of women, and tend to larger mutual tol- 
eration between guilds heretofore separate and to 
a great degree non-sympathetic. As an illus- 
tration of the practical working of the plan it 
may be stated that such a council of women 
could readily arrange for petitions from all so- 
cieties of women in any given town or city ask- 
ing that women should be placed upon the 
School Board, upon the different boards in- 
trusted with the care of public institutions for 
the care of the defective, delinquent and de- 
pendent classes; asking for the admission of 
women to local, county, State and national or- 
ganizations, such as press associations, medical 
associations, ecclesiastical associations, etc.; 
asking that the doors of such schools and col- 
leges as are not yet open to women might be 
thrown wide open for their admission; asking 
for better protection for the home and heavier 
penalties for all crimes against women and 

Women could nse their influence to secure 
for girls in the public schools better opportu- 
nities for physical culture, and the enforcement 
of the new laws for instruction in hygiene. 
They could also help to engraft the kinder- 
garten system on the public schools. They 
could do much for the protection of shop-girls, 
in furnishing them better conditions of living 
by securing local ordinances requiring the best 
sanitary conditions; limiting the number in one 
room, and in every way ameliorating the 
present situation, while using their utmost in- 
fluence to increase the wages of this class of 

It will be readily seen that greatly added 
force will come from any such movement, 
whether local, State or national, when it is 
backed up by the united societies of the local- 
ity, State or nation, and that with a small ex 
penditnre of money and time all these societies, 
while oarrying on separately their own sepa- 
rate work for which they were organized, may 
yet do an immense work for womanhood at 
large along the lines on which all can agree to 
unite in sympathy, influence and effjrt. To 
carry out such plans and on so large a scale 
will require time, but there is every reason to 
believe from the experience and success of the 
women who have taken up this work that they 
will persist in a quiet but intelligent endeavor, 
having in view the ends herein stated until 
success shall crown their great but altogether 
practicable movement. 

Habitual Goodness. — It seems to be a com- 
mon laihug aruuug good men who undertake to 
improve bad men that they consider their work 
ended when the bad men give expression to 
virtuous sentiments. But it is the steady, un- 
wavering, nnquestioning obedience to law that 
is the best proof of a man's fitness for a responsi- 
ble position; and this attitnde is not acquired 
suddenly and impulsively, but is the result of 
long and severe training. Erratic display of 
kindly and honest feelings does not demon- 
strate beyond peradventure that a man is a 
good man, but the persistent adherence to a 
right course is the best evidence of such a con- 
dition. An engine that runs 40 miles an hour 
and keeps on the track all the time is much to be 
preferred to an engine that runs 60 miles, but 
is liable to run off the track. Most of the 
goodness in this world is, indeed, only a matter of 
habit. Men act largely on instincts; and these 
instincts, whether honest or dishonest, are the 
result of the habit of themselves or their an- 
cestors. By far the larger part of the average 
man's actions are based on habit. A very little 
effort will start us rightly, and from the per- 
formance of little duties we obtain the moral 
momentum to carry through successfully great 
and noble plans. Practioe makes perfect in 
the moral and mental as well as in the physi- 
cal world, and lack of practice results in debili- 
tation and death. — The. Summary. 

Affirm the Good. 

As the Mohammedan thrice daily oalls to 
Allah, as the devout Catholic never fails to 
repeat the prayers of his rosary at stated times, 
so he that believes in universal, omnipresent 
Good should never fail in making the affirma- 
tion : " All is Good." 

It is a proven law that affirming the good 
and holding to the thought with steadfastness 
and intensity verily brings the good. The 
spoken word, the uttered thought, has power 
to make the principle of good manifest in our 

In the real and the true life— the life of the 
Bpirit — we have learned there is only good, and 
the great discovery that has been made in law 
of spirit is that declaring good makes it mani- 
fest, makes it possible that no evil, no sin, 
sickness or sorrow shall come to hire who thus 
declares it. How is this ? The Good is ever 
present and we have only to command it to 
receive it. The good is for all — not a seleot 
few who can teach or write upon abstruse sub- 
jects, but for the simple as well as for the great 
Each individual has the ability to prove it. 

" All is Good." No more magic sentence 
was ever uttered ! In these words is the be- 
ginning and ending of spiritual science, is the 
sum and substance of all that is written or 
spoken upon the subject. The fervid utterance 
of these words brings relief to the suffering, 
peace to the sorrowing and right-living to the 
erring. Affirm the good, morning, noon and 
night, carry the thought at all times in your 
heart, and lo ! as if by magic the good is yours. 
Pains are forgotten ; envy, jealousy and strife 
are blotted out ; and in their place is peace of 
mind, ease of body, besides ability to accom- 
plish allotted work. 

People have long been taught to wait upon 
the will of God for His blessing and think it is 
sacrilege to believe that the blessing is to be 
had by the affirmation, by the word of com- 
mand. Are we not a thought of God ? Are 
we not one with the Spirit of the universe 
which is ever present ? Then hav6 we not a 
right to demand that God — the Good that is in 
ns — shall show forth states of happiness and 

Some come into the knowledge and under- 
standing of the good more speedily by denying 
the power of evil. They do this by repeating 
over and over again : " there is no evil." By 
this is meant that to them there is no power in 
evil. Evil is only a negative of good aud holds 
the same relation to it that darkness does to 
light*, or cold to heat. The power and (ffect 
of evil or error can be erased by holding to the 
thought, "there is no evil." Persons have 
been known to attain to great spiritual growth 
and efficiency by steadfastly giving utterance 
to the thought, "there is no evil." 

Evidently this Is only another road to spirit- 
ual unfolding and the knowledge that all is 
good. To most people the negation is not so 
potent in development of character in resistance 
to sin and sickness as in the affirmation that 
"all is good." Before this avowal, the petty 
annoyances of life disappear; the invalid forgets 
his pains ; the fretful child becomes a constant 
joy, and the discouragements in daily life van- 
ish as a dream. The good, the real, becomes 
manifest. Before this affirmation, too, the mon- 
ster fear flees forever. Fear of climate, fear of 
malaria, fear of poisoned food, fear of foes, of 
failures and accidents all dissolve as vapor does 
before the sun. All is good to the real spirit- 
ual self, which being at one with the Spirit of 
the world can experience no evil. Blessed joy 
to all who suffer, that believing and affirming 
the same brings the realization ! To them 
there is no more sin, sickness or sorrow. All 
is good. — Alice B. Stoctham in Woman* 

Have Yor a Boy to Spark?— "The saloon 
must have boys, or it must shut up shop. 
Can't you furnish it one ? It is a great factory, 
and unless it can get about 2,000,000 boys fiom 
each generation for raw material, some of these 
faotories must close out and its operatives 
must be thrown on a cold world, and the 
public revenue will dwindle. ' Wanted — 2,- 
000.000 boys !' is the notice. One family out of 
every five must contribute a boy to keep 
up the supply. Will you help? Which of 
your boys will it be ? The minotaur of Crete 
had to have a trireme full of fair maidens eaoh 
year; but the minotaur of America demands a 
city-full of boys each year. Are you a father ? 
Have you given your share to keep up the 
supply for this great public institution that is 
helping to pay your taxes and kindly electing 
public officials for you? Have you contributed 
a boy ? If not, some other family haa had to 
give more than its share. Are you not selfish, 
voting to keep the saloon open to grind up 
boys, and then doing nothing to keep up the 
supply ?" 

A New Tobacco Disease.— A Constantino- 
ple journal states that tne cultivation of to- 
bacco is in danger of a disease hitherto un- 
known. The malady has appeared in Greece, 
in some plantations of the Phtiotide. The 
plants, appearing very healthy during the day, 
bend suddenly at night to the earth and the 
next day are dead, 

A Walking Dairy. — Grass Valley has a 
walking dairy. A Chinese drives a cow from 
house to house and milks his customers' orders 
in plain sight. They get their milk straight 
and John gets the coin for each order. 

Jan. 5, 1889.] 



Down Into the Dust. 

Is it worth while that we jostle a brother 
Bearing his load on the rough road of life? 

Is it worth while that we jeer at each other 
In the blackness of heart ? that we war to the 
knife ? 

God pity us all in our pitiful strife. 

God pity us all as we jostle each other; 

God pardon us all for the triumph we feel 
When a fellow goes down 'neath his load on 
that heather 
Pierced to the heart; words are keener than 

And mightier far for woe or for weal. 

Were it not well, in this brief little journey 
On ovt-r the isthmus, down into the tide, 

We give him a fish instead of a serpent, 
Ere folding the hands to be and abide 
Forever and aye in the dust by his side. 

Look at the roses saluting each other, 

Look at the herds all at peace on the plain — 

Man and man only makes war on his brother, 
And laughs in his heart at his peril and pain; 
Shamed by the beasts that go down on the 

Is it worth while that we battle to humble 
Some poor fellow-soldier down into the dust? 

God pity us all! Time eft soon will tumble 
All of us together like leaves in a gust, 
Humbled indeed down into the dust. 

Joaquin Miller. 


In a sermon on "Pledgee and Promises" Rev. 
J. Kirkpatrick of Philadelphia made the follow- 
ing remarks in regard to the practice of betting: 

"There can be no question as to the immor- 
ality of the practice, and it is certain that it 
affects injuriously the happiness and the pros- 
pects of many homes. Many stake their all 
upon a contingency about some comparative 
trifle without pausing a moment to reflect upon 
the serious loss and possible ruin it may entail. 

"The reoent Presidential election has called 
forth this evil spirit to a remarkable extent. 
One may be disposed to laugh at the absurdity 
of the situation when one neighbor is seen 
wheeling another around the square in a push- 
cart, or when a minister of the gospel conde- 
scends to take orders for a given time for sew- 
ing machines in order to meet liabilities incur- 
red under the inexorable law of a game of 
chance; but it is pitiable to see the more terri- 
ble consequences to morality and human hap- 
piness when the stakes are heavier and when 
success on the one side means disaster on the 
other. * * Indeed, in more than one case 
the results have been so shocking at this time 
that rather than contemplate their inability to 
pay, or look upon the needless ruin brought to 
wife and family by their folly, persons have 
taken their own lives. 

"The betting man is a gambler, and he is a 
coward at heart. He has neither the courage 
nor honesty to acquire money by lawful means, 
and flatters himself that he may make it dis- 
honestly, and upon the plea of honor he de- 
mands the fulfillment of the pledge even at the 
risk of another's ruin. No Christian can con- 
scientiously give or take a pledge under circum- 
stances like these. If the cause we seek to 
serve is good we cannot help it by such cor- 
rupting influences, and the destiny of one's 
country, represented by the party in power, 
ought to be so sacred as to place it beyond the 
reach of such miserable and mischievous 
trill ng. In the spirit of faith and prayer we 
should look for the fulfillment of God's 
promises to our beloved country — that those 
who are providentially raised to power may 
rule in the fear of God, and that as a united 
people we may grow and prosper." 

American, Though Naturalized. 

A tourist in San Diego county tells in the 
Cleveland Leader and Herald the following 
anecdote, whose lesson many a native American 
may well take to heart: 

It was Election day when Alpine, a small set 
tiement up in the mountains, was reached. In 
a little schoolhouse an Election Board was dili- 
gently serving its country, and the handful of 
voters who lived in the preoinct were gathered 
about the building, apparently disposed to make 
a holiday of the event. 

During the course of the balloting, which, in 
that sparsely settled country, dragged lazily 
along, a German approached the table and es- 
sayed to cast his vote. 

" Where do you live ? " asked the clerk. The 
man named some place, and casually remarked 
that he had walked six miles that morning. 
"You don't live in this district; yon vote in 
Descanso," said the clerk. 

"Descanso ! " exclaimed the German, " Vere 
is dot?" The clerk told him it was 14 miles 
from Alpine, and then pointed out the road he 
must take to reach it. " Veil, I must get avay 
purty gwick den if I valk dot far," he said, and 
started off in the direction of Descanso. 

There was an example of pure patriotism 
worth coming to California to see. All that the 
people of Alpine knew about the German was 
that he had just taken up a sheep ranch back 
in the valley. 

Little Boy: " Pa, what does phenomenal 
mean ?" Father: " It is a word used by the 
citizens of Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, and Nebras- 
ka when they refer to the growth of their re- 
spective towns. It doesn't mean much." 

^OUNG H 0LKS ' QobUMjN. 

The Coral Cavern. 

|Written for the Rdral Prbss by Daqhar Mariager ] 

Rover's body and tail attached to it all, as it 
disappeared through the open doorway. 

Poor Rover 1 I would not have insulted him 
had I been awake. Nor would I have attempt- 
ed to walk down his open throat because he had 
the vulgarity to yawn in my faoe. 

Santa Barbara, 

the first came, and he, wishing to give the 
young man a lesson, had me administer a libera 
dose of ipecac. This made him very sick, bu 
cured him of the malignant fever. 

A Mechanical Core for Hiccough. — Pro- 
cure a glass of water and pour a little of it 
down the patient's throat. While he is drink- 
ing the water he should press a finger on the 
orifice of each ear. By this method you open 
the glottis, and in five seconds the thing is 
done. Should you by any chance meet with an 
obstinate case, you may rest assured that the 
throat and ears were not closed at one and the 
same time; either the water was swallowed be- 
fore the ears were thoroughly stopped, or the 
water was not sufficient to fill the throat. 
Another precaution is to keep the chin well up. 
This cure was obtained by the writer from an 
old Indian medical officer who had experimented 
for some years to discover a method of relieving 
the terrible stage of hiccoughing in yellow 
fever, and this cure was the outcome. — Phar- 
maceutical Journal. 

Effect of the Imagination in Sickness. — 
An instance has just occurred in Brooklyn, 
New York, to show the strong influence which 
the imagination has over a weak and sensitive 
mind. Jacob Hertline was bitten by a dog 
which he supposed had hydrophobia. He died 
of fright and nervousness, a medical examina- 
tion proving there were no rabies in his case. 

Gum-Chewers should take warning from the 
fate of a Newton, Conn., girl, aged 16. A piece 
of gum slipped down her throat, and, lodging 
at the entrance to the stomach, caused a fatal 


Washing Dishes. 

I know a fair maid with laughing eyes, 
Where a mingling of mischief and kindness lies. 
Her form is supple and gracefully neat, 
And she trips about upon restless feet; 
She can sing divinely — converse with ease, 
With a presence as pure as a summer breeze — 
And endowed beyond bound of human wislies 
She's bewitchingly sweet when washing dishes. 

With a cheerlul air and a smiling haste, 
She ties a b'g apron around her waist; 
And I notice, as slyly glancing up, 
How she deltly handles each shining cup, 
Placing them carefully side by side, 
Where she views them all with dimpled pride; 
Soft y humming a lively measure, 
Tapping the time with childish pleasure. 

Then pursues her task demurely sedate, 
Taking in turn each china plate; 
And so busily passing to and fro, 
Until they are laid just where they should go — 
For though she embroiders with taste and skil 1 , 
Can faultlessly glide through the gay quadrille — 
We admire her more when she grants our wishes 
And allows us to watch her washing di>hes. 

— Good Housekeeping, 

Apple Bdtter. — To 40 gallons of good, sweet 
cider, made from sound, ripe apples, use three 
bushels of select apples. The cider should be 
boiled down to one-third or a little less before 
putting in the apples, which should be pared 
clean, all specks, bruises, seeds and seed cavi- 
ties removed. They may be quartered or cut 
into eighths if very large. If in a hurry, the 
apples can be boiled in a little water before 
putting into the cider. Stirring should com- 
mence as soon as the fruit gets soft, and be 
kept up carefully until done. At all times pre- 
vent the flames of fire striking the kettle above 
the line of contents. When boiled down to 
ten gallons it will be done, and it will be an 
article fit for a king. Put in earthen vessels, 
and, when cold, dip clean white paper into 
good whisky or brandy, and lay it over the 
tops. In four months from making, if kept in 
a garret (the best place), the jars can be invert- 
ed on a floor or shelf without running out; 
will keep for years, and if made with the right 
kind of apples, such as Rimbo and Smokehouse, 
or Bellflower, will become as smooth as cheese. 

Apple Omelet. — Pare, core and stew six 
large, tart apples as for sauce; beat them very 
smooth while hot, adding one tablespoon of 
butter, six tablespoons of white sugar, nutmeg 
to taste, and one teaspoon of rosewater; when 
quite cold, add three eggs, beaten separately 
very light, putting in the whites last; pour into 
a deep pudding dish, previously warmed and 
well buttered. Bake in a moderate oven until 
it is delicately browned. Kit warm, not hot. 

Gelatine Podding. — Make a custard with 
the yolks of four eggs, one pint of milk and 
sugar to taste; soak one-third of a box of 
gelatine in a little cold water, then dissolve it 
in three-fourths of a oup of hot water, add this 
and the whites of four eggs well beaten to the 
cold custard. Pour into a mold and serve cold. 

Bean Socp. — Soak one quart of beans over 
night. In the morning add one quart of cold 
water, and set where it will keep warm one 
hoar; add two chopped onions and one pound of 
salt pork. Cook until the beans are tender; 
strain and season. 

Cottage Pudding. — One egg, one table- 
spoonful of melted butter, one-half cup of milk, 
one-half oup of sugar, one-half of a teaspoonful 
of soda, one teaspoonful of cream of tartar, 
flour enough to make a cake batter. 

" I had a dream which was not all a dream.'' 

My friend Rover and I had been out in the 
country hunting. Yet we had not been hunt- 
ing, or if we had, then it had been a weapon- 
less hunt, and one without harmful intent. 
True, we both had our teeth and nails, more or 
leBa concealed weapons ; but we were not 
savages. We did not want to kill anything 
and thereby have our names flying as those of 
a pair of bloodthirsty creatures. No, no ! 
Rover and I had no taste for fame, at least 
not when gotten in that way. We had not 
been out for a week or two, and we simply 
wanted a few hours' tramp in the open 
country to stretch our limbs in the freer air, 
and enjoy anything that might be enjoyable 
by the way. 

And we came home tired. I had probably 
covered ten miles. Rover had circled and 
doubled on his own tracks, as dogs will when 
going anywhere. Had he sported a distance- 
measuring machine he would probably have re- 
corded thirty miles as his forenoon's work. 
However, we had returned, and we felt in a 
mood to rest, I on my lounge and Rover on his 
rug beside me. 

I did not think of RDver any more. I slept 
well, and I dreamed a most wonderful dream. 
I was wandering all alone in an enchanted 
forest and I saw a most grotesque spectacle. I 
came to the steep face of a hill, its curvatures 
smoothly molded. Over it grew a tan colored 
rushy growth, much resembling a wind-swept 
field of over-ripe grass, This one speoies of 
vegetation covered all the hillside, except two 
places, from which something shone clear and 
bright 'neath the overhanging brush. These 
places were about half-way between the base of 
the hill and its summit. They were separated 
from each other by a broad ridge. Entranced, 
I gazed upon their liquid splendor. Closer ob- 
servation showed them to be convex, and each 
resting on an almond-shaped pedestal of ala- 
baster. They were alike, semi-transparent, and 
consisted of many wonderfully colored rings, 
one within another, mottled and ever-changing, 
while the round well like centers were black as 
jet, and seemed continually swelling and shrink- 
ing with irregular measure. 

Awestruck, I stood at the base of the hill, 
with my gaze fixed upon these two wonders. 
What were they ? I vainly asked myself. Who 
built them ? How was such perfect work, such 
perfect polish, aooompliahed ? And for what 
purpose were they put there? They seemed 
like mammoth jewels of some unknown and 
precious kind. Each one was slightly sunken 
in its respective territory amid the shaggy 
yellow growth; and on the summit of the hill 
above each of them stood a scrolled watch- 
tower, sugar-loaf shaped, and overgrown with 
dwarfed vegetation of the same kind that cov- 
ered the hillside. 

With the force of my will power I withdrew 
my gaze from the two colossal gems that so 
stiangely fascinated me, and near by I discov- 
ered two dark caverns, side by side. These 
were in the sharp terminus of the high ridge run- 
ning down from above, and they were divided 
by a massive wall. My instinct told me they 
were the portals to a habitation within. Their 
thresholds and casements were not grass grown, 
and the walls within were smooth, while their 
formations were awkwardly tilting and unsys- 

The seemingly fixed base of the hill now sud- 
denly rose up until it covered all but the two 
sentinels aloft. The jewels were gone; in their 
place was a marvelous pink coral cavern of 
enormous proportions. Its roof was wonder- 
fully frescoed as far back as the eye could 
reach. The walls, floors and frescoes were all 
of the same rich pink, and polished, excepting 
the floor, which was honeycombed. I soon saw 
that the coral floor was bnt a sliding platform. 
As I gazed in wonder at the interior, this plat- 
form slid toward me, between two walls of ala- 
baster monuments. The movement, I thought, 
contained an invitation to me to mount and en- 
ter. As the platform came still nearer me I 
was surprised by seeing it coil upward at its 
thin rounded edge. I stepped forward to en- 
ter, but too late without some muscular exer- 
tion. I earnestly desired to enter the cavern, 
with a view to exploring far, far away where it 
seemed to dip and branch off into the spacious 
bowels of the earth. The coiling of the pi it- 
form only intensified the glory of the entire 
scene. This effect in turn enhanced my desire. 
I would not be ball! ad. My eagerness took the 
place of amazement, and it grew more intense 
with every second. The- curling edge was al- 
most beyond my reach. I made a dash and 
snatched determinedly at it, feeling that I was 
athletio enough to mount to it, could I but 
catch hold of its retreating rim, though it was 
risen to the level of my hat. Again I snatched 
at it, but in vain. The thing of beauty evaded 
me, though yet within easy reach. It then 
waved over me majestically and re-entered the 
cavern, which closed from above. 

I was dumbfounded, and I opened my eyes 
wider that nothing should escape my vision. 
Then I saw my closed cave, hill, jewels, towers, 
and all walk off on all fours in a spirit of indig- 
nation. And I saw still more. Yes, I saw 

The Lost Ring. 

" Please tell me a story, auntie," said little 
Ethel, one stormy afternoon. 

" If this weather continues, my stock of 
stories will soon be used up," said Ethel's 
pretty young aunt, but she laid her book aside 
just the same, and sat down by the little girl 
and began: "When I was six years old, my 
Uncle George brought me from Boston the 
prettiest present you can imagine. It was in a 
little white box. Can you guess what it was ?" 

"A muff," said Ethel, who had a new one. 

" No; something very small." 

" A little watch." 

" Smaller than that." 

But Ethel could not guess until auntie said: 
" Something to wear on one's finger." 
" Oh, I know — a ring." 

"Yes, a lovely little ring, set with two 
rubies and a pearl," said auntie. " I was so 
pleased and so oareful of it that they let me 
wear it all the time, although it was an expen- 
sive ring and did not fit very tightly. 

" I had two playmates whom I loved very 
dearly, a black and white kitten called Spot, 
and a half -grown chicken named Peter. 

" When Peter was little his mother used to 
peck at him and drive him away from her, un- 
til at length I took pity on him and cared for 
him myse f. He was very grateful, and would 
follow me everywhere. I asked Sister Annie 
to find a good name for him, and she said 
' Peeper ' would be a perfect fit, but I thought 
1 Peter ' sounded better, and chose that instead. 
He learned to know his name, and would come 
whenever I called him. I felt sure he and 
Spot understood everything 1 said, and I used 
to talk to them as other girls do to dollies. I 
did not like dollies. They couldn't run about 
with me like my pets. 

" One day after I had been playing hide-and- 
seek among the haycocks with Spot and Peter 
all the morning, I oame in to dinner and found, 
when I w»s washing my hands, that my dear 
little ring was gone. How I cried ! The 
whole family helped me look for it, father and 
mother and all, but it was of no use. The ring 
was nowhere to be found. 

" I felt so badly that I couldn't play at all that 
afternoon. Peter seemed to sympathize with 
me, I thought, but Spot was as frolicsome as 
ever. I sat down on the doorstep in the after- 
noon, almost heart-broken, and said: '0 
Peter! won't you and Spot help me find my 
ring? Vou know I would do anything I could 
to please you.' 

" Spot only climbed the wooden piazza posts 
in reply, but Peter looked carefully about, 
turning his head first one side and then the 
other, and began to scratch among some loose 
straws that were lying scattered about, and 
what do you think I There was the ring be- 
neath them. 

" I ran to mother with it, so happy I could 
hardly speak, and then I ran back to Peter and 
hugged and kissed him more than he liked, I 
am afraid. Afterward I made him a nice dish 
of Indian-meal dough, with plenty of corn 
sprinkled in it, like plums, as I could think of 
nothing he would like better, and he seemed 
very much pleased with it. I thought Spot 
seemed a little jealous, but I wasn't quite sure." 

" Thank you, auntie," said Ethel, and then 
she ran off to play at being auntie herself, and 
she acted the whole story very nicely, with the 
old cat for Spot and the baby's rubber chicken 
for Peter. 

GfoOB ^E/rLTH. 

Medical Hypochondriacs — The common 
people are not the only ones who become hy- 
pochondriacs. There are many praotitioners 
in good standing who give way to the same 
phantasy. The St. Louis Olobe- Democrat 
says: So many people are hypochondriacs that 
a physician expects to find one-third of his pa- 
tients laboring under imaginary ills. It is easy 
for people to exaggerate symptoms, and, by 
giving themselves into the hands of quacks, be- 
come confirmed victims of ill health. What is 
not at all unusual is to find physicians who have 
become thoroughly hyped. Many of them 
with great reputations and very large practice 
and oapable of diagnosing any oase become 
cranks concerning their own health. They ex- 
aggerate the slightest symptoms into dangerous 
cases and believe they have chronic troubles 
when they would know that, in a patient, 
it would be but a slight indisposition. Most 
physicians are not competent to treat them- 
selves, and many of them are confirmed hy- 
pochondriacs. Medical students begin early to 
imagine themselves afflicted with the various 
diseases they are studying. I remember I had 
a room-mate who became thoroughly hyped 
after entering the course. One day he caught 
a cold, and that night suddenly informed me 
he believed he was going to die, as he was 
certain that he was afHloted with a new ma- 
lignant fever which we had been studying that 
day. I went immediately for one of the pro- 
fessors, and he not being in, I had another oome. 
The second understood the oase at onoe and 
gave my friend some simple remedy, and later 

PACIFI6 RURAb press. 

[Jan. 5, 1889 


Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Office, 220 Market St., N. E. cor. Front St., 8.F. 
tr Take the Elevator, No. 11 Front 

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Registered atS. F. Post Office as second-class mail matter. 


Saturday, January 5, 1889. 


ILLUSTRATIONS. — Foreign Olives — Varieties 
Fruiting in California, 1. Residence of Mr. Carsou, 
Eureka, CaL; Partial View of Seatt e, W. T . 9. 

BjJlTORlALa. — The Week; The Solar Eclipse; For- 
eign Varieties of the Olive, 8. I>e Lesseps and His 
Canal; Seattle, W. T.; Redwood Houses, 9. 

Swelliog; Barn Plans; Holes In the Bark; Sowing 
Buckwheat, 8. 

CORRESPONDENCE. — A New and Important 
Railroad Projected: Cloverdale Precinct, San Bernar- 
dino County; Santa Barbara County Notes, 2 

HORTICULTURE. — Coming Meeting of the Ameri- 
can Pomological Society; Fruit for the Paris Exposi- 
tion, 2. 

THE STABLE. — Quinine for Pinkeye; Nervous 
Horses, 2. 

THE IRRIGATOR.— The Sacramento River Over- 
How: An Incorporation May Give Away Water; Irriga- 
tion for Valley Fruit, 3. 

SWINE YARD. Swine at the Fat-Stock Show, 3. 

FLORICULTURE.— Meeting of the Floral Society, 

mittee Meeting; Joint Installation of San Joaquin 
County Oranges; The Tule Basins; Three Days Among 
Grangers; San .'oaquin County Pomona Grange; About 
Grain Bags; Work for the Australian Voting System; 
Pleasing Incident in Stockton Orange; The 1'ax Land 
Laws, 4. Orange Elections; The Press Assists the Lec- 
turer; Treatment of Tramps; Fraud on Farmers; The 
Legislature, 5. 

THE HOME CIRCLE. — Don't Marry a Man to 
Save Him; Wives of America; On the Birth of a Son; 
Women in Council; Habitual Goodness; Affim the 
Good; Have You a Boy to Sparc; A New Tobacco Dis- 
ease; A Walking Dairy, 6. Down Into the Dust; Bet- 
ting; American, Though Naturalized, 7. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. — The Coral Cavern; 
The Lost Ring, 7. 

GOOD HEALTH.— Medical Hypochondriacs; A Me- 
chanical Cure for Hiccough; Effect of the Imagina- 
tion, 7. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Washing Dishes; Apple 

Butter; Apple Omelet; Gelatine Pudding; Bean Soup; 

Cottage Pudding, 7. 
AGRICULTURAL NOTES.— From the various 

counties of California, 10. 
THE FIELD. — Important Rain and Crop Statistics, 


ENTOMOLOGICAL.— The Scale Destroyer, 14. 

Business Announcements. 


Agricultural Implements— Hawlev BroB. Hardware Co. 
Seeds— D. M. Ferry & Co., Detroit, Mich. 
Colusa Nursery— L. F. Monitor). 
Fruit Trees— M. Thomas, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Plants— Pilkington & Co., Port aud. Or. 
Orange Trees— Bentley & Mills, Jacksonville, Fla. 
Seeds— J A. Salzer, La Crosse, Wis. 
Carbon Bisulphide— J. H. Wheeler. 
Sorghum— Blymyer Iron Works Co., Cincinnati. 
Pumps — Cal. Fire Apparatus Mfg. Co. 
Commission Merchants — W. C. Price & Co. 
Dividend Notice— German Savings & Loan Society. 
Wire Fence — Sedgwick Bros., Richmond, Ind. 
Pomona Nurseries — Wm. Parry, Parry, N. J. 
Trees— J. R Springer, Woodland, Cal. 
Trees— G. Tosttti, San Leandro, Cal. 
Electric Goods -J. C. Emory & Co., Cincinnati. 
Olive Trees— J. Cooke, feast Berkeley, Cal. 
Poultry— S. W. Palin, Gait, Cal. 
Jersey Cattle— Henry Pierce, 
i each Seed Wanted— 8. M. A. 
t9~See Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

The old year closed triumphantly arjd the 
new begins hopefully. Our annual review of 
California's productive achievements, which we 
hope to have in readiness for our next issue, 
will show how great in actual industrial out- 
come the good year with the triple eight has 
been. The new year is one of the greatest prom- 
ise. The sun is the brighter for having his looks 
combed and his faoe brushed by the passing 
moon, and will nobly do hia part in inviting 
unsurpassed growth from the thoroughly moist- 
ened earth. Our gain in acreage of all crops, 
and of feed on all pastures, bids fair to make 

wealth and comfort for our enlarged popula- 
tion, which the figure experts put at 1,400,000, 
with a chanoe that the census-takers of 1890 
will enroll two names for every one recorded a 
decade ago. It is certainly a wonderful era for 
California, but no item of real growth and 
progress at all oversteps the great merit of our 
commonwealth — an inheritance which makes 
life worth living, and at the same time prolongs 
life for its enjoyment. God bless California ! 

The Solar Eclipse. 

The total solar eclipse which occurred on the 
1st of January has been looked forward to by 
astronomers for many months, and elaborate 
preparations were made by a number of parties 
and individual observers. Aside from the resi- 
dents of thiB State who observed the phenom- 
enon, a number of parties from the East, fully 
equipped with optical appliances and instru- 
ments, came to California and Nevada and se- 
lected stations on the line of totality. The re- 
sults received do not thus far give very many 
details, but they are of a character to show that 
the observations made were generally success- 
ful and that clear weather prevailed. At this 
eclipse the main features observed by most of 
the parties were those connected with the corona, 
less attention being given to times of contact 
than has usually been the case, and drawings 
and photographs of the corona have been made 
in great numbers. It is probable that never be- 
fore were so many photographs made of a simi- 
lar astronomical event. One of the parties in 
the field alone made 164 negatives. Arrange- 
ments were made and carefully carried out 
whereby different periods of exposure of the 
plates were given from half a second up to 40 
seconds. It is hoped by these means to obtain 
several good images giving exact representations 
of this strange phenomenon, as yet so little un- 

Even as seen through the naked eye, the cor- 
ona is a wonderful sight; as seen through a 
telescope, it is a very complicated structure. 
The inner corona or photosphere is usually com- 
posed of bright filaments separated by darker 
bands, and some of these are sometimes seen 
almost black. The appearances are very irreg- 
ular, and often it appears as if the inner oorona 
is made up of flashes of light on a darker back- 
ground. It was formerly doubtful if the corona 
was not the atmosphere of the sun or moon, 
but 20 years ago experience proved that the 
red prominences belonged to the sun, and that, 
though covered by the moon, they remained at- 
tached to the sun. The corona has also since 
been shown to be a solar appendage. 

To one of the parties in the field, that of 
Cloverdale, several of the representatives of 
the Rural Press were attached. An oppor- 
tunity was given of examining and comparing 
about 40 drawings of the corona made by in- 
dependent observers, who had not as yet com- 
pared notes. There is a striking similarity in 
all these drawings. With this party there 
were none who observed much color aside from 
that of a pale, cold, steely blue, the streamers 
fading away with lighter tinges from the edge. 

It was noticed that the darkness during the 
period of totality was not so intense as was ex- 
pected. It was sufficient, however, to have an 
effect on animals, the chickens retiring to roost 
and the cattle and horses showing Bigns of dis- 
quiet. In those parts of the country where 
there were Indians, these people attributed the 
darkness to some supernatural agency. 

The fear that some had expressed that the 
month of January would prove a bad time to 
examine an eclipse in California was found to 
be wrong; scarcely any of the parties reported 
other than favorable weather. Even close to 
the coast, where fog might have been expeoted, 
there was none to interfere with observations. 

The scientific results of this eclipse will not 
be known in full until the negatives made by 
the photographers are all developed and com- 
pared. It is hoped on this occasion results 
have been accomplished which will serve as a 
basis for more accurate observations in the 
future. This is particularly the case in connec- 
tion with photography. More negatives were 
taken of this than in any previous eclipse, and 
as their time of exposure has been recorded, on 
another occasion of a similar kind the work 
can be carried on more accurately by reason 
of the knowledge of the exact time of ex- 

A number of excursion trains were run from 

this city to points on the line of totality, and 
advantage was taken of this by large numbers 
of people to visit favorable points for observa- 
tion. Those along the lines of partial obscura- 
tion were also awake to the event, and the hill- 
tops around the bay of San Francisco were 
seized upon as vantage-ground by those who 
were not able to visit the belt of the totality. 
The phenomenon was quite as impressive as 
popular descriptions promised, and all observ- 
ers were awed by its majesty as well as satis- 
fied with human knowledge which could pre- 
dict with such accuraoy an event of such re- 
mote occurrence. 

Foreign Varieties of the Olive. 

We give on our first page this week a collec- 
tion of olive twigs representing a number of 
foreign varieties which are most talked about 
in this State. The figures will be examined 
with much interest by our olive-growing read- 
ers, because they represent the foreign varieties 
as actually fruited in this State, and are not 
reproduced from European engravings. Much 
oredit is due to B. M. Lelong, Secretary of the 
State Board of Horticulture, for the energy and 
interest he is showing in securing and publish- 
ing information on the olive, a fruit which is 
now exciting such wide interest in this State. 
Our engravings are reproduced from Mr. Le- 
long's latest pamphlet, which is now ready for 
distribution and can be had free by addressing 
the office of the State Board of Horticulture, 
220 Sutter St., 8. F. 

ThiB pamphlet contains other varieties than 
those we show this week, which we may pre- 
sent later, also figures representing methods of 
budding and grafting, operations which are of 
especial interest now that many will wish to 
change their varieties to others which they may 
think more desirable. The descriptions of va 
rieties given by Mr, Lelong are based upon a 
recent authoritative French publication, and 
full lists of synonyms are also given. In the 
notes whioh we prepare for the general reader, 
we take only the most striking features, with 
allusion to the growers of the different sorts in 
this State. 

Probably the greatest interest will pertain to 
the contrast between the Redding Picholine, 
now so widely diatributed in this State, and the 
Picholine of the French. It is clear that the 
variety we are growing is neither the Picho- 
line nor of the Picholine type. What it really 
is, is a mystery, but it may prove of value, and 
if not so in itself it is undoubtedly a good stock 
for working on other sorts. The value of our 
Picholine for oil will probably be fully demon- 
strated this winter. 

A famous variety is the Lucques, which is 
now fruiting on the grounds of C. A. Wetmore 
at Livermore. It is grown in large quantities 
in France in regions where the growth of olives 
for the table forms a special industry. It is usu- 
ally given good, deep soil, and though it does 
not seem to produce hearty, this is compensated 
for by its beauty and high quality for pickling. 

The Manzanillo is a large fruit, of irregular, 
globular shape, as shown. The tree is now 
fruiting at the places of Juan G al legos, Mission 
San Joae; Geo. E. Ladd, Atwater; Dr. J. M. 
Stewart, Santa Cruz, and on the grounds of the 
California Nursery Company at Ndes; also at 
San Jose and Santa Barbara. This variety is 
widely distributed, as hundreds of trees have 
been sent out in small lots by the State Uni- 

The Pendulina is a handsome tree and good 
bearer, as has been shown by its growth at 
Livermore, Santa Cruz, San Jose, Niles and 
Mission San Jose. It is said to be good both 
for oil and for pickling. 

The Pendoulier is the variety which has been 
mentioned in the Rural as fruiting on the farm 
of Albert Montpellier at Vacaville, and as 
ripening as early as the first of October in that 
early part of the State. On Mr. Rixford's 
place in Sonoma valley it ripens in November. 
At Atwater, Merced county, it ripens about the 
same time as at Vacaville. It has an excellent 
foreign record, the fruit being large, as shown, 
and the tree of a vigorous growth and beautiful 
weeping habit. 

The Verdale in France is a dwarf tree and 
bears a table olive. It is very popular in Lan- 
guedoc. It ripens very early. The fruit seems 
especially desirable for pickling green. It is 
rather sensitive to cold. The Verdale is fruit- 
ing in several parts of this State. At Saratoga 

it is bearing on very steep sidehills, so steep 
that they can hardly be cultivated. The trees 
bore a full crop this year. 

The last variety we show this week is the 
Columella, which Mr. Lelong considers a most 
valuable acquisition because of its productive- 
ness and superior quality of fruit; the weight 
of the fruit brings the branches to the ground. 
The fruit is of a dear yellow color before ma- 
turity and makes a very handsome pickle. It 
is now growing in Livermore, San Jose, Niles 
and Saratoga. 

The larger part of the olive varieties por- 
trayed by Mr. Lelong were obtained from Mr. 
Rock's importations of trees, of which mention 
has been made from time to time in the Rural. 

Queries a^id Replies. 

Cow With Jaw-Swelling. 

Editors Pke.s;>:— Will some kind reader of the 
Rural Press please state whither he has had 
any experience where a cow has a large lump or 
swelling on the under jaw— on the jaw-bone, and 
what it is? Also the cause, and what is best to do 
for it? 1 have a Jersey cow on my ranch so affected, 
and as she is a pet, am very much worried about it. 
She does not seem to mind it, nor does it seem to be 
sore, but it is growing larger. I will be very grate- 
ful to any one who will kindly answer my questions 
in regard to this matter. — HEADER, San Jacinto. 

Editors Press: — It it a very difheu t 
matter to diagnose the above disease positively 
without examination, as there are so many dis- 
eases, the symptoms of which are swellings on 
different parts of the body. It is very probable 
that the disease may be actinomycosis: this dis- 
order is caused by a fungus of the genus acti- 
nomyces, which is found in man, ox and pig. It 
is very probable that this disease is communi- 
cable by contagion and infection through any 
pores or natural orifices of the body. Sponta- 
neous cure as a result of abscess is occasionally 
seen in the lower animals, but, as a rule, surgi- 
cal extirpation of the tumor is absolutely neces- 
sary. In man, actinomycosis tends to deep ab- 
scesses and extensive necrosis of tissue with for- 
mation of ti tula, and it frequently proves, fatal 
through py;i jiia resulting. 

There is also another swelling under the jiw, 
rather common in cattle, especially in some 
parts of the country, called wens or clyers, this 
disease especially affecting those parts which 
have lymphatic glands situated in them. They 
increase in size slowly, as a rule, but may mani- 
fest a first acute stage, which changes to a phase 
of less activity. The tumor may also undergo 
a classification and thus remain in statu quo 
for a long time. 

The treatment I find best is the application 
of acid — sulphuric — with friction to the bases 
of the tumors by means of a suitably shaped 
piece of brick, stone, or piece of wood. 

I should certainly advise the case to be ex 
amined by a thoroughly qualified veterinary 
surgeon, as if it be a case of actinomycosis it is 
a serious matter for man as well as beast. — A. 
E. Bu/.ard, M. R. C. V. S. L., No. 11 Seventh 
St., S. F. 

Barn Plans. 

Editors Press : — Can you give us now and 
then a plan for a barn suitable to the ordinary 
needs of a suburban place, where a cow and 
calf and two horses are kept, with suitable ar- 
rangements for convenient feeding of the same; 
also with storing-place for hay and feed enough 
to keep them through the winter, and harness- 
room, grain-bins and carriage and sleeping 
room for a man included in the plans, so as to 
make the whole a neat, substantial, tasty 
building suitable for a gentleman's place near 
town. So many new-comers are needing just 
such plans to work on in building their new 
California homes that some suggestions in the 
Rural upon this subject will fill a long-felt 
want of many of your subscribers. — L. U. 

[ This subject is a good one. Will our readers 
who have built to their satisfaction favor us 
with photographs, sketches of ground plans, 
etc T Now that amateur photographers are 
almost as numerous as tramps, probably one of 
them could be easily persuaded to practice on 
the barn and send us the result. 

Holes In the Bark. 

Editors Press: — I notice a few of my largest 
apricot trees have a quantity of round boles picked 
or bored in the bark, but cannot find any insect td 
work at them. Holes are about one-eightb inch in 
diameter, and are through the outer bark. Many 
have gum running out. None of my neighbors know 
what it is. One thought it was done by wood- 
peckers. Please answer throueh the Rural Press 
what you think is the cause, or ask subscriber* to 
s»te their views, and oblige — A. Yollmer, /.os 

We presume the holes are the work of the 
species of woodpecker commonly called the sap 
sucker, about which there was quite a contro- 
versy in the Rural last winter. 

Sowing Buckwheat. 

Editors Press: — Will you please inform nie 
through the Rural Press when is the best time to 
sow buckwheat ?— L. Moore, Walnut Creei. 

[We would like to hear experience on this point, 
how early can it be profitably sown in any part of 
the State, and for the special benefit of our querist 
who will write of it in Contra Costa county ? — Eds.] 

Jan. 5, 1889.] 

fACIFie f^URAb fRESS. 

De Lesseps and His Canal. 

Da Lesseps and his canal enterprise has for 
some time been recognized as one of the most 
picturesque figures in the world. No one thing 
has more largely occupied the world's attention 
for the patt year than this great engineering 
effort to connect the two oceans at Panama. 
In a commercial point of view, it is fully equal 
in importance to the Suez canal. In an engi 
ntering light the work of connecting the Med- 
iterranean with the Red sea bears no compari 
son to that required on the Isthmus of Panama. 
The Skz canal is a mere ditch through a sand 
plain, whioh was first conceived and completed 
some 2000 yearB ago. De Lesseps merely 
cleaned it out and created more sub- 
stantial entrepots at either end. There were 
no engineering difficulties in the way which 
might not have been overcome by the merest 
tyro at such work. 

Why even that canal should have cost $100, 
000,000 is difficult to explain, especially when 
nearly all the laborers were furnished by the en- 
forced labor of Egyptian fellahs. Equally diffi- 
cult is it to explain, especially in view of the 
much more magnificent engineering enterprises 
which have been carried to successful results in 
other parts of the world, why De Lesseps should 
have won such applause for his Suez work. The 
first American overland railroad, the canal and 
reclaiming system of Holland, the E ie canal 
through New York and other similar enter- 
prises, exhibited much greater engineering skill 
than was called into recognition on the Isthmus 
of Suez. The first construction of that canal in 
the dim light of early history, when the world 
was young and science and engineering skill 
scarcely known, was a work of far greater mag- 
nitude than its modern renewal. 

The Panama canal, neither in its conception 
nor in the engineering skill in its initiation, has 
been the work of De Lesseps. The proposition 
for its construction has been before the world 
for over 200 years, and its engineering possi- 
bility shown by actual surveys. De Lesseps has 
never been on the isthmus but once, and then 
only as the head of a junketing party. No 
special examinations were made, aDd no calcu- 
lations as to the possibility, cost, or manner of 
the work. 

De Lesseps has been simply a promoter of the 
scheme, without taking the trouble to give the 
work any serious consideration. He seems to 
have been peculiarly unfortunate in fH<>rHnp 
men to let bis contracts to su- 
perintend the work and to select 
and purchase machinery. Mill- 
ions of dollars have been thrown 
away on machinery which, when 
placed on the ground at great 
cost, proved to be utterly worth- 
less. Contracts have been so care- 
lessly let as to give fortunes to 
the lucky contractors and pile 
up useless expenses against the 
enterprise. Stock and bonds 
have been sold at large discount 
and interest on the same paid 
from date, contrary to usual 
practice in such investments. 

There has already been ex- 
pended more than twice the sum 
whioh investors were assured 
would complete the work, and 
at least one half more will still 
be required to finish the same. 
Money has been obtained under the most 
fraudulent assurances and expended in the 
most pr< fiigate manner. A large portion of 
this money has been drawn from people of small 
means who can ill afford to lose it. As the 
work took on a sort of semi-national character, 
these people, in their present calamity, nat- 
urally li ok to their Government to see that it is 
completed, so that their investments need not 
be an entire loss. And right here stands a lion 
in the way — the Monroe Doctrine — under which 
no European nation can be allowed to acquire 
any local national rights on this continent. 
The French Government would gladly step in 
and finish the work; their people demand it; 
bat they daro not do so. They remember 
Maximilian and his fate. It would not do for 
the Government to take charge of and complete 
the work without establishing a government 
protectorate over it. That cannot be permitted 
by the United States. 

De Lesseps' last remaining hope was taken 
away when Senator Edmunds introduced his 

late resolution into the U. S. Senate stating 
that this Government would look with serious 
disapproval upon any European government 
which should undertake either the control or 
construction of any ship canal across the 
Isthmus of I Urien. 

It would seem under existing circumstances 
that the Government of Colombia should ap- 
ply to the United States for aid to complete the 
canal. Either some such plan must be adop^ 

which some of the treeless plains and valleys 
of California can be made to yield lirge sup- 
plies of exc-l'Tt*- 'n«1. 

Seattle, W. T. 

A Glance at the Metropolis of the Puget 
Sound Country. 

Seattle occupies a site which was selected as 
a favorable point for a city as early as 1852. 


or the canal company must 
funds required in its civil 
the French nor any other 
ment will be allowed to step 

Bitter denunciations are 
French investors in regard 

oMrr *h« miomftnnpftmpnt of 

raise the remaining 
capacity. Neither 
European Govern- 
in and take up the 

heard among the 
to what they con- 
trip afT tirs nf thft 

Elliott bay, on which the city is situated, was 
visited by Capt. Chas. Wilkes in his famous ex- 
ploring expedition in 1841, and was named by 
him in honor of one of the lieutenants of the 
company. Owing to depredations of Indians 
the city was slow in growth for many years. 
In 1860 it was exceeded in population and busi- 
ness by at least three other cities on the sound, 

bay. Solid bank buildings, fine brick st. 
broad sidewalks and a rushing crowd of people 
will surprise him. For a distance of four or 
five blocks along the west side of the principal 
street there is an activity and a city -like 
aspect surpassed by few streets in San Fran- 

The retail business is massed in comparative- 
ly limited level space, and the effect is to make 
a very active and attractive center. On the 
weet side of the street, for a distance of about 
1000 feet, there is a solid frontage of houses 
which would be creditable anywhere. These 
are uniformly three stories high, with deep base- 
ments and of the most modern construction. The 
materials are stone, iron, brick, pressed brick 
and plate glass. Inside and outside the busi- 
ness blocks of Seattle compare favorably with 
those of Portland, Sin Francisco and Chicago. 


company. The most of those who have dis- 
cussed the matter feel kindly disposed toward 
De Lesseps, commiserate the misfortune which 
has overtaken him, and still have hope that his 
fruitful brain will find some satisfactory way 
out of his present dilemma. The canal will 
most undoubtedly be completed; but in all 
probability the money already invested will be 
mostly lost. Whoever puts money into the 
scheme at this stage of the enterprise must 
be protected, whatever may befall previous in- 

A Quekr kind of fuel is now used by some 
of the people of Wyoming Territory. It is 
nothing more nor less than surjflowers. An 
acre of sunflowers will, it is asserted, furnish 
fuel for one stove for a whole year. When dry 
the stalks are as hard as maple wood and make 
an excellent fire, and the seed heads, with the 
seed inside, are said to burn better than the 
best hard coal. As sunflowers will grow almost 
anywhere, it is believed that there is a way by 

and did not take the foremost place among 
them until ten years later. From that time on 
the town has pressed steadily forward. 

The situation of Seattle is strikingly fine. 
The city stands on the east side of Elliott bay, 
an inlet on the east side of Puget sound, upon a 
site which curves inward in a graceful semi- 
circle and rises in steep terraces from the shore 

The approach to Seattle from the sound is 
very tine. If by day, the visitor sees the oity 
in full view, and a most imposing picture it 
makes. The large buildings do not hide each 
other, as in a flat town, but each stands out in 
full view, making a fine general effeot. If the 
approach is at night, the illuminated streets 
make a picture suggestive of San Francisco, 
as seen on a clear evening from the Oakland 

After going through a brief, crowded and 
busy space of a few hundred feet near the city 
front, the visitor corner upon a handsome street 
running north and south, parallel with the 

Redwood Houses. 

Nearly all of the wooden houses on this 
coast are made of California redwood, but it 
has only been within the past few years that it 
has been used for interior finish and decoration. 
Now, however, that painted wood is unfashion- 
able for interiors, the native woods are being 
utilized, and the redwood largely. The roots 
and stumps have a curly grain, which is very 
beautiful when polished. We give an illustra- 
tion on this page of the handsome residence of 
Mr. Carson, of the firm of Dolbeer & Carson, 
in Eureka, Humboldt county, built mainly of 

Its exterior appearance is grand and attract- 
ive, as may be gleaned from the illustration. 
The interior is elegant in its appointments and 
finish. All the different forms of redwood — 
straight-grained, curly and variegated — be- 
sides foreign hardwoods, are used in the interior 
finish and decorating. Some idea of its ele- 
gance may be formed when it is known that all 
the lumber was finished and millwork done at 
Mr. Carson's mill, and yet the cost was $30,000. 
The stable in the rear and standing at one side 
is of the same architecture as the residence. 
Messrs. Newsome Bros, of San Francisco were 
the architects, and it may be well called a mas- 
terpiece of the builders' art. One of the most 
attractive features is the use of different woods, 
hard and soft, natural and stained, in the dif- 
ferent suites of apartments, giving a rich, ele- 
gant and pleasing variety, and making this 
palatial residence one of the finest that can be 
seen anywhere, surrounded as it 
is by the spacious and well-ap. 
pointed grounds, and occupying 
a commanding site. 

The jutemills at Oakland are 
running more smoothly of late 
than ever before in their history. 
In former seasons it has been 
found necessary to close down 
very frequently in order to await 
the arrival of new supplies of 
raw material from India. In the 
past ten months supplies have 
been coming in very freely, and 
in such a way as to obviate the 
necessity of stopping the ma- 
chinery, at frequent intervals, 
as has been the case during the 
greater part of the history of this 
important industry in California. 
By steady running, the mills 
return a better profit to their owners and keep 
the large number of employes steadily at 
work. There are now about 300 white persons 
of various ages at work in the mills and about 
90 Chinamen. The new machinery for making 
the coarser grades of jute material, including 
matting and hop cloth, are found to work ad- 
mirably. There is believed to be a good outlook 
for the industry here, now that it is possible to 
secure supplies as they are required by the 

We notice some of the newspapers are dis- 
cussing who will be called to the Cabinet to fill 
the position of Secretary of the " Department 
of Agriculture." This is premature; no such 
department exists. The bill creating such an 
official is not likely to be taken off the hook 
during the present short term of Congress, we 
fre sorry to say. 

A Cream kry is to be established at Ellens- 
burg, Washington Territory. 



[Jan. 5 1889 

jJg^icultu^al JJotes. 


Taming Wild Fruits. — Gridley Herald, 
Dac. 27 : Mrs. Jennie Jarvis has a number of 
wild fruit plants for sale, embracing wild red 
cherry, mountain gooseberry, red and black 
currants and black raspberry. These plants 
come from Truckee Canyon and the fruit they 
bear is of the best quality. They will do well 
in this neighborhood. 

They Pay.— Matthew Mullen, four years 
ago, planted 30 orange trees on a town lot 
80x110. He set them out more for ornament 
than for profit. This week, however, he has 
discovered that there is some profit in raising 
oranges. Taxes will become delinquent next 
Monday. Times have been very quiet this 
winter and money scarce. Monday, Mr. Mul- 
len thought he would sell the oranges on his 
trees and thereby avoid drawing on his bank 
account so heavily for tax-money. He did so. 
They netted him §185. about $8 more than his 
taxes on a ranch of 160 acres. And now the 
"young man" says he'll have the biggest 
orange grove in (Iridley township next year. 
Contra Costa. 

In Praise op Bermuda Grass.— Antioch 
Ledger, Dec. 22: In the grounds adjoining 
Mr. Holliday's handsome cottage is a plantation 
of Bermuda grass, which demonstrates the 
value of this grass for lawn purposes in this 
locality. With little care and without any 
elaborate preparation of the ground, Mr. Holli- 
day has here one of the handsomest bits of la Wo 
that we have ever seen. The grass has a grace- 
ful, feathery appearance that renders it very 
attractive, and the hot sun of summer appears 
to affect it not at all. 

Oats.— Martinez Item, Deo. 27: A bunch of 
tame oats reached this office yesterday from 
the ranch of N. R Harris, near Jersey Land- 
ing, who is one of the successful farmers of that 
reclaimed district. The oats are fully headed 
out and developed — something by no meant 
usual at this time of the year — and nearly five 
feet in hight. 


Kino's River Oranges. — Fresno Expositor, 
Dec. 26: Fulton G. Berry and a party of friends 
took a drive yesterday to the foothills. They 
visited the orange grove of Wm. Hazelton on 
King's river above Centerville, found the trees 
bearing abundantly, and brought back with 
them some of the finest clusters of oranges and 
lemons we have ever seen in Fresno. Mr. 
Barry also brought in a sack of oranges from a 
tree in his grove, in the same locality. A care- 
ful estimate of the oranges on the tree from 
which the sackful was plucked placed them at 
over 5000. .. .The Expotitor returns thanks to 
J. H. Lewis of Upper King's River for a box of 
tine oranges grown on his place. They are like 
all the oranges from that favored region, bright, 
clean, thin-skinned and sweet. The orange is 
bound to be a prominent product of the Upper 
King's River country. 

The 'Possums. — P. P. Payne has sold his 
'possums (lately impoited from Missouri) to 
JeBse Irvine. Two and a-half acres have been 
inclosed, by a high fence made of wire, on Mr. 
Irvine's place. Within this inclosure are sev- 
eral small saplings, such as 'possums delight to 
climb. There are several hollow logs in the lot. 
Daring the daytime not a 'possom can be seen 
in the inclosure. As soon as it becomes nicely 
dark they come out of their retreat and frolic 
about the yard. The young have grown amaz- 
ingly since coming to California. It was pre- 
dicted by many Southern gentlemen when Mr. 
Payne first introduced the 'possum here that it 
wouldn't thrive, but this opinion has been thor- 
oughly exploded. Mr. Irvine is also convinced 
that Brown L 'ghorn chicks and 'possums won't 
thrive on the same ranch ! 


Percheron Immigrants. — Lakeport Ava- 
lanche: Capt. \V. B. Collier has arrived with 
31 choice Percheron horses, some of which 
were imported and some purchased from M. 
W. Dunham, while others of the yonnger stock 
were foaled on Mr. Collier's farm at Bridgeton, 
14 miles west of St. Louis. The stock brought 
to Lake county is of the two best Percheron 
strains ever brought to America. Mr. Collier 
has done a great thing for this portion of the 
State by bringing this stock here, and we wish 
him success in bis undertaking. The stock 
came through by rail without sustaining injury 
and will be qaartered at the fair grounds until 
Mr. Collier can arrange suitable quarters at his 
ranch above town on the lake shore. 

Los Angeles. 
Onions — Santa Ana Blade: Mr. Murdock, 
who has ten acres of peat land near Bolsa, has 
actually sold from one measured acre this year 
$450 worth of onions, and a second crop on the 
same ground is well advanced. It was hie first 
experience in onion raising, but he says if he 
had planted bis crop one month earlier, to se- 
cure the best advantages of the Etstern market, 
he could have made the price of his entire ranch 
on this one year's crop. How is this for high, 
you doubting Easterners? 


Horticulturists Organized. — Dispatch- 
Democrat: The adjourned meeting of the 
Mendocino Horticultural Society was held in 
Ukiah Siturday, D3C. 22, 1888, Robt. Mc- 

Garvey presiding. The society then effected a 
permanent organization with 16 members, by 
the adoption of constitution and by-laws, and 
the election of the following officers: R. Mo 
Garvey, Pres.; E. W. King. V. P.; H. Price, 
Sec'y; L. W. Babcock, J. M. Luce, J. S. 
Hogshead, Directors. The following were ap- 
pointed by the president to make out a petition 
to the Board of Supervisors asking them to ap- 
point a Commission on Fruit Pests: E. W. 
King, L.W. Bibcock and T J. Fine. Ad- 
journed to meet the last Saturday in January, 
at 1 o'clock r. H. 


Fine Orange Cluster. — Merced, Dec. 25: 
The Board of Trade here will to morrow forward 
to the State Board of Trade at San Francisco a 
bough containing 36 large yellow oranges. This 
fine cluster was raised in the garden of Dr. G. 
T. Lee, in this town. The tree was trans 
planted last spring, and produced this season 
about 500 large oranges of delicious flavor. 


Pestered by Panthers — Alturas Independ- 
ent: The sheep-owners who are grazing their 
flocks on the west side of Goose lake are ex 
periencing considerable trouble from California 
lions. One night lately one of the varmints en- 
tered the fold of Mr. Thompson, seized a large 
ram, carried it off several hundred yards, killed 
it, and then walked off and left the carcass, 
ojite a number of sheep have been killed by 
these animals. 


To Exhibit in S. F. — Newcastle Newt, Dec. 
26 : A meeting of the Directors of the Board of 
Trade of Placer County was held at the read- 
ing-room in Newcastle on Saturday relative to 
making some sort of an appropriate exhibit of 
Placer's products, either in Chicago, in " Cali- 
fornia on Wheels," in Los Angeles or in San 
Francisco, and after a full consideration of va- 
rious propositions, it was unanimously decided 
to secure an eligible location on either Market 
or Kearny street, in San Francisco, and there 
place our exhibit. Vice-President Parker and 
Director Robert Jones were named a committee 
to proceed to San Francisco and engage suit- 
able quarters. Those gentlemen are now in 
that city in fulfillment of their mission. A 
committee consisting of George D. Kellogg, A. 
Moger, W. J. Wilson, J. Reith. Jr., H. E. 
Parker, J. F. Madden and Bell M. Berry was 
chosen to collect such citrus fruits, etc., as may 
be deemed necessary for a creditable exhibit. 
It is proposed to purchase from the growers 
about 3000 oranges, at the market prices, which 
will form the bulk of the exhibit. There will 
also be a display of apples, persimmons, pome- 
granates, almonds, walnuts, cereals, etc., in fact 
a general display of the products of the 

San Hemto. 
Tres Pinos Notes. — Editors Press: The 
indications for good crops the coming season 
were never better in this section. The last 
rain commenced the night of the 1 2 ch, several 
days after our neighbors farther north were fa- 
vored in like manner, and has oome gently; 
warm rains that the ground has readily ab- 
sorbed and put it in the right condition for 
plowing. In the Tres Pinos valley the grain- 
fields of last year are green with the volunteer 
crop nicely started, and much of the cultivated 
lands will not be reseeded. Mr. Zjnas 
Churchill has planted this month eight acres for 
a nursery within half a mile of Trea Pinos de- 
pot, and is expecting to put out a large portion 
of his ranch into orchard next year, and be able 
to supply trees to those in the valley who, like 
himself, have faith that San Benito county 
lands can grow as good fruit trees as other parts 
of the State. Three years ago last March, Mr. 
Churchill put out 300 trees to test the capahil- 
ities of his land for growing orchard. He fin- 
ished planting the 17th of March. It proved to 
be a dry season, and they did not have a drop 
of water after planting till late in the fall; were 
kept alive by cultivating, and have not had the 
attention experienced orchardiets give their 
fruit trees, for the ranch has been rented for 
the last three years to a man who is a good 
farmer, but makes no pretension to growing 
fruit trees successfully. These trees have made 
a fine, healthy growth, and fairly demonstrated 
the fact that it will pay to plant orchards in 
this valley; and it may yet rival the famous 
Santa Clara county orchards. — M. A. S. 

San Bernardino. 
Riverside Items —Press, Dec. 22 : Since 
last Siturday Frost & Burgess have sold 20,000 
three year-old orange trees for setting out, and 
think they see where they can place 40,000 
more right off. The amount sold will set out 

about 300 acres Griffin & Skelly estimate 

the crop of oranges now beginning to be har- 
vested in this settlement at 900 carloads, of 300 
boxes eaoh. We think this is a liberal esti- 
mate, and, while deferring to their superior 
judgment, would rather put it at 800 carloads. 

D. H. Burnham has put up a large 1 jt of 

Smyrna or White Ischia figs this season. He 
is about the only fig-grower aronnd here who 
makes a business of curing this ticklish fruit for 
market. He is very successful, and his figs are 

San Joaquin. 
Rye Heading Out.— Stockton Independent, 
Deo. 27: N. H. Locke of Lockeford yesterday 
exhibited in this city samples of a volunteer 
crop of rye now growing on Noah Clapp's farm, 
near Lathrop, which would surprise people who 
did not know of the wonderful fertility of San 
Joaquin county lands. The crop now stands 

15 inches high on a tract of 200 acres and has 
commenced heading out. The rye started after 
the light rain in September last, and has been 
growing safely ever since. 

Pan Luis Obispo, 
Trees in Variety. — Cholarae Cor. Tribune: 
Mr. Harris, a non-resident, who has a timber- 
culture claim in the Palo Prieta country, is 
quite enthuasiastic about the future of this lo- 
cality. He is having sown catalpa, locust, and 
two kinds of cypress seeds. He iB also setting 
out quite a number of Picholine olive trees, 
which are almost: certain to do well, aB Tilman 
Fowler, of the I'alonia Pass, has a tree in full 
bearing which produces olives of the finest 
quality. Mr. Fowler also has orange and fig 
trees in bearing, which produce remarkably 
fine fruit. 

Promising Wheat. — Paso Rcbles Cor. Trib 
une, D.c. 28 : O. Howard, living four miles- 
northwest of town, near Oak Fiat, Saturday- 
brought to my tfficea stcol of green wheat 
standing nearly four feet high, with full-grown 
heads as long as our hands. Tne gram bad 
grown aB volunteer in Mr. Howard's field since 
the summer grain was harvested He also 
brought some watermelons and nearly ripe to- 
matoes that he picked off growing vines the 
morning he brought the vegetables to town. 

Santa Clara. 
Gone Gophers — Los Gatos Mail. Dac. 28 : 
L. I. Beach informs us that he has killed nearly 
all the gophers on his ranch of 30 acres (for- 
merly a portion of the Boudish ranch, on the 
Saratoga road) by using carbon bisulphide on 
cotton wadding, sticking the cotton in the holes 
and covering it over with dirt. He says it is 
essential to find every hole on the tract and fill 
them up. He used two gallons of carbon bi- 
sulphide and about $1 worth oi cotton, the total 
cost being about $4. 


Raspberries — Rsdding Free Pret* : Tues- 
day, the ISth of December, we were accorded 
the rare privilege of tasting several of a mag- 
nificent cluster of ripe raspberries. The rich 
red fruit nestled naturally among the tints of 
autumn's flame-splaBhed leaves, and, strange to 
say, retained the delights of the first flavors of 
the berry season. The cluster came from the 
gardens of K A. Reid. 


Editors Press: — The mercury stands at 42 J 
this morning, but no frost. The sun is shining 
bright, with a prospect of clear weather. On 
Christmas night we had three inches of rain. 
The various rain gauges give from 11 J to 17 
inches for the season. In the hills, three miles 
west of Vacaville, about one sixth more rain 
falls than in Vacaville. Our roads (one of the 
weak beauties of Solano county) are almott im- 
passable on account of mud. The M< Mann 
Bridge Co. of S F. has just finished a 60-foot 
bridge across Alamo creek, and have a con- 
tract for another in PleaBant valley. Several 
new brick buildings are soon to be erected in 
Vacaville, the contracts being let and men at 
work clearing up the ground. We have had 
very little frost this season, volunteer potatoes 
are up, and a foot high. Grass is gaining very 
fast. Everything so far points to a favorable 
season, and consequently, everybody is in good 
humor. — G., Vacaville, Dec. 30th. 


IRRIGATION Bonds. — Turlock Pioneer, Dac. 
26: Last Tuesday the directors of the Turlock 
Irrigation District met, E. B. Clark presiding 
and a full board present. L. M. Hickman ap- 
pearing, the matter of the sale of bonds waB 
taken up, and Mr. Hickmin statad that he bad 
sold bonds to the amount of $500,000 at 00 per 
cent of their face value, and npon the following 
conditions: $10,000 cash, $20,000 on February 
1, 1889, $20,000 on March 1st, $50,000 on April 
1st, and the balance as called for by the direct- 
ors, upon their giving 20 days notice and in 
sums not exceeding $50,000 per month. Upon 
motion duly made and seconded, it was by said 
hoard unanimously decided to accept the bid. 
C. F. Linder was appointed a committee of one 
to supervise the work of the Engineering Corps, 
with instructions to have the permanent sur- 
vey from the dam immediately commenced. 


About Hay Fork. — Cor. Record Union: I 
have seen as fine winter apples here as any that 
come from Oregon. Walter James took a load 
to Rad Bluff a week ago, and sold them readily 
at three cents a pound. If they had been put 
up in boxes, instead of being carried loose in 
the wagon, and had been picked from the trees 
instead of shaken off, they would have brought 

at least four cents per pound This county 

produces potatoes and alfalfa to perfection, and 
is fairly good for wheat and other cereals. The 
foothills are well adapted for the successful 
raising of fruits — particularly apples and pears, 
and, 1 think, many of the more hardy varieties 
of the grape would do well here. W. W. 
Shock showed me a few vines of FUme Tokay, 
on my previous visit, that would be a credit to 

any locality This county is coming to the 

front rapidly as a stock county, and the man is 
fortunate that getB a title to a good range before 
it is too late. 



Dac. 22 : Some of our nurserymen are sending 
orange trees to Porterville, a promising young 
candidate for citrus honors. Among the 
Riverside people who have landed interests up 
there are Ad, S, Alkire, Philip Frankenheimer, 

Felix Lightner, Geo. T. Frost, Frank Morrison 
and a brother of C. S. Burgess. Porterville is 
about 250 miles northerly from here, on the 
broad bench below the foothills of the S erra 
Navadas, almost nnder the shadow of M'nnt 
Whitney, a peak 15,000 feet high. Thirty five 
hundred inches of mountain water supplies iti 
thirsty soil, and it is said to be as well adapted 
to orange culture as any place in this south' rn 
section. It lies where it meets the tide of 
home-seekers both from the north and south. 

Poplar Pointers. — Cor. Delta, D c. 27: A 
larger area of crops is being put into the 
ground at the present time than ever before. 
A few first-class windmills have been placed. 
The stock business holds out well. Horses and 
cattle are on the increase. Hogs are more 
scarce. Draft hortes are receiving their share 
of attention, but the breeding of fast horses seems 
to receive more. The best breeds of cattle and 
swine have received their share of interest. 
The fruit business is on the increase; more in- 
terest has baen awakened within the last year, 
and all conclude that there is more profit in 
fruit than in wheat. There was a large am unt 
of the cactus hedge plant set in this neighbi r- 
hood. Much of it is dead, and what is alive is 
very scattering. The Seneca-wheat man has 
also been around, and succeeded in making sev- 
eral contracts in this vicinitv. Oar indust-ies 
are becoming more diversified, consequently 
more independent. The year has not b en as 
prosperous as some, but our people have not 
felt the anxiety that they did heretofore, when 
their libor was expended on one kind of prod- 
uct and that proved a failure. The outlook in 
every respect is bright. 

Bears, Grain and Fruit.— Three R vera 
Cor. l)tlta: Farmers and stockmen are very 
busy hunting the bear and plowing end towing 
grain. Grain is up already and looks well. It 
is eailier than usual this season and we expect 

a bountiful crop Bears are fat now, and the 

oil is relished muchly on hot cakes. F ank and 
E nest B.itton killed two bears a few days sg". 
Wes Warren killed one bear, and it is reported 
that John Swanson and Walter Sarby killed 
five a short time ago, and that Dm Busby has 
killed six since he arrived from Kinsas. Lu 
D»vis and Abe Wilkinson killed th ee and W. 
F. Daan and D n C.otfelter have killed three 
or four bears lately. Jack Bihwell and M t 
Birton killed one, and it is Slid that M t 
came near having his shirt torn iff, for there 
was only the shirt between him and the bear. 
. . . .Sam Hiletaad is hauling apples to Visalia. 
Apples are pit ntiful this season. S ime of the 
Japanese persimmon trees are well loaded with 
persimmons, which have a good flavor. 


Editors Press: — We are having just the 
best old-fashioned winter you ever saw, up 
here in the Sacramento valley — rain, a plei.ty. 
and an even and mild temperature that is ]■ t 
delightful. The fields are green, and the wild 
oats and foxtail tall enough to furnish good 
paiture, and if we have no more fret z s, ihe 
season of feeding stock will soon < nd. We 
have had but two slight frosts as yet, sod the 
only thing that bothers the grain rancher is 
how to get in his " winter-sown " grain be- 
tween showers. Tree planting bids fair to ex- 
ceed any previous year and is limited only by 
the supply, the varieties most in demand being 
exhausted. The people of Woodland are 
seriously considering the oannery problem once 
more and I think this time it will be a success. 
With many well wi»hes for the Press, a 
Merry Christmas and Happy New Year. — J. R. 
Springer, Woodland, Dec. Si, 1S88. 

County Raisin Crop.— Mail, Dac 29 : Va- 
rious estimates of the raisin crop of Yolo 
county for 1888 have been made, ranging all 
the way from 50,000 to 100,000 boxes. A abort 
time ago the Fruit-Orower published a state- 
ment that Yolo and Solano counties combined 
would produce for the year 1888 something 
over 85 000 boxes. From reliable statements 
made by the producers, we are enabled to give 
the true amount of the ontput in boxes for the 
season past — Yolo county alone has raised 120,- 
650 boxes of raisins. 


Cattle on the Meadows — R^no Gazflte 
and Stockman, Dec. 27 : The fallowing u a 
correct list of the oattle on the meadows feed- 
ing, and to whom they belong : C Derby l-as 
500, George Humphrey 350, J. St ang 220, 
Matt Healy 200, Ayera & Poor 375, Poley, 
Heilbron & Co. 400, Horn & Chapman 325. 
Joseph Frey 520, C. Alexander 200, E P. 
Sessions 170. M-jor Wall 220 George Mapei 
1400, Louis Daan 900, Ward Bros. 400. Grav- 
son, Owen & Co 650, Hayes, C>rrick * Co. 950, 
John Soarks 500, George Peckham 50, G. C. 
Hnnt 231, E Craio 200, W. H Oallighan 150, 
and other small lots estimated at 150, makiug 
a grand total of over 9000. 

Stock Shipments.— List Monday D n 
Wheeler shipped nine cars of I » - « f ca tie to 
Poley, Heilbron & Co., 8 F. J>hn Slaven 
shipped to Grayson. Owen & Co., Oakland, five 
cars of the Sparks & Tinnin cattle which have 
been fed on Truckee meadows. Among this 
lot are several thoroughbred, half and three- 
quarter bred Herefords, which are sent to the 
shambl s as a sort of test to see how they 
will weigh. Two carloads of mutton sheep 
were also shipped to the S F. market by D. C. 
Campbell. Besides the above, nine cars of beef 
cattle, which ariived from the Eaat Monday 
morning, were re-shipped Monday night. 

Jan. 6, 1889.] 





Messrs. J. W. PREWETT 

And S. D. GOFF, 



Have shipped 70, picked out of 200 first-class SHORT- 
HORN CATTLE, to San Franci-ico, Cal., which they offer 
to the Pacific Coast breed "rs. In individual merit the 
Cattle are as good as any ever sent here from the Eatt, 
and breeders should not fail to see them. They are all 
recorded or accepted for record; are good colors, and in 
juat the condition to promise future usefulness 

*3T They can be seen at the RAILROAD STA- 
BL.KS, corner Turk and Steiner Ste., after De- 
cember 25, 1838, and will be 


At a date hereafter to be published. Visitors welcomed 
at any time. 


Best Fences and Gates for all 
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The "San Jose" all Iron & Steel Frame 


We take pleasure in calling the attention of the Orchardists and Vineyardists of the Pacific 
slope to our NEW ORCHARD AND VINEYARD CULTIVATOR. The most complete and 
easily handled machine in existence. Weight, 335 pounds. The Cultivator is raised and 
lowered by means of a foot and hand lever, reducing the labor of handling to almost nothing. 

It is the only Cultivator that can be handled successfully on a side hill. By means of the 
Shifting Pole the tendency to crawl down hill can b i overcome. This feature is of advantage 
on level ground as well. The pole is shifted by the horses and can be checked at any angle by 
means of a foot lever. The Cultivator is increased from 7 to 9 teeth by sliding arms into a 
grooved casting in the ends of the frame. We lack space for a further description. Write foe 
Circulars. Address : 




The Favorite. 


Will do a Greater Variety of Work than any 
Cultivator on the Pacific Coast. 

This Cultivator has been 
awarded more First Prem- 
iums than any other Culti- 
vator made in this State. 

r Send for Circular. 



Santa Cruz Co., 



308 to 312 J St., 

Saoramento, Cal., 


Imperial Plows, 


Star Windmills. 


And a full Line of the Most Improved 

Farm Machinery. 


Manufacturers of all kinds of 


Grape and Berry Baskets, 
Cor. Front and M Sis., SACRAMENTO 

Postmasters g 

e rf(|iies'e<l to sure awl notify u 
hen this paper is not takfin fro'» 
their office. I. not stoppnd prorrptly 
(through oversight or other mishap), do us the favor to 
write again. 



The two cheapest and heat Mills made in the State. 
Manufactured and sold by 


Cor. Alameda & Montgomery Ste., S&N.JOSS, C A.L. 
fSTStml for Circulars. 

fl D A kl P r A practical treatise by T. A. Garky 
U K A ll U t gi vm £ 'he results of long expert- 
VlinilUb ence in southern California. 196 
n ■ 1 1 T 1 1 ni~ > J "K CH ' oloth bound. Sent post-paid 
1 1 K r at reduced price of 76 cts. per copy 
UULI U 1 1 L. b y DEWEY * CO. , Publish ers.8. F. 






Is recognized as the 

Always gives satisfaction. SIMPLE, 
STRONG and DURABLE in all parts. 
Solid Wrought iron Crank Shaft 
with DOUBbR bkarinos for the Crank 
to work in, all turned and run in ad- 
justable babbitted boxes. ' 

Positively Self-Regulating, 

With no coil springs, or springs of any kind. No little 
rods, joints, levers, or anything of the kind to get out of 
order, as such things do. Mills in use 6 to 12 years in 
good order now, that have nevercost one cent for repairs. 
All genuine Enterprise Mills for the Pacific Coast trade 
come only through this agency, and none, whether of 
the old or latest pattern, arc genuine except those bear- 
ing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look out for this, as 
inferior mills are being offered with testimonials applied 
to them which were given for ours. Prices to suit the 
times. Full particulars free. Best Pumps, Feed Mills, 
etc., kept in stock. Address, 


GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES (as always before), 

San Francisco Agency, JAMES LINFORTH 
37 Market Front St.. San Francisco. 


A, LU8K & CO. 

Dealers in and Packers of 

Canned Goods, Dried Fruits, Nuts 
and Raisins, 

Have removed their offices and salesrooms 
to their new etore, 

Nos. 10 and 12 Main St., 





Material used costs nothing 

No Leather Valves or Bellows 

To get out of order. 

Every Machine guaranteed to 
give satisfaction or money refunded. 

Send direct to Patentee and 
Manufacturer to save agents' com- 

Price, $3.00 

Any infringement of this Patent 
will be prosecuted to the full ex- 
tent of the law. 

Send for descriptive Catalogu 
and Testimonials to 


44 8. Spring St , 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

. HE H. H. H. Horse Liniment pnU 
*■ new life into the Antiquated Horee ' 
For the last 14 years the H. H. H. Horse 
Liniment has been the leading remedy 
among Farmers and Stockmen for the 
cure of Sprains, Brnises, Stiff Joints, 
Spavins, Windfalls, Sore Shoulders, etc. 
ind for Family line is without an equal 
cor Khoumatism. Neuralgia, Aches, Paina 
Brnises, ( 'uts and Sprains of all characters 
The H. H. H. Liniment has many imita 
bons. and we cantion the Public to eee 
that the Trade Mark " H. H. H." is on 
svery Bottle before purchasing. For sale 
9verywhere for 60 cents and $1.08 pei 


For Sale by all Druggists. 





nnn tons capacity. 7,k nnn 

f U,UUU storage at Lowest Rates. • U I UUU 

Cal. Dry Dock Co. , props. Office, 80S Cal. St. room 18 


f> ACIFI6 f^JRAb press 

[Jan. 5, 1889 

JHhe JE[iele>. 

Important Rain and Crop Statistics. 

[Written for the Rural Prbss by J. R. F.] 
In the Rural Press of Deo. 22d there was pub- 
lished a rain table by seasons for Sacramento, 
running back to the year 1S49, which is not 
only an interesting, but an instructive, study 
to the farmer as well as to the scientist. The 
table taken in connection with the records of 
passing events kept since 1S09, by Jesuit mis- 
sionaries, confirms the belief that there are 
weather cycles so far as regards certain periods 
of light rainfall. Aside from this, taking the 
wheat acreage and crop outtnrn for a decade 
past, and comparing them with the rainfall by 
months, and it is confirmatory of a generally ac- 
cepted theory — that the spring rains make the 

Going back to the earliest records, and it is 
discovered that the first reported drouth was in 
180!M0, when the missions and presidioB suf- 
fered severely on account of the shortness of 
pasture and crops, causing much difficulty in 
procuring water and food for stock. Eleven 
years afterward there was a dronth of much 
more severity, and the two years' provender, 
which past experience had taught the mission- 
aries to store up against an emergency, was 
largely depleted by feeding to the live-stock. 
Owing to the scarcity of maize and beans, a 
special dispensation was granted by the Senam, 
a father-president, allowing the use of meats, 
eggs, etc., on forbidden days. The severest 
drouth ever experienced commenced eight years 
later, or in 1828, and extended over a period of 
two years. 

It was felt the keenest south of Juan Bap- 
tista. Wells and springs dried out, necessi- 
tating families living at Monterey to bring 
water from the Carmelo river, a distance of 
three miles. The loss in horses and neat 
cattle was placed at the time at 40,000 head. It 
is noted as a fact that at Pnrissima many bands 
of horses were driven over the cliff into the 
ocean for two-fold purposes — to end their suf- 
ferings quickly and to save the provender for 
the cattle and sheep. This was followed by a 
drouth in 1839-40, another in 1850-51, another 
in 1856-57, and two very severe, one in 1863-64 
and the other in 1870-71. During the last two 
drouths there was heavy loss in live-stock, par- 
ticularly in the southern part of the State. The 
writer in 1864 saw cattle starving in Los Angeles 
county, while in San Gabriel valley, in the same 
connty, he saw cows standing by a cactus fence 
eating, or trying to eat, the prickly cactus, and 
bellowing with pain as the thorns pierced their 
jaws. Since 187 1 there has not been any severe 
drouth, and not likely to be, with the improved 
system of irrigation and orchard and vineyard 

By referring to the rainfall table, given in 
last week's issue, it will be seen that the sea- 
sons' rainfalls have varied very considerably, as 
the following compilation by seasons for the 
12 months ending with August of each year, 


Inches. Year. 



33.0 1 1870 


....36.36 1873 


13.77 1876 



10.44 1877 



14.99 1878 



16.04 1879 



22.70 1880 




35.65 1882 






7.86 1884 

24 78 






1869. ... 

Tne Btnalkst rainfall within the past 39 sea- 
sons was4.71 inches for the season of 1850-51, 
and the heaviest was 36.36 inches for 1852-53. 
The next heaviest was in 1861-62, when the 
rainfall was 35.55 inches. In the early part of 
1853 and also in that of 1S62, the Sacramento 
and San Joaquin valleys, except on the high 
lands, were inundated. The loss in live-stock 
by drowning, and houses and other improve- 
ments swept away, was very heavy each year, 
going into the millions of dollars; while, since 
1849, the State was visited by two severe 
drouths, there were two heavy floods. Since 
1876-77 the rainfall by seasons has been more 
uniform — the highest being 26 74 in 1879-80, 
and the smallest 11.56 in 1887-88. 

From September, 1849, to August, 1888, the 
rainfall by months in inches, the total by 
months for the 39 seasons and the aggregate 
quantity average since 1849 are as follows: 


1849- 50.. 

1850- 61.. 

1851- 62.. 

1852- 63.. 
IV.:: :> t 

1854- 55.. 

1855- 56.. 
UBI 58 

1858- 59.. 

1859- 60.. 

1860- 61.. 

In, J-,;:! 
IN',! 65 

L88S 86 

1866- 67.. 

1867- 08 . 
1808 1,9 

1870- 71.. 

1871- 72.. 
!*::: 71 

1875- 76 

1876- 77. 

1877- 78.. 

1878- 79.. 

1879- 80 

1880- 81.. 

1881- 82.. 

1882- 83.. 
|v> : M 
l.w, 8i; 
1886-87 . 
1^-7 k« 



Sept. Oct. Nov. 1 Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. April May. Tune July Aug. 

2.051 1.50 


7 45 



2 12 


3 32 

2 63 

2 01 

25 '.10 

2.2J 12.50 

2 14 




6 48 


13 41 
2 39 
4 32 


2 67 


.50 1 


8,;:; 16.03 

2 42 

3. .80 

1 21 





2 32 
7 80 
9 51 
2 61 

1 90 


5 52 


11 80l 
:; 27 


2 09 

4 77 
7 09 

3 44 
1 37 

4 79 
9 47 
:; 70 
1 51 

5 98 

r,s iy,; 170. 30 

1.70 4.52 


2 00 

3 40 

3 90 

2 92 

:: 14 
1 91 

3 05 
8 22 

1 76 

4 98 

2 40 
1 34 

6.. 8 



7 00 

2 87 

1 63 

3 32 

2 80 


4 34 
2 94 




4 87 



1.14 .69 

.19 .30 

3.50 1.45 

1.50 .21 .81 
4 32 1 15 .01 
2.13 1.84 L03 

1.21 .20 .0 



2.87 2.49 .01 
.47 .59 .13 

.8.' 1.801 .01 

1.08 .74 .08 


2.25 .10 .01 

1.24! -61 i 

2.121 .27 

.6. .28 02 


.89 87 

M\ 1.10 

1.09 .19| .21 
.18 .04 ,2i 

2 37 L8ll .13 

1.66 .50 

1.99 .3< .10 
.73 2.90 1.45 
4 32 .06: 



2.53 . 



.40 .08. 

76 8.' 23.16 5! 




.15 .02 . 

During the 39 years the heaviest rainfalls in 
single months were as follows : January, 1867, 
15.03 inches; April, 1880, 14 28 inches; Decem- 
ber, 1853, 13.41; December, 1849, 12 50; Da- 
cember, 1867, 12 85; December, 1880, 11.80; 
Deoember, 1872, 10.99; December, 1873, and 
March, 1S49, 10 inches each. 

It is to be regretted that we have not at hand 
data of the acreage seeded to wheat previous to 
the season of 1877-78, so as to extend the com- 
parison of the rainfall, acreage and crop out- 
turn by seasons as far back as possible. With 
this data could be determined all theories as to 
which rains, winter or spring, bring out the 
largest crop. The following are the rainfalls, 
wheat acreage and outturn since 1877 : 

Rainfall, Out»um, 

Se»aon. Inches. Acreage. Centals. 

1877- 78 25.46 1,800,000 16,000,000 

1878- 79 17.27 1,860,000 18,500,000 

1879- 80 26.74 2,100,000 35,000,000 

1880- 81 26.13 2,400,000 22,700,000 

1881- 82 16.28 2,900,000 22,000,000 

1882- 83 18 30 2.800,000 21,000,000 

1883- 84 24.78 3,400,000 30,400,000 

18«4-S5 16 58 2,800,000 17,800,000 

1835-86 32 27 3,400,000 24,000,000 

DS6-S7 13 97 3 300,000 18,400,000 

1887-S8 11.56 3,100,000 19,000,000 

The largest yield of wheat was in 1880, when 
the rainfall was only 26 74 inches for the sea- 
son. The following year the outturn fell off 
about one-third, with an increased acreage 
seeded and only a slight falling off in the rain- 
fall. In order to show the rainfall influences 
to better advantage, the following table is com- 

hi: if!? 

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It will be seen by the above that the season 
of the largest average yield was when the heav- 
iest rainfall was in the spring months. The 
smallest average yield was in the year when 
the rainfall for the season was light in the 
spring months. This, to a very great extent, 
is due to the spring rains, particularly those in 
April, cooling the air and causing the 
dread hot north wind which at times sweeps 

over the Sicramento and Sin Jjaqjin valleys in 
the month of June to defer its visit until after 
the crop is harvested. 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 

Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Coast. 

From the official report of U. S. Patents in Dkwkv & 
Co. 'b Patent Office Library, 220 Market St., S. F. 


394,902.— Horse-Brushing Machine— C. Alex- 
andtrrson, F. 

394,550.— Fruit-Picker — F. & G. W. Ansley, 
Medical Lake. W. T. 

394 636.— Goi.d-Saving Apparatus — O. H. 
Bag ey, Knappa, Ogn. 

394,553.— Window-Blind— F. A. Bernard, San 
Bernardino, Cal. 

394,641.— Vineyard Hoe— E. Cartwright, Lin- 
coln, Cal. 

394 077 
S. F. 

394 769 

-Station Indicator— A. E. Crucnel, 

Roller Bearing - R. W. Hent, S. F. 
Cigar-Holdkr — D B. James, S. F. 
394,654. — Concentrator — J. A. Jones, Tusca- 
rora, Nrv. 

394,720.— Lamp-Fillf-R— M. W. P.ixson, Vir- 
ginia, Nev. 

394.662.— Baling-Press — Jacob Price, San 
I^eandro, Cal. 

394 664.— Can Tester — W. H. Smyth, Berke- 
ley, Cal. 

394,741.— Station Indicator— W. A. Tnrner, 
S. F. 

394,799.— Station Indicator — W. A. Turner, 
S. F. 

16.098. — Trademark — Aleutian Islands Fish 
ing ci Mining Co., S. F. 

Noti.— Copies of U. 8. and Foreign patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co. , in the shortest time possible (by mall 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign pateota 
obtained, and general patent business for pacific Coa it 
Inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates, and in the shortest possible time. 

Wounds from Barbed Wire. — J W. DaaD, 
writing on this subject in the Prairie Farmer, 
says : " Ordinary liniments and salves are gen 
erally too severe, even when the latter is plen 
tifolly mixed with lard. A preparation con 
sisting of one part turpentine and two parts 
lard will soothe the wound and keep away flies. 
Deep cuts can be healed thus without leaving a 
scar. But if the animal is not in good condi- 
tion, blood-poisoning may ensue and death fol- 
low. Pine-tar applied to the part affected will 
also keep away flies, but it has a tendency to 
harden the bare flesh and render it more pain- 
ful. A salve made of bitter-sweet and a little 
pine tar mixed with it will heal the wonnd and 
keep away flies. Ordinary cuts on barbed-wire 
fence, when the animal is in good health, will 
often heal rapidly without any application 
whatever, provided the flies are kept away. I 
will give a simple remedy, which will not only 
keep away insects, but will drive out maggots 
from wounds where they are found, and heal 
them rapidly. Take the inside bark of the 
elder and boil in lard until a strong salve is 
made; add a little tar. Apply plentifully and 
as frequently as necessary, and unless the 
wound is extremely severe it will soon heal." 

Relieving Bloated Cattle. — The Arizonan 
says that A, J. Port of Tempe h is a method of 
relieving cattle suffering from alfalfa bloat, 
which is infallible. He uses a piece of inch 
hose, forcing it down the throat of the alllicted 
animal into the pouch. The gases are thus al- 
lowed to escape and the animal is at once re- 
lieved. It is preferable to " sticking," as no 
wound is left upon the animal. 

The Alameda pottery works, recently erect- 
ed, have been closed down in order that new 
machinery may be put in to increase the capac- 
ity of the works and the variety of their manu- 

Our Seed Offering — 1889. 

Great Inducements for New Subscriptions. 

To encourage gardening and further extend the circula- 
tion of the Pacific Rural Prkss, we will offer, while this 
notice remains in our columns, to furnish to all old or 
new iubscribers the following seeds on the favorable 
term- named below: 

VKOKTABLE SEEDS. 93 Antirrnlml , n Majul>j 

83 Varieties. Hue t lulled ... S 

In Papers, postpaid. Cl« 94 Cacalia Coccinea (Tan- 

BEKT. ,,.| tloWfjl*! 5 

1 Early Blood Turnip... Ill 95 C a paoola Specuiain, 

1 hi ir ! y i t, xtra K »» 8an o - J° IVeuus' L kiug Glaw) 5 
! ^"K" 10 96 Candytuft, white fr»g t 

4 Yellow Sugar.... 97 CeutaureaOyuusiBach- 

5 harly Lung Dark Blod 10 elnr s Button) 5 

. , '•abkaue, 96 Clarkia, fine mixed ... 5 

- 5*2* XSSl ,5 '■«> Convolvulus (Morning 

/ harly Dutch 10 Gloryl mixed K 

8 Y^ly W^efleH 10 100 5 

Hi La ly Ireuch Oxheart. lu lul Oilia, miicd 5 

if. J; ar ?^ L .*'f P™'"*""! 1" 102 Globe Amarantho*:.;. 5 

12 Red Dutch Ipickliug).. 10 103 Gyp-oplilla Kleganf... 5 
„ ^v,. SSP* 1U4 Ice Plant J 

13 White Sohu 10 10., Larkspur, finest mixed S 

o •■AUI.IKLOWSIR. m LinumGrundiiralFUx) 5 

H hailyP-ns 10 107 Love iu-a-miat 5 

• t 1- . £ VK , RO J . ,„ 108 Marigold, dl, iFrench. 5 

15 Kxira harly Forcing.. 10 109 Marigold, African, dbl. 5 

lb L'lLg Orange 10 no MLjuoo.tte. sweet.... 5 

' wi r '. y ",? r i" 5 in Nasturtium S 

,J? y.l'? Bel «; an 6 112 Nolana 5 

l»i tUU Long Dmihi 10113 Portulaca, mixed 6 

l« wii,°'a 7""' ,114 Poppy. Double, mixed. 5 

S, Wh to ,?, uiu<i 10 115 Rocket, Sweet 5 

Al Kaily Cluster 10 116 Sccl,io„a, Dw f. mixed 5 

« Karty Frame 5 117 Sensitive Plant & 

22 Long Wetn. .. 5 118 Sweet Pea, White 5 

23 hug. Ghe kin, Pickles. 10 119 Sweet Pea, Crimson, 

LETTUCE. Everlanti . <b 10 

24 Karly Curleil Silesia. . . 10 120 Swest Pea., miaii'.'. '. '. 5 

25 Ice Drniiihcad . 8 12] Swe^t William, mixed 5 
2b Simp on s harly Curl d 10 122 Suullow.r, Cal., Dbl e 

■V, ESS H ,^*3 V. i° 123 Adlumia C 1 r r h o s a 

2 White Paris Cas 10 (Mo.,ntain Kringel.. 10 

S " a f on ^- !°l-'4 Al healHollyhocklfine 

30 Boston MArket 10 mixed 10 

•sit ? E , L,J ? 8 . , , 125 At«r, Chiua.'miiei'.: 10 

S .. ar8e " P- c'anteloupe Id 126 Australian Vine ... 10 

32 Extra Fine Nutmeg... 1ft 27 Balsam (Lady Slipper! 

33 Lusaba (new) 10 fine mixed 10 

3j Moutreal .Nutmeg..... 10 |2? BaUm. Kine Paris, dbl 15 
« »i. '2 uyu .f.? W m ou 149 Balsam. Splendid, dbl. 10 

3o Mt. Sweet JV at rmelon 10 130 Balsam. Dwarf, double 26 

3b Iron Clad Watermelon 10 132 Ball,K,n Vine 10 

5 »>|»l» B»rlt<lp.. 10|33 Br„walliaGranditlora. 10 

f= MiacsRpBiiiahdo...... 10 134 Canua llndian Shot).. 10 

39 White Imp or Lodl do 10 135 Canna. fine mixerl var. 10 

3.IJ Ge-rg a Itattlesuake do 10 136 Celosia CrisUUVarie a 10 

in !• 1 v,"^ 10 "- „ 1} 7 Celosia ClistaU Pur- 

•10 I.arlv Red 1C' , )Urea jq 

I 1 , K . eJ , Wefner field 10 138 Clematis Flanmuda.' . . 15 

X\ X. e ",?"• Uanve „ 8 .; i,, : • u 3S* Dahlia Supertlua, mxd 25 

44 \\ Pur gal or Sll. Skin 10 140 Dlantbus ( ' h i u e n s i s 

« w^-. I r AB . S ;'"'- J <Inaian Pink > 

45 White Dut-h 6141 DlanthusChinen«is 

RADISH. D uble Wbite 

il ?}? mn ": th v ?" to ™'? ■ J" 142 Celosia Cristata." fine 
48 (lliv. .Sba),ed Radish.. 10 mix.d ICoxcombl. . . . 

f ! V;?, 1 ?, 80 " 1 ?' r, 5?*V 5 143 Cbrysanth um Album. 

50 Bl k Si auish or Wint r 10 144 Datura, fine mixeJ. 
E0J Long Scarlet 5 145 Kveuing Prim row 

. , t sy, „ A! "!; , 14>; Four (/clock, mixed.. 

51 Early Scollop Bush ... . 5)47 Forget-me-uot 10 

52 Eaily Sum., r'k Neck. 5 148 Geranium Zonal*. . . 10 

53 California Field 10 149 Geranium, fancy color- 

54 Maibleliead 10 w l leaves 25 

55 Bo-tou Marrow Wiut'r 1.) 150 Godetia ITlie Bride) „' . 10 
5b New Hubbard Winter. 10 151 Gourds (Hercules lubl 10 
co 1... '*' M * TO - ,, 152 IpoimeilCyi.ress Vinel 10 

5f The CoiHiueror Hi 153 1„,1 a „ link, dbl . mxd 

59 harly Red Smooth. .. . H 154 Lolielia, CrysUl Palace 

n Tr,,i hy lo Compact* 25 

61 t:aua«la Victor (earli'st) 10]%5 Lobelia, Blue 10 

g Acme II' 156 Mu.-k Pi nt 10 

•'-! ravor te 10 157 Nieremhergia Gracilis. 10 

_ „ Tl'RSIP. 158 Pausy. fine mixed 10 

S V. ow S uru 1(1 15! * Petunia, mixed 10 

b4 \el. KutabaorSw'dh 10 160 Phlox Drunmioudii, 
b.i harly Wb'e Flat Dutch 5 flue mixed 10 
66 Long White French. .. 10 1C1 Pyrethrum Anr'eum 
<_„ Imp Lat- Rutabaga.. 6 (Golden Featherl . . 10 

671 Reu Top Strap Leaf... 5 162 Salpiglo.sis mixed.... 10 
, S J ,NACH - 163 s t"«« 'Ten Weekl. 10 

88 Round Le.f 10 164 Wallflower, floe mixed 10 

69 Large Hand rs 10 165 Wallflower, purple 10 

„ _ „ PK . AS - 166 Zinnia, mixed fine 10 

i<> Elt ™ Early 10 167 Ziuuia, Scarlet, dbl. ... 10 

1 1 Champion of England 10 168 B- lies Perennis (Daisy) 

,2 \ orkshire Hero IOi single.. .. . 15 

73 Rural New Yorker. ... 10 169 Campanula ' ' Medium 
„„ „, , , BEA! " t -„ (Canterbury Belle).. 15 

82 Black (.ennan Wax... 10 170 Canary Bird Flower .. 15 
10 171 Thunhergia, mixed. . . . 15 
H 172 A.iullegia Alpiua (Col- 

10 umMnel SO 

173 He'iotropiiim.fincmxd 20 
10 174 Heliotrop'm.dark mxd 20 
10 175 Verbena, cl oice, mi d. 20 

5 176 Violet, Blue JO 

10 1 7 Balsam Camel la, flow'd 20 
10 178 Carnation, fine mixed. 25 

25 179 Digitalis 5 

25 180 DolichoslHyac'thBean) 10 
25 181 Gaillardia Grandiflora 

Hyhridia 10 

132 N-mopbila, fine mixed 10 
5 1S3 P rillia Nankliieusis.. 5 
5 184 Saponnria Multiflora. . 5 

87 Alyssum, Sweet 10 185 Scabiosa Atropurpiirea 10 

88 Araarauthus Ahyssin's 15 18b ScirletRunuersfClimb- 

89 Aguratum Las eauxii. 10 ers) 10 

9J Adlumia ('irrhosa. .. 10 188 Rch'zanthus, finest 

91 Ambronia Umbollata. . 10 mixed colors 6 

92 Amarau'bus Can atus 189 M)rail>hylium Aspara- 

(Love-lie.-bleeuing).. 6 goides (Smilax) 38 

For 11.00 we will furnish new subscribers the Pacific 
Rural Prksh for three months, and $1.00 worth 
of the above seeds. For $1.76 the Rural six months 
and $1.00 worth of seeds. For $3.25 the Rural 13) 
months, and $1 worth of seeds. [When preferred, a due- 
bill for sccda to be furnished at any time within 12 
months will be given.) 

The seeds will be carefully forwarded (within a few 
days), post paid, from one or more of our leading and re 
liable seed-men, whose name will accompany the pack- 
age. In ordering, write on a separate sheet the number 
only of each article wanted as numbered, together 
with your address. 

No better seeds for this coast's use can be secured. 
As far as convenient we should like to hear the resalts 
obtained from the seeds we thus furnish. 

For other kinds of seeds, or for seeds In larger pack- 
ages, patrons arc referred to reliable seedsmen advertising 
In this paper. We wish to aid in increasing the planting 
and cultivation of gardens. 

Old subscribers can advance payment so that their sub- 
scriptions will be paid the same length of time in advance 
and receive the same terms as above. Those who remit 
br fore seeing this offer can send the additional amount 
which would have entitled them to a premium, and 
receive the same by stating which numbers they prefer. 

We are not going to embark in the regular seed busi- 
ness, and have not time to investigate or answer many 
questions of private interest only, nor respond to orders 
received without remittances. 

Subscribers will please notify neighbors who do not 
take this paper of this offer, and the merits of the Rural. 

83 Refugee... 

84 Red Valentine 

84i China Red Eye 


74 Kohlrabi 

75 Scotch Kale 

7b Cuiled Pirsley 

77 Sage 

78 Thyme 

79 Tobacco 

80 Blue Gum 

81 Monteiey Cypr, ss 


107 Varieties. 

85 Acrocliuiuni 

Alonsoa, Grandiflora 

A Willing Contributor. 

Editors Press:— Yuur kiod letter duly re- 
ceived, lor which accept my sincere thanks. I 
only hope that the few items that I write may 
be as valuable to you as your paper is to thou- 
sands of your subscribers. G, 

Jan. 5, 1889.] 

f AC! F16 F^URAb press. 


Oroville Fair Awards. 

The premiums for exhibits at the Citrua Fair 
at Oroville, Deo. 17:h to 223, 1888, were award- 
ed aa follows : 

Oranges. — Best individual exhibit — 35 exhibitors 
— Joe Gardella, $25; L. N. Eyler, $20; Mrs. James 
C. Gray, $17. 50; W. M. Pence, $15; Ella Wilcox, 
$12.50; Mrs. B. Bussey, $10; J. Seconi, $7.50; Brier 
& Welch, $5; J. B. Rider, $3; Mrs. Z. M. Sexton, 
$2. Best 12 budded— 8 exhibitors - Oroville Citrus 
Ass'n, $5; G. W. Sovereign, $3; Mrs. White, $2. 
Best 12 seedling — 32 exhibitors — Mrs. S. J. Bussey, 
$3; Brier & Welch, $2; J. B. Rider, $t. B st cluster 
— Joe Seconi, $5; G. W. Sovereign, $3; J. J. Smith, 
$2; 12 largest — 18 exhibitors— Wm.- D^nforth, $5; 
Mrs. S. Gummow, $3; Mrs. Jas. C. Gray, $2.50. 
Best budded— 3 exhibitors — Ella Wilcox, $10; Joe 
Seconi, $5; Mrs. Jas. C. Gray, $2.50. Laigest ex- 
hibit of oranges by one individual grower — 3 exhib- 
itors—Joe Gardella, $51; Mrs. N. Calkins, $25. 
Largest single orange — Mrs. E. Breslauer, $1. 

Lemons. — 1 exhibitor — John S. Hutchins, $10. 

Most tastefully arranged exhibit of citrus fruit by 
1 individutl — 7 exhibitors— Ella Wilcox, $10; Joe 
Seconi, $7.50; Mrs. Jas. C. Gray, $5. 

Olives — 4 exhibitors — Anna Ragan, $5; Mrs. Z 
M. Sexton, $3; Joe Gardtlla, $2. 

Olive Oil.— 3 exhibitors — Mrs. Sexton, $5; Annie 
Ragan, $2.50; Joe Gardella, $1. 

Olive Oil Press. — Mrs. Sexton, $5. 

General Exhibit. — Largest and most varied 
exhibit by one person — M. V. Rowe, $50; W. W. 
Merrithew, Mesilla Valley, $30; J. Entzman, South 
Table Mountain, $20. 

Floral.— 2 exhibitors— Mrs. M. A. Varney, $10; 
(Special $10 to Mrs. Virney.) Thermalito Co.. $5. 

TOBACCO. — 5 exhibitors — C. DeBock, $5; J. Entz- 
man, $3; Joe Freydt, $2. 

Largest display of minerals — A. Heckart, $10; M. 
V. Rowe, $5. 

Potatoes. — 15 exhibitors — J. H. Hoad, $5; E. 

C. Bjwers, $3; Henry Covert, $2. 

Melons. — 3 exhibitors — A. Heckart, $2; M. V. 
Rowe, ft. 

Cotton. — 7 exhibitors — J. J. Sander?, $2; Mrs. 
M. A. Varney, $1. 

Raisins. — 16 exhibitors — C. H. Leggett & Son, 
J10: C. L. Durban, $5; Henry Preston, $2 50. 

Prunes.— 7 exhibitors — Jesse Wood, $5; J. S. 
Hutchins, $3; B. Russell, $2. 

Figs — 18 exhibitors — Whitp Adriatic, C. H. Lig- 
gett & Son, $5; R. Parker, $3; Mrs. A. S. Hendricks, 


Bleached Fruits.— 6 exhibitors — S. L Skil'in, 
$10; Jesse Wood, $5; M. V. Rowe, $2.50. 

Sun-Dried Fruits. — 24 exhibitors — M. V. 
Rowe, $5; B. Russell, $3; (oe Entzman, $2. 

Almonds — 15 exhibitors— R. Parker, $5; I. L. & 
R. Mansfield, $3 

WALNUTS. — 12 exhibitors — W. W. Merrithew, 
$5; W. M. Pence, $3. 

Chestnuts — 3 exhibitors — Ole Lund, $3; Joe 
Daniels, $3. 

Quinces.— 8 exhibitors — F. Simonson, $2; L. N. 
Eyler, $1. 

Grapes.— 5 exhibitors — I. L. & R. Mansfield, $5; 
Geo. Spitzler, $2. 

APPLES. — 44 exhilrtirs— P. H. Perry 
M. Pence. $to;J. H. Hoad, $7.50; M. 
$S:E. P. Zink,$ 3 . 

PEARS.- 17 exhibitors — M. V. Rowe, 
Eyler, $3; G. B. Rogers. $2. 

Pomegranates —7 exhitvtors — R 
W. W. Merrithew, $2. 

Persimmons. — 12 exhibitors — W M. Pence, $5; 
Mrs. H. C. B II. $); M V Rowe. $2. 

Preserves and Canned Fruits. — 13 exhibitors 
— Mrs. Dr. Bussey, $15; M. V. Rowe, $10; Mrs. A. 
S. Hendricks. $7.50. 

Most Tastefully Arranged Exhibit. — Mrs 
S. S. Boynton and Mrs. H. C. B |l, $40; Argonaut 
Parlor, N. S. G. W., $20; Golden Fleece Parlor, N. 

D. G. W., special prize, $20. 

Largest number of budded orange trees planted 
in orchard by individual exhibitor during the year 
1888 — Daly & Sargent, $20; R. C. Chambers, $ro. 

SpecUl premium off red by E. W. Fogg and D. 
K. Perkins for largest and best exhibit of oranges in 
excess ol 10,000, by individual producer — Joe Gar- 
della, $(00; Mrs N. Calkins, $100. Special prize of 
$25 to Palermo Co. for displ iy of citrus and decidu- 
ous Iruits, plants and flowers. Special prize of $25 
to Thermalito Co. for display of ornamental shade, 
citrus and tropical trees. 

Pumpkins — John R .ff;rty, $3; J. E. Allen, $2; J. 
N. Howard, $1. 

Alfalfa Hay.— W. M. Pence. $2.50. 

Popcorn. — A. Parish, $2; A Heckart $1. 

Hops.— Frank Cress, $2; David Whipple, $1. 

Beans. — C. L. Yetter, $2; H. Wright, $1. 

Strawberries. — Robert Frisbie, $2.50. 

Sugar Cane.— Mon Ming, $2; R. C. Grubbs, $1. 

Beets — G. R. Hi 1, $2 

Sugar Beets — Geo. Peters, $2 

Peanuts.— J. S. Hutchins, $2; I. L. & R. Mans- 
field, $1. 

Green Tomatoes. — B. Russell, $2; J. Gardella, 1 

Egg Plant.— H. Covert. $2. 

Oils and extracts from citrus fruits — Norton & 
Eckman, $5. 

Seedling Date Trees —Mrs. W. Elliott. $1. 

Seedling Orange Trees. --Christman & Hil- 
ton, $2.50. 

Honey. — F. Peters, $1. 

California Woods —A. Heckart, $5. 

Vegetables.— W. A Coates, $5. 

Licorice. — Wm. Dunstone, $2. 

Gold Quartz — McMillan B-os , $3; 
Fogg, $5; M. H. Morgan, $5. 

, «is; W. 
V. Rowe, 

1 $S 

L N. 

E. W. 

The Utah Pocltry Association wi'l hold 
its second auDual show in Ujjilen K b 11th to 
13 b, numerous premiums being offered for fine- 
ly bred, f incy and gime fowl. Let year's ex- 
hibition was a great success. W. W Brown- 
ing, the secretary, invites the co-operation of 
fowl breeders in adjoining States and Terri- 


On Country Real Estate in large and small amounts 
at lowest rates, by A. Schuller, 106 Leidesdorff St. 
Room 8. ** 






Always gives a bright natural color, never 
turns rancid. Will not color the Buttermilk. 
Used by thousands of the best Creameries and 
Dairies. Do not allow your dealer to convince you 
that some other kind is just as good. Tell him the 
BEST is what you want, and you must have Wells, 
Richardson & Co's Improved Butter Color. 
Three sizes, 25c. 50c. $1.00. For sale everywhere. 

WELLS, RICHARDSON & CO . Burlington, Vt. 

(33 colors.) DIAMOND DYES 

- are the Purest, Cheap- 
" est, Strongest, andmost 
Durable Dyes ever made. 
One 1 0e. package will color 
1 to 4 pounds of Dress Goods, Garments.Ynrns, Rags, 
etc. Unequalled for Feather*, Hibbans. and nil Fancy 
Dyeing. Also Diamond Paints, for Gilding, Bronz- 
in'g etc Any color Dye or Paint, with full instructions 
and sample card mailed for 1(1 cents. At, all Druggists 





Simple In Construction, Light Running, Most Durable 
and Complete. 
Visitors always welcome. 


108 & 110 POST ST., S. F. 



Before Buying a Sewing Machine. 
It is the leader in practical progress. Send (or price list 
J. W. EVANS, 29 Post St., S. F. 


BROTHERS' ^ ■ ■ 



KOHLKR A 4 'II ASK. Asenln. 

(137 POST STREET, S. F. 

CUT THIS our. 
Climax Spray Fumps 

Cheapest arid Bust Spray Pumps on sale. Uuequaled 
for durability, convenience, simpl city and ea c e <i work- 
ing. Send for circulars and prices of different sizes. 


California Fire Apparatus MTj Company, 
18 California Street, San Francisco. 



W. C. PRICE & CO. 

General Produce Commission Merchants, 

327 & 329 Front St. and 301 & 303 Clay St 

Removed to 320 DAVIS ST., San Fran'co 


An Automatic Organ Combined Tvlth an 
Ordinary Plve-Octave Oroan. 
BODY CAN PLAY the latest and most difficult music of 
every class. Every home should have one. Send for 
descriptive circulars, prices and terms lo 
KOHL.ER & CHASE. 137 & 139 Post St., 
Dealers in all kinds of Musical Goods 

j5eed$, Wants, ttc. 




Nuts, Prunesjmd Grapes. 

The Largest and Finest Collection of "Nut- 
Bearing" Trees to be found in 
the United States. 

21 Varieties of Walnuts. 
9 Varieties of "Marrons," 

Or French Chestnuts (solely propagated by graft- 

10 Varieties of Filberts 

(propagated by layering). 

4 Varieties of Almonds. 



Or Fertile Walnut. 

Introduced into California in 1871 bj Felix Gillet. 

For Coughs, Colds. Croup, Asthma, Hron 
chitis. Influenza, Loss of Voice, Incipient 
Consumption, and all Throat and Lung 
Troubles. J. R. GATKS & CO , Proprietors 
417 Sansome St., San Francisco. 


L. F. MOTJLTON, - - - Proprietor, 

Offers for sale (without bugs) the following: 


French (Petite), Robe de Sergent, Hungarian. 


Blenheim, Peach, Hemskirk and Royal. 


Early Crawford, Susquehanna, Salway, Milko, free; Early 
Tuscan and Winter's Hstah, cling. 

Barilett Pears and California Walnuts. 

'"Second" Generation Proeparturiens 

(California Grown). 


" Barren Hill Nurseries" is the only establishment in 
the United states where grafted Walnuts may be found. 
The finest French varieties, highly recommended for the 
size, beauty and ipialitv of the nuts; fertility and hardi- 
ness of the tree9. Foremost among them: Mayette, 
Parisienne, Franquette, Chaberte, Meylan and Vourey. 


The purest types of the French Prune or Prune 
D'Ente, from the Valley of the Lot, France, viz.: 
Lot D'Ente, 
Mont Barbat D'Ente, 
rnymiral D'Ente. 
Also Saint Catherine Prune, 
" True from the root." 

231 Varieties of Grapes, from all parts f the 
world, including the earliest Table Varieiies known, 
some of them 26 days earlier than Sweet Water. 

Gl Varieties of English Gooseberries, all 
shapes, colors and sizes. 

April Cherries, Apricots, Pears, Figs. etc. 

French, English, German and American 


Portugal Orange, 

Blidah (Algeria) Mandarin Orange, 

Corsica Lemon. 

Large Fruited Lemon, 
Imported from the south of France and expressly grafted 
for the California tiade. 


By FELIX GILLET, of Nevada City, Cal., an essay on 
the different modes of Budding and Grafting the Walnut, 
so difficult to graft; illustrated with eight cuts made 
after nature and of natural size. Will be tent with 
Descriptive Catilogue, under the same cover, to any 
address on the receipt of 25 cents in postage stamps. 

£S"Send for General Descriptive Catalogue, illustrated 
with 37 cuts, representing Walnuts, Ch stunts, Al mo ds, 
Filberts, Prunes, etc. 


I do hereby caution Nurserymen all over the United 
States, that have been in the habit of stealing my Wal- 
nut and Chestnut cuts, and appropriating them to kinds 
that they do not represent, that I have had all the cuts 
of my General Descriptive Catalogue and thoBe of my 
Essay on Grafting the Walnut duly "copyrighted," and 
that hereafter I will prosecute any one guilty of such 
contemptible piracy. 




Rosaville, - - Placer Co , Cal, 


Four thotn^nd Roses, one and two years old, consist- 
ing of th«\- leading '".iieties of Teas, Hybrid Teas, 
Chinese, Rourbob; Noisettes and Hybrid Perpetuals. 

Five thousand, Palms in Pots, consisting of Prltchardia 
Filamento-a, Cha: rops Excel a, Phuunix Dactylifera, 
Hatana Borbonica and Corypha Austraus. 

One thousand Pawlonii Imperial's, either in pots or 
balls from open ground 

MUST BE SOLD, as the ground is needed. Address 

Roseville, Placer Co., Cal. 

California Walnuts and Locust Trees, 


P. O Box 429, Woodland, Cal. 


Superior in Quality = 


=§Reasonable in Price 

Market Gardeners', Fanners, 
Florists, and all who use 
Seeds, » in and our HOME- 

Try Triern 

SEEDS to !)■■ o£ the 

( lnr hirce illustrated catalogue < 1011 pages) will 
be mailed on application. Address 

34 So. Market St., Boston, Mass 

Rawson's New Book "JSSS^JSlSi 

free on receipt of $1.00. This is full of important 
information tor the gardener. 

Fruit freesjor Sale. 

Pear, Apple, Peach, 

Walnut, Fie, 

Japan Kelsey Plum and 

other Trees and Plants. 

P. O Box 304. Los Angeles. Cal. 


guaranteed to be from the far-famed "Dummett 
Grove" Graiue stock from one-fouitn to one inch, 
strong, healthy, wi-ll rooted. Packed F. O. B cars at 
$25 per M; 5.00 aud 10,000 hits at $20 per M. 

Sunny Home Nursery, Jacksonville Fla. 


1838. FIFTY YEARS. 1889. 

Fac-simile of trade-mark label at- 
tached to each and every tree of "Won- 
derful Peai h." None reliable without 
it. Large stuck of Rispbcrry, Htraw- 
berryaud Blackberry Plan's Niagata, 
-y Moore's Early, Diimond Eaton and 
J£>g.T'Vw / other Grapes. Kieffer and LeC'ont 
s* \J Pears. Spaulding and Japan Plums. 

— Apples, Cherries, etc. All the worthy 
old and proud ing jjew varieties. Cwtjloirues Free. 

WM. PARRY, Parry, N. J. 

r*«y'is Prolific Cxii-rarit. 

Two years old, flue, $3 per 10; $20 per 100; 1 year old, 
ti e, $2 per 10; $15 per 100. lhe above are genuine, 
■plendi 1 and readv to bear. Raspberry, Blackberry and 
Strawberry Plants } usual prh e. Address, PiLKINUTON 
& CO., Pearmouut Nursery, Portland, Oiegon. 


One yeir-old Picholine, in boxes; very large and fine. 

c w. Crane, 

616 Eighteenth St., Oakland Cal. 


3000 Bartlett Pear Trees, two years old, for 
ale. Address: H. B MUSCOTT, 

Box 84, San Bemadino, Cal. 

Seeds. Etc., Continued on Page 18. 

UCDCCCDC WANTED Everywhere, . ; 

| V tnOttflO ham,, nr I" «■».;•'• X t.l»>*' I'" ! 

Min 111 <-:icli C.iiiiiu in tnrk up mi \ eruseimuis and ■ 
show card* of Kiel-trie (ioods on trees, Unices and B 
5 turnpikes, in MMplMOUl place* in town and country. Ifl all Mitt if tbr" 
"UnlU'd State* and Canada. Steady cmiiloTincnt . H IllTO", Ipli.iVO per B 
■ day : «xpen*es advanced ; no talking requin-d. Local work* 
■for nil or part of turn-. No attention j'aitl to j«>ha1 i-ard*. Al>I>R£Sh. fj 
'tWITll STAMP, J.CKMOUY Ac 4'0., Gl h Wine Sin., < ln, lnnfttl,0.; 


J//,:; ;;,«',' V:; BUY NORTHERN GROWN 

and fluent Vegetables in the market! Yes. Well, 
SALZKK'K SKEK.s produce them everv time-are _ 
tho earliest— full of Lite uml tiger. Thousands of gardeners and farmers 
gladly testify that by sowing our seeds they make 
I860 per acre on our Early Cabbage, Con, Melons 
Peas, Etc. Marl . I < la i -d.-iiers' \\ hale-ale 1'rlec iA 
LWt FICKK. 100,(100 Roses and Plants. / 

S4H PuekucCM Enrllent Vegetable Novell lew 
postpaid i«l.<ll>. These are all different— sulllcicnt I 
for a family garden. ] 

KKNI» tic for Package 80-Day Cabbage and Su-t 
perbly Illustrated Catalne;— ee-litaimng a hewjlder-r 
IngCollcetlon of ItenutH'iil Flowers. Early Vege-fl 
tables, New Wheat, White W, aider Oat<2U bu. pera.)^ 
Lucerne Clover, Etc. Warehouse area over t acres. 

JOHN A. SALZER, La Crosse, Wis. 



[Jan. 5, 1889 


The Scale-Destroyer. 

On page 556 of our last issue we had an inter- 
esting account of the recent arrival of scale-de- 
stroyers, sent by Mr. Koebele. We are now 
indebted to Mr. D. W. Coquillettof Los Angeles 
for an account of his observations on scale-de- 
stroyers, which he prepared for the Los Ange 
les Times aB follows: 

We recently had the pleasure, in company 
with Mr. A. Scott Chapman, of visiting some 
of the principal orange grovea in the San 
Gabriel valley. * * • Rumors were afloat 
that the scales were dying in great numbers 
from some unknown cause, and it was mainly 
t > satisfy ourselves of the nature of these ru- 
mors that the present" vtsit w#s- made. We 
found that the scales were indeed djipg in lart;e 
numbers, but the cause thereof Wff-far from 
being unknown; a careful exantft/* .ion of the 
red scales revealed the presence M the tell-tale 
holes of their anatomy out of wTiich the minute 
parasites had made their escape to the ontside 
world. The scales which had thus met their 
death at the hands, or rather the mouths, of 
these little parasites were mostly females, and, 
what seemed very singular, were always lo- 
cated on the upper side of the leaves. As if it 
were not enough for us to have discovered these 
indications of parasitic attacks, it was our good 
fortune to meet Madam Parasite herself, a fussy, 
petite atom of animated nature, scarcely discern 
ible with the naked eye, busily engaged in 
searching for new victims in which to consign 
her future progeny. 

Evidences of the presence of this little, but 
powerful, friend of the orange-growers were 
found in three different orange groves, situated 
several miles apart, showing that already it is 
quite widely spread over this valley; and, al- 
though its legitimate victims — to which it is 
heartily welcome— may for a time carry every- 
thing with a high hand, still it is very evident 
that this parasite, which is carrying out one of 
the fundamental laws of nature, will eventually 
reduce their numbers to such a degree that they 
will no longer be able to prevent our orange 
groves from producing their accustomed quota of 

In several places we found that the white 
scales of all sizes and ages had perished in large 
numbers, and Mr. Chapman, who has closely 
watched the progress of this mortality, tells me 
that it reached its greatest hight in the month 
of August, when fully three fourths of the 
scales succumbed to the inevitable. It would 
appear that this mortality was due to the en- 
feebled condition of the trees attacked. The 
fact that the greatest mortality occurred during 
the time when the trees were in their stage of 
partial dormancy, when the flow of sap is very 
limited, gives additional weight to this hy- 

While on the subject of scale diseases and 
parasites, I may state that several years ago 
Messrs. J. W. Wolfskill and Alexander Craw 
found a pear orchard in this city very badly in- 
fested with San Jose scales, so badly infected 
that during the entire growing season the trees 
had scarcely made any growth; a few years 
later they were much surprised at the changed 
appearance of these trees, which had neither 
been sprayed nor fumigated, and upon carefully 
examining the scales they found that a very 
large proportion of them had been perforated 
by parasites. At the present time these trees 
are remarkably clean and healthy, while scarce- 
ly a living scale is to be found upon them. 

The advent of these scale-destroying parasites 
among us is very opportune, and the fact that 
our National Department of Agriculture, 
through Prof. Riley and his assistants, is now 
engaged in introducing other scale-destroyers 
from foreign lands, gives us great hopes that in 
a few years, at the farthest, the reign of the 
ubiquitous scale bug will have drawn to a 
close, and our orchards and orange groves, the 
pride and groundwork of our delectable State, 
will again flourish in all their glory, as of yore. 
— D. W. CoquiUett. 

Another Account of Scale-Destroyers. 

The imported Australian parasites for the ex- 
termination of the white scale are destined to 
work great benefit to the orchards of the Stite. 
A few days ago some of the imported scale-de- 
stroyers, among which are some resembling the 
ladybug, were placed under a tree in the scale- 
infested Wolfskill orchard in Los Angeles, and 
a small tent was constructed with a canvas roof 
protecting the entire tree. The sides are of 
mosquito netting of close texture. This protects 
the insects, confines their operations and enables 
those interested in the experiments to observe 
the habits of their pests. The ladybuga were 
found to be exceedingly voracious, and destroyed 
the scale so rapidly as to endanger the process 
of the less active Australian parasites. Ac- 
cordingly, the ladybuga were taken to another 
tree an-i similarly inclosed. The two stations 
a e, therefore, in operation within a few yards 
of each other. Already myriads of black flies 
c in he seen within the netting, and they have 
begun their deadly work on their white enemies. 
Of course, the actual results can only be 
guessed at this time, as it requires fully three 
months for the flies to develop from the egg to 
the winged insect. Mr. Wolfskill is very con- 
fident that the natural enemy of the destructive 
orange pest has been discovered. It is now 
only a question of the effect of the climate upon 

their existence and habits. They are very pro- 
lific, and if they can be successfully grown 
here, the country can be readily supplied with 
them, and the orchards will yet be saved.— 

Anaheim Gazette. 

Convict Labor. 

Messrs. Editors : — In your report of resolu- 
tions passed by the State Grange was one re- 
ferring to the employment of convict labor, 
which I think shows a little misapprehension of 
the position of the laboring classes on convict 
labor. As a farmer, an ex-Granger and a 
Knight of Labor, I think I know something 
of the principles of the Grange and also the po- 
sition of the workers in their relations to labor 
in general, and I believe I am right in saying 
that both bodies are steadily working to the 
same end, and the principle that underlies both 
organizations is that to the producer belongs 
the thing produced. In other words, to the 
laborer belong the fruits of his toil. Selfish- 
ness may creep in sometimes and warp peo- 
ple's better judgment. 

The position taken by the working classes 
generally in regard to convict labor is that 
their labor should not be hired ont to contract- 
ors, who will put inferior articles on the mar- 
ket and undersell honest labor. I think, how- 
ever, the Grange will not be able to point out 
any instance where fault has been found with 
convicts being employed in making jute bags or 
quarrying granite, as these industries are car- 
ried on in this State. 

The principle is a sound one, that convicts 
should contribute to their own support; and 
not only that, but, if possible, they should be 
made to contribute toward the expenses that 
are caused by their crimes. All countries make 
their criminals do something useful; some, like 
England, putting them on the construction of 
roads and other public works. There are al- 
ways works to be carried on in any commmuity 
that can be done by convicts without interfer- 
ing with honest labor, and there is where it 
will be found to be wisest to employ them. 
The convict question is a knotty one and one 
that will be hard to settle satisfactorily. Pre- 
vention h better than cure, and if the princi 
pies of the Patrons of Husbandry and of the 
Knights of Labor could be carried out, crime 
would be lessened. J. B. 

Moore Station. 

Moore Station, on the Northern California 
railroad, has a population of 700 and has been a 
distributing point for many years. It has be- 
come noted as the terminus of the great lumber 
flume from the Sierras. During the last two 
years its mild and equable climate has at- 
tracted attention of home-seekers. Mrs. Mary 
A. Varney, in January, 1S88, commenced lay- 
ing out and planting a flower garden. At the 
earnest request of the managers of the citrus 
fair at Oroville, she exhibited specimens of 
fl >wers and plants grown in her garden in the 
open air. Her exhibit attracted much atten- 
tion and covered about 60 feet of space and con- 
sisted of very choice varieties of chrysanthe- 
mums, Chinese hibiscus, hedge hibiscus, abu- 
tilon, flowering maple, iporrui bona nox or 
moon flower, ivy-leaved geraniums, seedling or- 
ange trees and mammoth vines of all descrip- 
tions; also geraniums, begonias, and roses and 
some very rare plants, as the umbrella plant, 
south sea onions, cotton, cuphea, Dutchman's 
pipe, caladium; alto orange, cherry, peach, 
plum, lemon, apricot and Russian mulberry 
trees and many other choice varieties. 

Marysviile and Vicinity. 

During the week of the Citrus Fair a Rural 
representative visited Yuba City and Marys- 
viile. There is a steady and growing demand 
for fruit land in this section, and expert horti- 
culturists are very pronounced in their opinion 
in aocording this 'belt advantages for growing 
the orange. The yards surrounding most of 
the dwelling houses have from 4 to 12 orange 
trees, and are now loaded with fine fruit. ()..e 
party picked and sold $110 worth of oranges 
from five trees this season. Mesira. Abbott 
& Montague have laid out a tract of land con- 
taining 3000 acres in 10 and 20 acre lots, six 
miles below Marysviile at Reed's station, and 
known as the Colmena Colony. 

A good portion of this tract is bottom land, 
and this vicinity furnished the peaches and 
grapes that took the first premium at the dis- 
trict fair of this year. 

The counties of Yuba and Sutter for a 
quarter of a century have been prominent as 
the center of our great fruit production. Dur- 
ing this year home-seekers and capitalists have 
sought investments in real estate, and it seems 
that this section will be a leading rendezvous 
for increasing immigration during the year 

Fish-Ladder is the Mokelumne.— Senator 
Langford, president of the Mokelumne Ditch 
and Irrigation Co., has informed the District 
Attorney of Amador county that the fish- 
ladder, for the non-construction of which suits 
had been brought against both Mr. Langford 
and the company, has been completed at the 
Westmoreland dam on the Mokelumne river 
near Lancha Plana. It is said to be one of the 
best fish-ladders in the State. This will prob- 
ably put a stop to all further proceedings in the 
matter when existing judgments and orders of 
courts are satisfied. 

Who Can 

Afford to Keep 


The following is an extract from a treatise on 
the California Ground Squirrel, published by 
the manufacturer of Wheeler's Carbon Bi»ul- 
phide. A copy of the complete book accompanies 
each package of this exterminator as sold in the 

Under this head conies properly the treatment of 
the amount of damage which can be done by these 
rodents. As to their storing capacity, I have, my- 
self, taken over half a bushel of corn, acorns and 
other food, stored by squirrels, from a single burrow; 
this was in mid-winter, and the material lay in a 
storage chamber close to a warm nest; a nest rough- 
ly composed of dry grass. 

Referring to my file of the Pacific Rural Press, 
I find that Mr. Lorenzo of Capay, Yolo Co., once 
took from the pouch o( a single squirrel 1520 grains 
of wheat, weighing i 5 » ounces. In July, 1877, Capt 
Allender of Pajaro took 1270 grains of plump wheat 
from the pouch of one squirrel, and that half a mile 
from the nearest grainfield. Patrick Sexton of 
Atlanta, Contra Costa Co., once took 778 grains 
from the pouch of one squirrel, weighing % ounce. 
Calculating on this last quantity, which is the small- 
est cited, it would require 1051 grains to make one 
ounce. Now, Mr. Sexton estimated that located in 
the harvest-field, a squirrel would fill his pouch every 
five minutes (which period is shorter than 1 should 
place it). This makes him gather eight pounds per 
day of 12 hours. Carrying this further, it would be 
seen that 100 squirrels would, in three weeks, steal 
nearly six tons, worth at any time several hundred 
dollars. This is an extravagant estimate, but it may 
serve to impress upon the owners of infested fields 
the incalculable damage they suffer. 

Prominent farmers of California have variously 
estimated the annual lax imposed by ground squir- 
rels. For instance, at a meeting of the Santa Clara 
Farmers' Club, in 1871, it was estimated that 
ground squirrels and gophers (principally the former) 
destroyed one-fifth of the crops annually. One gen- 
tleman here stated that he had known 81 squirrels 
killed in one burrow (some dry retreat, I should sur- 
mise, where numbers had congregated to escape the 
floods). Again, at a Squirrel Convention, held in 
Contra Costa Co. in 1873, it was estimated that the 
annual loss by squirrels, in this county, was not less 
than $250,000, and Alameda as much. One farmer 
— Mr. Dougherty— it, was stated, lost 5000 centals 
of grain, worth $10,000. The loss to the Slate was 
placed in the millions, to say nothing of the damage 
done to young vineyards and orchards. 

Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
quested to examine its contents, terms cf sub- 
scription, and give it their own patronage, and, 
as far as practicable, aid in circulating the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its influence in 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription 
rate, $3.00 a year. Extra copies mailed for 10 
cents, if ordered Boon enough. If already a 
subscriber, please show the paper to others. 

Darwin's Theory. 

Darwin's theory of the "survival of the fittest" is 
simply that the weakly die, while the robust and h*rd\ 
thrive and live. How true thin is of setd growth, and 
how necessary to sow onlv that which is suited De- 
nature to live and develop. D. M Ferry & Co , the great 
Seed Crowe's and Seed Pcalers of Detroit, Michigan, 
supply only the best and purest raising their own seeos 
by the most improved methods and with the greatest 
care, bringing to their business ibe invaluable aid of 
more than 30 years' experience. Their Seed Annual for 
1889 is a real help to the gardener, and should be in the 
hands of all who desire to purchase pure and true Feeds. 
Send your itme to the firm's address at Detroit, Michi- 
gan, and they »ill forward you a copy 

Our Agents, 

Ouk Fribmdb can do much in aid of our paper and the 
:ause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents In their labors of canvassing, by lending their In- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 

ut worthy men. 
A. F. Jbwutt— Tulare Co. 

F. B. Logan — Southern Califorria. 

H. O Parsons -Northern California. 

Gbo. Wilson— Sacramento Co. 

W. B. Frost— Fresno , o. 

W. W. Tiibohalds— San Diego Co. 

John L. Dotlb- Utah, Wyoming and Colorado. 


Now that Sorghum is once more attacting the atten- 
tion of f timers throughout the country, and has this 
time apparently come to is *ell to kuow that 
the Sorghum Hand Book, a valuable treatise 01 the 
cultivation and manufacture of sorghum, ma}' be had 
free of charge on application to tht. Blymyer Iron Works 
Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

SENATOR Hearst has bonght the 400-acre 
ranch of Eli T. Sheppard, near Sonoma, includ- 
ing a winery, distillery and 80,000 gallons of 
wine and brandy. The deed does not state the 
real consideration, but it is thought the price 
paid.was $80,000. 


A home in the country for a boy 12 years old, with 
Christian people, where there are no other children. 
Address, Mrs. J. R. BOJART, Santa Rosa, Sonoma Co., 

Cheap Money for Farmers ! 

large sums below market rates. S. D. HOVEY, 
330 Pine street, San Francisco. 

Tiik old question — where shall I get my Seed this year 
—presents itself again to thousands of our readers at 
this season of the yea*. If you will turn to our adver- 
tising columns you will And the announcement of John 
A. Salzer, La Crosse, Wis. , who makes a specialty of 
Northern Grown Seeds. These are early, productive 
and full of life, and will Increase every yield. 

J S. Ellis' dairy near Bikersfield was com- 
pletely destroyed by fire Christmas night. 
Lobs, $5000; partially insured. 

Inducements to Subscribers. 

To favor subscribers to this paper, and to Induce new 
patrons to try our publication, we will furnish, to those 
who pay fully one year in advance 0/ date, it riquistbd 
the following articles (while this notice continues), at the 
very greatly reduced figures named at the right : 

1. — The Agricultural Features of California, by Prof. 

Hilgard, 138 large pages, illustrated, cloth, with 
colored maps (full price SI) SO. 25 

2. — World's Cyclopedia, 794 pages, 1350 illustrations; 

(exceedingly valuable) 50 

3. — Dewey's Patent Elastic Binder (cloth cover), name 

of this i«per stamped in gilt 60 

4. — Niles' Stock and Poultry Book for Paciflo Coast, 

pamphlet, 120 pages, illustrated 25 

6. — Kendall's Treatise on the Horse and Diseases, 89 

pages, instructive illustrations 05 

6 — To Nkw Subscribers, 12 select back Nos. of the 
Kikai, Press, "good as new " Free 

7. — Any of Harper's, Frank Leslie's and most other first- 

class U. S. periodicals, 15 per ct off regular rates- 
9.— Pacific Coast and Eastern Dailies and Period- 
icals, except special publication*, we can usually 
give 10 to 15 per cent off advertised retail rates. 

10. — March of Empire, by Mallie Stafford 26 

1 1. — Life Among the Apaches, 322 pages, stiff cloth .25 

12. — $1 worth of choice seeds, to be selected from a list 

of 107 flower and 82 garden seeds, as previously pub- 
lished, or which list we will send on application .25 

14. — Dewey's Pat Newspaper Fileholder (18 to SSin.) .26 

15. — European Vines Described, 63 pages 06 

19. — Webster's Dictionary, 834 pages, with 1500 illustra- 
tions; very handy and reliable 50 

23. — Architecture Simplified, 60 pages 06 

24. — M' ther Bickerdxke'B Life with the Army; patriotic 

and ably wiitten; 166 pp., cloth, $1.00 50 

25. — Ropp's Easy Calculator, cloth, 80 pp 25 

26. — How to Tell the Age of a Horse 06 

27. — Percheron Stud Book— French — bound in 

leather, 192 pages (full price, S3) 1 .OO 

28. — What Every One Should Know; a cyclopedia of 

valuable information; 510 pp.; cloth; (full price 
SI) 50 

29. — Knitting and Crochet, by Jennie June; 144 pp., 

200 illustrations 06 

30. — Needle Work, by Jennie June; 12 pp.,* . 

trations 25 

31. — Ladies' Fancy Work, by Jennie June; 152 pp., 700 

illustrations 26 

32. - The Way to do Magi<-; illustrated, 60 pp 10 

33 —The Taxidermist's Manual; illustrated, 64 pp.. .10 
34.— A Di'-tioiury of American Politic ; comprising ac- 
counts of p.-litical parties, measures and men, and 
explanations of the Consti ution, divisions and 
practical workings of the Governmei.t, together 
with political phraBcs, familiar names of persons 
and places, noteworthy sayinus, etc., by Everit 
Brown and Albert Strauss (Full price $1). . .50 

Beautiful Poetic Review, entertaining and instructive ; 
35 pages (a handsome and pleasing present). . .26 

Notk. — The cash must accompany all orders. Address 
this office, No. 220 Market St., S. F. 

In writing correspondence, items of information, or on 
other nusiness, please use a separate sheet. 

Sample copies of this paper mailed free to persons 
thought ikely to subscribe. 

Send for free circular describing most of these pre 
ononis anrl any further Information desired. 

Inform your neighbors about our offers and paper. 

Oewey & Co.'s Scientific Press 
Patent Agency. 

Our U. S. and Foreign Patent Agbsto. 
presents many and important advantages as 1 
Home Agency over all others, by reason of loo; 
establishment, great experience, thorough sys 
tern, intimate acquaintance with the subjects a 
inventions in our own community, and oui 
most extensive law and reference library, con 
'aining official American and foreign reports 
tiles of scientific and mechanical publications, 
etc. All worthy inventions patented througt 
our Agency will have the benefit of an illustra 
tion or a description in the Mixing and Scikn 
riFio Press. We transact every branch 01 
Patent business, and obtain Patents in all coun 
tries which yrant protection to inventors Tht 
large majority of U. 8. and Foreign Patent! 
issued to in ve 11 tors on the Pacific Coast ha v. 
been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the b< st and most relinble advice as to thr 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices 
ire as low as any first-class agencies in the 
Eastern States, while our advantages for Pacific 
Coast inventors are far superior. Advice and 
Circulars free. 

DEWEY & CO.. Patent Ajrenta 
No. 220 Market St. Elevator 12 Front St 
S. F. Telephone No. 658. 



V*ell-«inking and proipecltng tuoli tent 
on trial. 5H t>et ha< bern (link in S 
hourt. Iniiructi' ni tor brginm-ra. An 
Encycloptlia . I' Sim Engraving! of well 
nd pronpeetor* luola pump*, 
rind and ■(ram tog-in*-!. A Irra- 
K tite on gat and oil. Bonk 
free, mailing cborget 
">5 cl». each. 
The American 
_ WellWorks. 

U.S. A, 

Jan. 5, 1889.] 

pACIFie RURAId press. 




(Formerly Sec'y & Land Officer of Immigration Ass'n. 






«"Send 10 cents for 67-page description of California by counties with State map and 
85-page Catalogue of lands for sale in every part of the State. 

]Voxv Is tlao Time to -A-tajoly 

For Killing Squirrels. Gophers, Rats. Etc. 



The Improvements made in the manner of 
handling and distribut'ng this destroyer ol 
pests (full directions with each package) make 


Phosphorus or Prerared Poistns, 
as it is 


Simple to Apply and Effective. 


Which in the open air 


The Liquid 


Nor Injurious to the Skin or Clothes. 


And bv the Manufacturer, 

J. H.WHIELER, 216 Montgomery St. S. F. 

Sknd fok Circular. 

SEASON OF 1888-89. 







Offer to the Viticulturists for this season a Special Grade of Fertilizer best 
suited to the growth and production of Fruit Trees and Vines, of a guar- 
anteed analysis of 144 per cent Phosphoric Acid, G pur cent Ammonia and 
7.4 per cent Sulphate of Potash. 

We offer Liberal Terms to responsible parties. Fob Sale by 

H. M. NE* HALL & CO , 309 & 311 Sansome St., S. F. 

Lapds For Sale and Jo Let. 


The undersigned offers for sale, on good terms, his 
CLOVERDALE OAIRY FARM of 600 acres, situated on 
Squirrel Creek, 2 miles west of Grafs Vallev. It is well 
watered by springs and has excellent irrigation facilities, 
commodious farm buildings, orchard of 150 trees and 6 
acres of vineyard. A fine herd of Holstein, Ayrshire, 
Jersey, and Durham (thoroughbred and grade) cattle for 
sale with or without the ranch. Hol-tein and Ayrshire 
premium bul 1b on lowest terms, including •'Tehama," 
which, on account of kinship to the herd, can no longer 
be used in breeding. A good dairy route is also included 
in this offer. 

H. B. NICHOLS, Proprietor. 


Best location in the St»te of California for beautiful 


Located near the thriving city of CHICO, Butte County, 
California. Subdivided from the heart of the famous 


he well-known property of 


Town Lots and acreage property, 'rnm fractions of an 
acre upward. THRMS REASONABLE. For further 
particulars, address: 


Real lactate Agents, 
u&ico, Butte Co., Cal. 


On Exceedingly Liberal Terms. 

The a. E. quarter of Sec. 13. T. 21. R. 23, and all of Sec. 
15, T. 23, R. 24, in the artesian belt in Tulare enmity, will 
he rented at a nominal rent for winter sowing, if applied 
for soon. The greater part of thin land is rich, level and 
ail ready for the plow. Address L. E. Smith, Hixley, 
Tulare Co., Cal , or Ranch Owner, office Rural I'kk-h 
San Francisco, Cal. 

FOR $5000. 

A Ranch in El Dorado county, near Placerville, con- 
tains 160 acres, nearly all fenced in with a four-strand 
barbed wire fence, a KO<d house of 11 rooms, hard 
finished, two brick chimneys, cut stone basement w th 
cut stone steps, a good barn and stable, chicken house, 
work shop and other out-houses, a good well of water, 
one water ditch for the land. 1000 fruit trees, all in bear- 
ing, Peach, Apple, Fig aud Cherries, 1000 Grapevines; 
80 acres cleared and ready for the plow, ail neirly level; 
about 25 acres woodland, piues, etc., all of which can be 
cleared; three cowa and two calves The Ranch is five 
miles from Coloma and nine miles from Placerville 
The soil is a nd loam, the houso s'a-uis on the county 
road and the stage passes it twice every day. A span of 
horses, a new harness and wagon, plow, harrow ard 
other farming utensils to be given with the Ranch The 
Title, U. S Patent. For further information address. 
"RANCH." Box 2361, San Francisco, or care of Illus- 
trated Publishing Co., 220 Market St.. S. F. 

Agricultural and Grazing 


7975 Acres of fine grazing and agricultural land, in- 
cluding 4000 head of fine grade stock sheep; abundancr 
of water; 9 miles from Merced Citv, and near Merceo 
River; price, $7.26 per acre; 1000 acres good wheat land. 


Merced, Cal. 

624 Matket Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


For Actual Settlers. 

We own, tn fee simple, nearly 100,000 acres of very 
fine lands in the Eastern part of Ventura County, Cali- 
fornia, which we are offering in tracts of from 10 to 
10,000 acres, and at prices varying from $5 to $100, ac- 
cording to quality, situation and extent. Climate as 
healthful as any in California, and water very abundant. 
For particulars address, 


19 West First St., Los Angeles, Cal. 


Ranch of 2O0 acres on Coquille River, Coos County, 
Oregon; 40 acres bench land 160 acres bottom, 80 acres 
under cultivation; 1J miles from Coquille City, one half 
mile from sieamer lauding. An abundance of fine 
spring water on place. Price, $1600 cash, or will ex- 
change for California property in vicinity of San Fran- 
cisco Bay. For further particulars apply to 
659 Clay St., San Francisco, Cal. 




and all kinds of Pumping Machinery built to order. 
Awarded Diploma fur Windmills at Me- 
chanics' Fair, 188S. Windmills from $66 Hors' 
Powers from $60. F. W KROGH * f (SI 
Bnale Htr««t. Han Kranr-lu^o 

TUT finP lu health habits and disease. All breeda 
Int ISUU am i treatment; 50 cuts; 25c. This oflije. 



A Small Tract 


Best Fruit & Vineyard Land 


Central California! 

Reasonable Pries and Easy Terms. 

Natoma Water & Mining Co. 




Suitable for Fruit, Vines and Vegetables, in subdivisions 


5, 10 and 20-Acre Tracts 

The tract now offered in subdivi'ions is situated on 
the south side of the American river. 18 miles from the 
city of Sacramento, the Capital of the State, adjoining 
the town of Folsom, and on the Sacramento and Plaier- 
ville Railroad. 

Two hundred seres are now planted in fruit, in fu'l 
bearing; the balance of the land, 800 acres, if now ready 
to plant either in fruit or vineyards. 

Tho soil is of a very superior quality, being a deep 
rich loam, well drained, and capable of producing every 
variety of fruits or vegetables, including the pfach, 
appl", apricot, cherry, pear, plum, prune, nectarine, 
quince, fig, almond and walnut. The topographical feat- 
ure of this locality is the gentle slope of the land, in ur- 
ing perfect drainage. 

Facilities for Irrigation. 

Water for irrigation and other purposes wi'l be fur- 
nished to all who desire it at the Com, any's rates. The 
water is taken from the American river, near Salmon 
Falls, and the ditch has a capacity of 3000 miners' inches 
and a never-fail ng supply of water. All o t e land 
now offered for sale lies elow the ditch, a d con e- 
quentlv f an be ir igated therefrom. This is a very im- 
I ortai.t item and greatly increases the value ' f the la- d. 
as by irrigation a sure crop can alway be nep nded 
up n, even in the driest of seas'ns. T e irr'g ting 
ditches run directly through the tract, and in addition 
to this, an unfailing supply of pu e a d o't w t«-r can 
be obtained from wells at a depth of frcm 40 to 100 feet. 

Transportation Facilities 

The transportation facilities, a very important factor 
to all fruit-growers, are of the very best; the Sacra- 
mento and Placerville Railroad tunning through the 
orchard its en<ire length and having a receiving depot in 
the mostcentr 1 location nn the tract, so that no fruit 
has to be hauled more than half a m le. 

Why the Land Offered is a Profitable 

The soil is of the beH, being sandy loam and sedi- 
ment, and adapted to the choice-.t quality of all varie- 
ties of fruits a d vcgetibles The proper y is located in 
that portion of the State where all fruits ripen early, 
and naturally comma* d the hivheet prices. 

Ihe propertv is also situated in the c-ntra) part of 
California, and in the center • f a gieat fruit producing 
section, and immediately adjoining the principal markets 
of the oast— by the quick transportation facilities which 
it enjoys. 

The company w II assist purchasers of their lands by 
giving tbem employment in preference to all others, 
furnish them water for irrigation at very low rates, 
assist them by their knowledge of the property in plant 
irg the different varieties of fruit and vines on the lands 
to which they are best adapted, furnish pasture for 
stock, and in fact they will at times be prepared to ren- 
der such assistance to purchasers that will be of benefit 
to them in cultivating, selling and shipping their prod- 

The products of the lands of the NATOMA WATER 
AND MINING COMPANY have always commanded the 
hiuheot market prices both on the Pacific Coa*t and in 
the Eastern market. The f uit Is loaded in the cars on 
th' property and is transported intact to its destination 
in the East and other markets, a facility of transporta- 
tion that is of the greatest irapo tance, and with these 
great advantages prosperity is assured, and to-day there 
is no belter field for solid and profitable investment on 
the Pacific Coast, as these lands are offered at prices be- 
low those of other lands not so advantageously located, 
and not paying an immediate income. 

The portion of the property set out in orchard is all 
in bearing; thus purchasers will at once receive an in- 
come, theeby enabling them to pay for the land from 
the products. Good soil, abundanco cf water, healthy 
climate, easv of access, clore proximity to schools and 
churches, with low prices and easy terms combine to 
make the purchase of these lands the most profitable in* 
vestmont over offered. 

For maps, photographs, price-list and tub Information 
apply to 


Real Estate Agents & Auctioneers 


Lack House Building, San Francisco, 


E. K. ALSIP & CO., 1015 Fourth St., Sacramento, Cal. 

C H. 8CHUSSLKK, Fsq., Superintendent of the Na- 
toma Water and Mining Cimpany, Natoma, Sacramento 
county, Cal. 


pACIFie rvMJRAlo f>RESS. 

[Jan. 5, 1889 




Next Term begins July 31, 18«8. 

Large additions have been made to the buildings and 
furniture. New corps of instructors. Send for Circulars 
W. W. ANDERSON, A. M., Principal. 


University Avenue, Berkeley, Cal. 



References to parents of pupils who have entered the 
University from this school. Send for c r ular. 

T. S. BOWENS. B A.. 



1534 Mission Street, San Francisco. 

Prepares Boys and Young Men 


College, University and Business. 
Christmas Term opens Wednesday, lug. 1st. 

RKV. E. B. SPALDING, Rector. 

The Santa Rosa Boys' School, 



DesiriDg thorough preparation for Co'lege, University or 
Business- Location healthful, grounds ample, rooms 
large, well lighted, warmed and ventiUted. Influences, 
moral and social, of the very best. Number of pupils 

Winter Term will q ejjin January 2, 1889. 

Address the principal, 
Rrv. SEW A KD M. DODGE, B. A., Santa Rosa, Cal. 


2000 ; 

oung Men and 
'oung Women 
educated for business. 
"Interest Made 
Easy" will be sent by 
mail for 12 desirable 
names. Send for the 
College Journal. 

E. C. ATKINSON, Principal, Sacramento. 


46 DTARRELL^^n) S. F 


Typewriting, Telegraphy, Modern Lan- 
guages ana all the branches of the regu- 
lar BUSINESS COURSE are Included In 

Combined Course at $75 for Six Months. 

" OUR COLLEGE LEDGER," containing full partial- 
lars regarding the Col lege Departments, Courses of Study. 
Terms, etc., will he mailed free to all applicants. SEND 




; Francisco.; 


No Vacations. Day and Evrmnu Srssu.hs. 

Ladies admitted into all Departments. 
Address: T. A. ROBINSON. M A.. President 


24 P08T ST., S. F 

College Instructs in Shorthand, Type Writing, Book- 
keeping, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the En- 
glish branches, and everything pertaining to business, 
for six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
individual instruction to all our pupils. Our school has 
its graduates in every part of the State. 
OTStsD for Circular. 

E. P. HEALD, President. 

C. S. HALEY, Secretary. 




The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For Stump and Bank Blasting. From 5 to 20 
pounds blows any Stump, Tree or Root olear 
out of ground at less cost than grubbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers use no other. 

As other makers IMITATE our Giant Powder, so do they Judson, by Manufacturing 
a second-grade, inferior to Judson. 
BANDMANN, NIELSEN & CO. General Agents, San Francisco. 




Best and strongest Explosives in the World. 

c t 



Specially Adapted for SEEDING and 


All Genuine bear TRADE MARK, 
Have Steel Clod Crushers, DOUBLE FLEXIBLE GANG-BARS, 


Adjustable Reversible Coulters, 

Which, when worn, may ba turned end for end, thus giving double the amount of wear. 


No Other Harrow Combines these Points. 

DUANE H. NASH, Sole Manufacturer, 




and Los Angeles, Cal. 

And STAVER & WALKER, Portland, Oregon. 










Consisting of Wood and Iron Workine 
Machinery. Pomps of every 



Incorporated April, 1874. 

Authorized Capital $1,000,000 

Capital paid up in gold coin 624,160 

Reserved Fund 40,000 

L>tvideudM paid to Stockholders.. 615,680 


A. D. LOGAN President 

I.C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 


General Banking Deposits received, Gold and Silver. 
Bills of Exchange bought and sold. Loans on Wheat 
and country produce a specialty. 

Jan. 1, 1888 A. MONTPELLIER, Manager. 



wnd farmers with DO experience i 
bourduringsoun.tim . .I V. Kenyon.alchs Fails, 

So' can vim" V S °P dn , T - *»,«-50 one week, 
bo can you. 1'ronh anil rntnlosue free. 

SHi.i Afii, a Co.. Unciuuatl, a 


k^-Si.50 nn 




723 Market Street, History Building, 

t'T' 'i . r- for in the Music Li::* promptly 

attended to. 



Immense Water Power 


At Merced Falls, Merced County, located on Merced 
River; size of Hill, 33x70; two stories in .front and four 
stories in rear; latest improved roller machinery; new 
capacity; 100 barrels per day; power to increase to any 
capacity desired; title to water and land perfect; 60 acres 
of land, comprising the town site of Merced Falls; 
reputation of flour is Al; commands all mountain trade; 
fine wheat country surrounding; no failures aver known; 
grain warehouse 80x30; four dwelling houses; 38 share* 
o Merced Falls Woolen Factory go with purchase. 


Merced, Cal. 

Or N. C. CARNALL & CO., 
624 Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 


A valuable gi't of perm\nent value Is a Mu ic Book 
filled with choice Vocal and Instrumental Music, as 

Piano Classics, Classic Tenor Songs, 

Classical Pianist, Song Classics. 
Classic Baritone and Bass Songs, 

Song Classics for low Voice. 

Six eleitant hooks of exceptional high musical charac- 
ter, with large collections of the best songs and pieces. 
Each $1, boardx; ?2. cloth gilt. 

Of quite equal heautv are the new 
POPULAR 4(IN(i ( hi i i , in in first-class 

songs by 30 first-class composer*. 

by Wilson, Langc. Gilder, and others. 

Fine modern Waltzes, Cotillons, etc. 
Pi ice of each SI, boards; f~2. cloth gilt. 

A pretty Gift Book U Gertrude H. Churchill's Birth- 
day Book of MuKlcal Composers. $1-26, or 
Stray Notes from Famous Musicians, 25 cents, 
b.i G. H. C. 

lu-'in k Co. '11 attention to the'r BAND ami 
OKCH K*TR.AL I N ST Kt'HKN'IS; to their 
GITITAKs (wonderfully good and < heap). BsNJDH, 
MANDOLINE, etc. Most of these are kept at their 
Branch S ore (J. « '. Haynes k Co , 33 rourt St., Boston). 
Ph'Src send to that address for full description and 
prices They have also the best Instruction Books for 
all instruments. 


C. R. DITSON & CO.. ■ ■ 807 Broadway. New Vork. 


Jewelers and Silversmiths 


ST., S. F., 

— HA VI— 


— AN — 




On Application. 

Send stomp for 100-page Illustrated Catalocui of 


Ouns, Pistols, Cartridges, Air Ouns, Hunting Coats, Leg- 
gings, Loading Implements, Base Ball Goods, Lawn 
Tennis, Boxing, Fencing and Gymnasium Ooods, Ham- 
mocks, etc. 

Flae Quo work done by first-class smltha. 

525 Kearny Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


Opposite the Plaza, 

First Class Free Coach to and 
from the Depot. 



Dewey Engraving Com- 
pany, No. 220 Market street, Sao Franciaco. 

Jan. 5, 1889.] 



Beet Sugar in Oregon. 

The "beet-sugar industry" was pretty 
thoroughly discussed at Woodburn by Mar- 
ion County Pomona Grange. Our people 
must find some new industry to take the 
place of excessive fruit-raising and grain- 
growing. " Farmer No. 1 " has a most able 
letter upon this subject, which we clip from 
an exchange : 

Many of your business-men have slow 
accounts on poor, hard-working men, who 
would gladly work it out on your roadways; 
and such labor would come back to you 
with compound interest, in the shape of in- 
creased trade that now stops in all the little 
towns that surround you. There is no ex- 
cellence without effort. There is often 
pleasure and profit in seeing what we can 
do. The object of money is not to be 
hoarded. You have now among you men 
that have grown immensely rich oil" the in- 
dustry of the surrounding country — men 
that count their interest money by the thou- 
sand. They are not willing to-day to help 
bear the burden of government in common 
with the poor farmers off whom they have 
made their riches. I know whereof I speak. 
When an individual will send his money 
out of the country to avoid his proper share 
of the public taxes, is he honest? Has he 
any patriotism ? And when he loans, he does 
it under the name of some friend that is in 
Europe, New York, or perhaps that has 
been dead 40 years, to avoid the same bur- 
den. Can such a man be trusted? If so, 
how far? If an incendiary were to burn 
his smokehouse or dwelling, he would call 
upon the authorities to run the culprit down 
at any cost, because it is taken from the 
treasury of the very people he is helping to 
rob. It is almost a shame that such men 
are classed as citizens. Americans ougbt to 
be God-honoring, freedom loving and strict- 
ly law-abiding citizens. Look at the last 
assessment. Oh, shame! The Shylocks 
knew the Willamette bridge and other im- 
provements were to be paid tor. I am not 
growling, but only speaking in defense of 
justice. I am an old taxpayer and have 
helped to build all the public buildings of 
this State and county. I have ridden past 
the foundation of the great structure, going 
in to pay my small share that was needed in 
its construction, when I was cold from being 
poorly clad, truly needing some of the tax- 
money to buy more comfortable clothes, and 
this only voiced the condition of thousands. 
I remember once riding to town with a 
friend who was going in to pay his taxes, 
and, just as we passed the Statehouse, he 
looked up at the imposing, half-finished 
structure and remarked that his poverty of 
dress was not in keeping with the immense 
pile of masonry that stood before us. The 
average farmer always pays his taxes cheer- 
fully, and never winces unless he feels that 
the burden is not resting equally, or that the 
public funds are being recklessly applied. 

But as no city or county ever became very 
prosperous from its citizens butt- n-holing 
each other and talking of the most probable 
candidate for the U. S. Senate or to fill the 
various other offices, let us turn to another 
part of the subject, and that is manu- 

The light of genius, industry and patriot- 
ism that lit up the French Empire during 
the days of the Great Napoleon and had 
also made them masters of the whole world, 
was fast smoldering in the ruins of their 
former greatness, when Germany, through a 
series of victorious contests, was enabled to 
lay a burden of several hundred millions of 
dollars to indemnify themselves for losses 
sustained consequent upon war. This heavy 
debt drove the French people into the vari- 
ous manufacturing industries, and, for many 
years following, almost every fashionable 
article found upon our own, and upon the 
markets of the world, bore the name of a 
French artisan. The opening up of these 
new industries enabled her people to liquidate 
the great debt in so short a time that it was 
an astonishment to the whole civilized world, 
proving beyond controversy that no State, 
nation or people can long maintain their 
national vigor and commercial standing 
among the nations of the world unless they 
become manufacturers to the extent of the 
natural resources by which they are en- 

Then, after reviewing a little short history 
of what industry, genius and home enter- 
prise have, will and can do for a people, let 
us unite in asking the coming Legislature to 
offer a bounty of $10,000, payable to the 
first man or company for the production of 
the first 150 pounds of beet sugar raised and 
manufactured anywhere in this State. We 
will not cavil about its location. Such an 
enterprise will not mislocate itself. Then, 
as Salem has the money and fine natural 
surroundings, let her come to the front and 
take the prize. The general advantage to 

the State will be the same, locate it where 
they may. It probably would not exceed 
one-quarter mill tax to cover the outlay, 
and I am sure that is nothing when com- 
pared to the great good that would accrue 
to the people from such an outlay. 

This is not a good corn country, and the 
question suggests itself to every farmer, 
what kind of a crop can be raised upon our 
fallow lauds in order to get some return 
for the work? By introducing the beet- 
sugar industry, it would enable the farmers 
to plant some of their fields lying idle 
through the whole season, thereby getting 
pay for the work that must necessarily be 
done to prepare the land for wheat. Not 
only so, but it would help to diversify our 

In order to set the sugar industry squarely 
on its pegs and enable it to succeed and pay 
from the beginning, it possibly would be 
wise to appropriate a few hundred dollars, 
to be used as premiums on the best five, ten, 
twenty-five, fifty, etc., acre lots during the 
first and second years. As the factory would 
be of no use without plenty of raw material 
to work, this course would insure a fair and 
speedy test. If the industry would prove 
as profitable as it has in France and Ger- 
many, many other factories would spring up 
all along the coast, which would give a new 
impetus to the agricultural interests of this 
country. I could mention many othpr ad- 
vantages that would grow out of such an 
enterprise. As this article was penned only 
as a passing thought, I leave the subject for 
the public's candid consideration. 

Farmer No. 1. 

The London Exhibit Convention to Re- 

The following note has been sent to all mem- 
bers of the London Exposition Committee, etc. 
As the matter in consideration is very impor- 
tant, we trust that due notice will be taken and 
a full meeting be held: 

Dear Sir: — The Executive Committee of 
the London Exhibit for California, at its first 
regular meeting, held on the afternoon of Dec. 
18th, after the close of the convention of which 
you were a member, by unanimous action 
called a meeting of the general convention to be 
held in the City of Sacramento, Jan. 22, 1889. 

You are hereby notified that such meeting 
has been called, and will be held, and that mat- 
ters to come before it are of the highest import- 
ance. Your presence and interested attention 
are solicited — Wm. H. Mills, San Francisco, 
Chairman; Chas. B. Turrill, Sin Diego, Sec- 

A Card from Mr. Lubln. 

Editors Press: — The house of John W. Draper 
& Son, of Covent Garden, London, England, has 
in the past, through me, given the fruit-growers 
much valuable information, and even now devote 
much of their valuable time in assisting the bringing 
about of the proposed exhibition ot the products of 
California in London, 

It behooves every fruit-grower in the State to re- 
member this, and when agencies are to be estab- 
lished in London for the sale of our products, it 
would be rank ingratitude on our part to overlook 
the claims of this liberal and old-established house. 
They are now furnishing the Executive Committee 
of the London exhibition with valuable and neces- 
sary information. — David Lubin, Chairman Plan 
Committee on London Exhibit, Sacramento, Dec- 
22, 1S8S. 

Jersey Beef. 

As additional testimony to the excellence 
of Jersey beef, referring to the mention on page 
555 of last week's Rural, we give the following 
letter written by Henry Lux, butcher of San 
Jose, to Henry Pierce, the well known breeder : 

In reference to the Jersey steers from Yerba 
Buena ranch, I have to say that they weighed, 
for their size, more than any cattle I have ever 
killed, and I never cat up an animal that was 
in all respects better meat. I thought them 
stall-fed, until you told me they had not been, 
having gotten their entire living off the hills 
back of San Jose. Taking into account how 
they were raised, I am sore no breed of cattle 
could have equaled the quality of meat, three 
year-old steers weighing upward of 700 pounds 
and two close to 600 pounds. 

Nicaragua Canal in Miniature. — A model 
of the Nicaragua canal, by which it is pro- 
posed to connect the Atlantic and the Pacific, 
has lately been exhibited in New York. It oc 
cupied a space 20 feet long, 6 feet wide and 3 
feet high, and presented a topographical picture 
which was much admired. The model ship was 
towed across the real water of the model canal, 
the locks were worked, and the two oceans 
heaved all day long. We note this with special 
interest, in view of the bird's-eye map of the 
canal mentioned last week as presented by the 
Grangers' Bank of this city. 

A Unique Calendar for 1889, with a quaint 
little colored piotnre for each month, illustrat- 
ing the costume of some nationality, comes to 
us from Hoosick Falls, N. V., with the compli- 
ments of the Walter A. Wood Company, whose 
mowing and reaping machines are famous the 
world over. 

JIJhe {Stock *Y*ard. 


Editors Press : — Ibaw in the Rural recently 
a letter from some gentleman from Sicramento 
who wishes that more farmers would give 
their experience on raising alfalfa. I would 
like to give my experience on alfalfa, for I 
always have good hay. 

First, I always sow early in spring — about 
the time of the last frost — as it is very tender 
when young. 

After sowing, I harrow in same as for grain. 
For this reason it covers well and gives it a 
good chance to root before being exposed to the 
Bun or frost. Put on plenty of seed — you need 
not be afraid of getting too thick a stand. You 
cannot reap unless you sow; that's the draw- 
back to most of farmers. The first year you 
will be able to cut two crops of fine hay. 

After the first season, I take a sharp harrow 
when the alfalfa begins to sprout in spring, 
and give it a thorough harrowing; this loosens 
up the soil and tears out all the foul seed. It 
does not injure the alfalfa root. You will find 
that it will pay you for all yonr trouble. 

If on irrigated land, you want to irrigate 
freely when first sown, so as to keep the ground 
moist till it gets through. 

I always cut my hay just before it blossoms, 
for this reason: You will find the stems much 
finer, and the strength retained in the stalk in- 
stead of in the blossom; besides, it will stand 
up much better to mow. What you will lose 
in cutting early, you will gain in cutting it 
much cleaner. Of coarse it will not yield so 
much to the acre, but you will find it will keep 
more stock to the acre, for they will eat every 
spear of it. 

I consider alfalfa hay the best in existence for 
young stock, as it always keeps the bowels reg- 
ular. It is more like natural grass. I feed no 
other hay, and when my neighbors' horses are 
all sick, my stock come in at night as they do 
in spring of year with their heels in the air — 
you don't know which end is going to get in 
first. Give plenty alfalfa and they will thrive, 
but do not do as some men do, fill up the barn 
and let the stock look through the cracks, and 
then curse the alfalfa hay. 

I have found from long experience that grass 
is not fit for mares which you want to breed, 
for as long as they are feeding on it, you will 
find they are very bard to get with foal. Cows 
are the same way. Put them in a dry pasture 
a few weeks before you breed them, and you 
will find your mares will get with foal much 

As to the best mode of curing alfalfa hay, I 
find it is to not let it lie too long after being 
mowed. Hike it into windrows and let it dry 
as much as possible in the windrow before be- 
ing put in the cock, then haul it in immediately, 
for if too dry, the leaves drop off. Be sure to 
have it thoroughly cared before putting in the 
barn, for if the least moldy or damp, it will 
Burely give your horses the heaves or a bad 
cough. This I know from experience of green 
farm hands. Salt it well when it in put in the 
barn — that will stop it from molding if too 
damp when hauling. 

As for getting foul seed in your land, it is 
almost impossible to avoid, especially on a riv- 
er-bottom, for your next neighbor above you 
may neglect to take the proper care, and the 
wild seed will wash down your land. I have 
known it to wash for miles, Farmer. 

Calaveras Co. 

Shorthorn Association Proposed. 

Editors Press: — Will you kindly give place 
in your valuable paper to a suggestion I wish to 
make to all parties in California that feel an in- 
terest in breeding and improving Shorthorn 
cattle in the State. For one, I firmly believe 
that breed of cattle does not receive the at- 
tention they are entitled to. For beef, it is 
generally conceded they " take the cake." 
Their milk, I believe, in quality, will compare 
with the Jersey, and in quantity with the Hoi- 
stein. I mean, with some little painstaking, to 
bring this about. I am not prepared to say 
that they are able to live in snowdrifts and 
on sagebrush as well as the little black Gallo- 
way, but as the country gets more peopled, and 
they all will have at least a few head of oattle, 
and as the more intelligent farmers advocate 
housing and feeding their stock, this quality of 
roughing it will be less appreciated. 

Would it not be well for all parties that are 
interested in Shorthorns to organize an associa- 
tion, and meet, Bay two or three times a year 
and consult about the best way to advance the 
best interest for the breeders ? I know of two 
or three that are of that opinion. Why could 
not some one suggest a meeting of the breeders 
at some place easily reached by all ? 

Sites, Dec. 10th. P. Peterson. 

[It would be an excellent idea to have such 
an association. There was one 12 years ago, 
which expired for laok of interest, but probably 
more general interest would be taken now. It 
is well worth trying. What do breeders think 
about it? — Eds. Press ] 

The S^ate of Nevada begins the new year 
with $639,989.95 in its treasury in coin, and 
$814,000 in bonds in the school fund. 

E>rn County Notes. 

Editors Press:— Koiu is waking oat oi 
Bleep and is rubbing her eyes, which behold 
with astonishment the things which the days 
are bringing forth. 

At the headquarters of the recently instituted 
Board of Trade are displayed the wonders of 
our productive county. Upon the streets are 
many new faces of the substantial business cast 
on the lookout for the main chance. Work 
upon the new system of canals and reservoirs to 
develop the lower lands of Messrs. Carr & Hag- 
gin and Miller & Lux estates is being pushed 
with the energy and thoroughness which char- 
acterize all their enterprises. As to the fact 
that the lands of these two vast estates are to 
be subdivided, all doubt is dispelled. After re- 
peated rumors pro and con, Mr. Carr now makes 
the statement in print that the lands of that 
company will be placed on Bale within 30 days. 
I make the statement of these facts to you be- 
cause it is well known that many who are now 
in this State seeking homes consult your columns 
as being a reliable source of information. 

What we need now is a class of thrifty peo- 
ple who are able and willing to subdue the soil 
of this genial valley which has been blessed in 
point of natural resources lavishly. Having 
seen much of this State, I have yet to find a lo- 
cation that combines all the good points that 
this does. For raiains we have a soil and cli- 
mate as good as any location yet tested. The 
freedom from early fall rains and exemption 
from fogs makes this the banner county in 
point of requisite conditions. It has been 
proven beyond cavil that for the following- 
named fruits we are also in the front rank, 
viz. : Apricots, peaches, pears, raisins, grapes, 
either in green or dried product. Our prox- 
imity to the Mojave rainless district, combined 
with our ample supply of water for irrigation, 
furnishes conditions of superior excellence 
which have thus far escaped the notioe of horti- 
culturists generally. I predict that when a 
lapse of time shall have passed sufficient for our 
development, this will be the largest and most 
important point of production and shipment of 
fruit in the State. 

The initial move has been made. As an- 
nounced by the Press, the land sale came off, 
and many a resident of Kern was aroused at 
what seemed fabulous prices, and are inclined 
to question as to the bona-fide character of act- 
ual sales. To some who were wise in their day 
and generation, it is no matter of surprise, 
when we Bee the conservative railway company 
putting in thousands of dollars as an outlay for 
facilities to accommodate the trade which they 
see must come to them at this point. The con- 
clusion is, that the time is not far distant when 
the dream of the wildest enthusiast is to be 
realized. Merit will win in the end, no matter 
what obstacles intervene. W. 

Bakersfield, Cal. 

Poisoned Wheat for Squirrels. 

This is the very best time of the year to kill 
off these pests. A little expense in this month will 
save much time and trouble later on. * * * 
We have never found anything give so much 
satisfaction in the long run as the prepared 
poisoned wheat. If this is used ip reasonable 
quantities, either on the very edge or just in- 
side the squirrel hole, the squirrels will eat it 
greedily; there is little risk of killing off birds 
and practically no risk at all of injuring live- 
stock, as the grain soon becomes so scattered 
that what any one animal bigger than a squir- 
rel could get hold of would be little more than 
a medicinal dose. The material is cheap; it 
can be distributed by one man, and does the 
work as completely as anything we know of. 
There are several brands on the market, some 
of which are perfectly useless. At the Souther 
farm we have generally used Wakelee's, and it 
has done very good work. — San Leandro Re- 

Mr. Geo. A. Wiley, manager of the Cook 
Stock Farm, has just returned from the East, 
where he purchased and shipped one Cruikshank 
Shorthorn bull, one Polled-Aogas bull of the 
" Urica " family, one imported Devon bull, eight 
brood mares of trotting strain, and one wean- 
ling colt by Red Wilkes, dam by Mambrino 
Patchen. A more extended description of this 
shipment of thoroughbred stock will appear in 
our columns. 

Nurseries at Lodi. — Jas. A. Anderson, a 
nurseryman of u dozen years' experience in the 
great valley of California, whose advertisement 
appears elsewhere, has issued a 14 page cata- 
logue of the trees and plants which he is culti- 
vating in his " Riverside Nursery " at Lodi, 
San Joaquin county, with hints as to trans- 
planting and prnning. 

Captain Dalton, chief patrolman of the 
Fish Commission, recently arrested and had 
oonvicted of illegal fishing 14 Italians, who 
were fined $100 apiece. As one half of the fine 
goes to Captain Dilton, it was a very good day's 
work. The parties were fishing on Russian 
river, in Mendocino county. 

Shorthorns from Kentucky. -Cattle-breed- 
ers will be interested in the large importation 
of Durhams, advertised by Messrs. Goff & 
Prewett in another column, and now on exhibi- 
tion in this city. 


f AClFie f^URAb press, 

[Jan. 5, 1889 

breeders* birectory. 

Six line* or leas In this Directory at 60c per li ne per month. 


BBTrJ COOK, breeder of Cleveland Bay Horses, De- 
von. Durham, Polled Aberdeen-Angus and Galloway 
Cattle. Young stock of above breed* on hand ror 
gale Warranted to be pure bred, recorded and aver- 
age breeders. Address, Geo. A. Wiley, Cook Farm, 
Danville, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

J. H. WHITE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder 
of Registered Holstein Cattle. 

B. J. MEBKJSLEY, Sacramento, breeder of Norman, 
Percheron Horses and thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. 

T SKII l.M -IN, I'eta uma, I ip rter and breeder of 
Suffolk, Percheron-Norman and French Coaeh Horses. 

M. D BOPKlNS. Petaluma, importor and dealer in 
Eastern registered Shorthorns, Red Polled Cattle, Hoi- 
steins, Devons and Shropshire Sheep. 

PKTlSrt 8AXB Si SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past IS years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

GEO BBMENT & SON . Maple Grove Farm, Oak- 
land P. O., breeders of Ayrshire Cattle & Essex Swine. 

K H. BLTBKE.401 Montgomery St., S. F.: Registered 
llolsteins: winners of more first prizes, sweepstakes 
and special premiums this year than any herd on the 
Coast. Pure Berssnire Pigs. Catalogues. 

H. P- HOHR, Mt. Eden, Alsme'a Co.. Cal., breeder of 
Clydesdale Horses and Holsteiu-FrieBian Cattle. 

WILLIAM NILBS, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough 
bred Registered Holstein and Jersey Cattle. Write me. 

H- S. SARGENT, Stockton, importer and breeder 
of registered Jersey Cattle. Correspondence solicited. 

P. PETERSEN, Sites, Colusa Co., importer & breeder 
of registered Shorthorn Cattle. Young bulls for Bale 

W S. JACOBS, Sacramento, Cal., breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Shorthorns and Berkshire Hogs. 

BRADLEY RANCH, 8an Jose, Cal., breeder 
of recorded thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. A choice 
lot of yoong stock for sale. 

HENRY HAMILTON, Grayson, Cal., breeuer of 
Kentucky Jacks and Jennies, Draft Horses and Hol- 
stein Cattle. Jacks, Horses and Mules for sale/ 

DEN MAN & MCNEAR, Petaluma, importers and 
breeders of thoroughbred and graded Clydesdale horses. 

EL ROBLAR KANOHO, Los Alamos, Santa Barbara 
Co., Cai.. Francis T. Underhlll, proprietor, importer 
and breeder of thoroughbred Hereford Cattle. Infor- 
mation by mall. C F. Swan, manager. 

J. B. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder of 
Thoroughbred Devone, Roadsters and Draft Horses. 

P. H. MURPHY, (Brighton,) Perkins P. O., breeder 
of Recorded Short Hornj and Poland China Hogs. 

Station, S. F. & N. P. R. R. P. O., Peon's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 


W. O. EL.L.1S, »5* Bro«dway, Oakland, Cal., importer 
and bietder of thoroughbred Bl»ck Leghorns. 

A C BOSOHHAUP1' (successor to Jas. T. Brown), 
P O Box 43, Station B, Los Angeles, Cal., jard on 
State 8t., Brooklyn Hights, imp irter and breeder of 
all leading thoroughbr d Fowls, and Eggs, at reason- 
able prices Circular free. 

W C. DAMON, Napa, $2 each for choico Lt. Brahmas, 
Wyandottes, P. Rocks, White and Brown Leghorns 
Beet Seed for sale. 

D H EVEBETT, 1819 Larkin St., S. F., Importer and 
breeder of Thoroughbred Langshans and Wyandottes. 

Cal.; send for illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 

B. G. HEAD. Napa, Cal., breeder of the choicest va- 
rieties of Poultry. Each variety a specialty. Send for 
new Catalogue. 

T. D. MOKBIS. Agu* C»liente, Cal.; pure bred fowls. 
J. ALBEtSi, Lawrence, Cal., breeder and importer 


B. H. CBANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and importer 

8outh Down Sheep from Illinois aud England for sale 


Ferry, Cal. , breeders of Merino Sheep. I- am i for sale. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys * Berkshire Swine high graded rams for sale 

.4. W. WOOLSEY At SON, Fulton, Cal., importers 
ft breeders Spanish Merino Sheep; ewes & rams for sale. 

ANDBEW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; see adv't. 



That the public should know that for the past Eighteen Years our Sole Business has been, and now is 
.mporting (Over 100 Carloads) and breeding improved Live Stock— Horses, Jacks, Short Horns, Ayrsh ires, 
and Jerseys (or Alderneye) and their grades; also, all the varieties of breeding Sheep and Hogs. We can sup- 
ply anv and all good animals that may be wanted, and at very reasonable prices and on convenient 
terms. Write or call on us. PETER SAX E and HOMER P. S AXE. 

San Fraucisco, Cal., Oct. 22, 1888. PETER 8AXE St SON, Lick Hons*, S. F. 




S. N. STRAOBE, Proprietor P. O. Address, FRESNO, CAL 



For information address or call on S. N. Straube as above. No trouble to show stock to intending purchasers. 

HECKMANN & I IB MEL, Commission Merchants 



Poultry, Game, Eggs, Hides, Pelts, Tallow, Etc. 

aVCountry Orders Promptly Filled. Consignments Solicited. 
P. O. Box 1928. 40O & 402 DAVIS ST. and 122 WASHINGTON ST., SAN FRANCISCO 


Registered Herd Hook Stock of the Aaggie, Netherland, 
Neptune, Clifden, Artis and other families. None better. 


Of the Coomassie, Alphea and other choice strains. 


POULTRY- Nearly all varieties. 

Poultry and Stock Book, 60 cents by mail, postpaid 
Twelve years experience on this coast. Address 

WM. NILE8, Los Angelea, Cal. 



Of the highest breeding and most popular strains. We carry a Hrtre stock of young, vigorous stations an-l mares 
at all seasons, importcu young and matured on our farms, thus fully acclimated and sura breeders. Prices low 

aud terms easv. 


At exceptionally low prices. Grand opportunity to secure foundation stock at low figures. 
Send for illustrated descriptive pamphlet and mention the Pacific Rurt&L Prbsu. 

GEO. E. BROWN & CO , Aurora, Kane Co., 111. 







Petaluma, Oal. 

I wish to stat>> to the pnb'ic that I am now offering for 
sale, at BED-ROCK PRICES, Imported and High-grade 


Of the above-named olassf s. Come and have a look at 
this fine stud of horses, make your selection and 1 will 
guarantee prices and terms to suit. 
Catalogue sont od application. 

^Horsea may be seen at the RED STABLE, a little 
to the north and right of the R. R. Depot, Petaluma. 


Of the best families. A choice lot of young Bulls and 
Heifers for sale, t years old and under, from the cele- 
brated Kirklevington Oxford Count. 36723. 

JOSEPH MELVIN, Davisviile, Cal., Breeder of 
Poland China Hogs. 

IYLiEB BEACH, San Jose, Cal., breeder of 
thnranchbrod Berkshire and Essex Hoes. 

WILLIAM NILiES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughereo 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Circulars f ree 

ANDHRW SMITH. Redwood City, Oal.; see adv't 

01 Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 


Baden Station. San Matao Go,, Gal 



One and a half miles northeast of Sid Leandro, 
Alameda County, has every facility for Break- 
ing Colts properly. Rites very reasonable. 
Horses boarded at all times. 


P. O. Box 149. San Leandro. Cal tkt. Nri 

4«r Aj -. - • ■ : o.r b*w BMjuf A« 
BA.S.SEll CAgbCU.. CAblit, oft 

MM ,«1 
Book nf A 


The Fine bred Young Stallion, 


Ei eh t years old, 16 bands high, weight 1250 lbs., color 
dark chestnut, with he»vy mane and tad. Very stylish, 
well built, general purp ise horse. Very kind disposi- 
tion and t-ure foal getter. 
For pedigree and terms, address 

Farmlngton, San Joaquin <jo., Cal 

PoiJlthy, Etc 


I offer for sale at mv ranch, on Clear Lake, near Lak»- 
port, pure bred Pi rclicron Mares and Horses of the 
choicect families. Pedigree* recorded in the Percheron 
Stud Book of Prance and America. They are principilly 
the Brilli.nt, Caaw strains of blood Addrers 


Lakeoort, Cal. 


For the next thirty days a number of tine, pure bred 


(Register, d) will be on jale at reasonable terms at the 
MT. EDK.N m; M hi si; I A KM. Address or call on 
H. P. MOHB, 
Mt. Eden, Alameda Co., Cal. 


Cor. 17tn Si Castro ate., Oakland, Cal. 

Manufactory of the PACI- 
BttOODEK. Agency of 
the celebrated silver finish 
galvanized wire netting for 
Rabbit and Poultry-proof 
fences, the Wilson Bone 
and Shell Mill, the Pacific 
Egg Pood, and Poultry ap- 
pliances in great variety. 
Also every variety of land 
and water Fowl, which 
have won first prizes wherever exhibited. Eggs for 
.latching. The Pacific Coast Poulterers' Hand-Book and 
Guide, price, 40c. Send 2c. stamp for 60-page illustrated 
circular to the PACIFIC INCUBATOR CO., 1317 Castro 
St., Oakland, Cal. 


D. N. Sz C. A. HAWLEY, 
221 & 223 Market Btreet, San Francisco 



I TUB — 


Most Successful Machine 

3 Gold Medals, 1 Silver Medal, and 16 

first Premiums, 
Hatches all kinds of Kggs. 
Made In all Sizes. 

Write us for Large Illustrated Cir- 
cular Free, describing Incubators, 
d r , Hou«ee, How to Raise Chickens, etc. Address 


Importer and Breeder of 

Langshans, Plymouth Rocks, 

Brown and White Leghorns, 
Peaiu Bantams, Light Brahmas. Part- 
ridge Cochins, Burl cochins, Black Ml- 
norcss, Registered Berkshire Figa. Also 

one pen of Langshans direct from China. 

Large lot of young birds ready for sale; send for circulars. 

The Halsted Incubator Co. 

1312 Myrtle St., Oakland, Cal. 
Thoroughbred Poultry and Kggs. 

Send Stamp for Circular. 


GKO, E. Dl DEN. Proprietor, 

Importer and breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry, 6 miles 
touiheaat of Sacrammto. near Lake House, on the upper 
Stockton ro.d. P. O. address, Box :<76, Sacramento, Cal. 

Feed the Land and it will Feed 

California Fertilizer Co., 




' Send for pamphlet giving full information and 


noMce that the metal screens do not clog or choke up aa do 
the old wire screens heretofore In use. Also manufacturers 
nf Quartz Screens. Information by mall. Cnllfornin 
Perforaltny farreea Co., 45 ft 147 Bbalb St., B. F 


Oa account of the death 
of F. A. Briggs, Manager of 
the Pacific Coast Branch of 
the Ameebury (Mass.) Car- 
riage Factory, the whole 
stock of fine light Carriages, 
Buggies, Carts, Robes, Harness, Whips, etc., 
is offered for sale at less than cost, to settle 
the estate. 0. CREGO, Administrator. 

Salesrooms. 220 A 222 Mission St.. S. F. 



Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
London. (Diploma dates April 22, lf<70 ) For two year 
Veterinary Inspector of Live Stock for the British Gov- 
ernment. Parties having sick or injured horses, cattle, 
dogs, etc. , can have advice and prescriptions by return 
of mail by sending full particulars of disease and |1. 
Calls to the -country by mail or telegram promptly at- 
tended to. Fees reasonable. Residence and Pharmacy. 
No. 11 Seventh St., near Market, (Telephone No. 8368), 
San Francisco, Oal. 

All horse, cattle and dog medicines kept on hand. 

7*1 Milk Fringe .-i n.u... s_cuh »"•» n«.~ 

OiiZoM ) All o.l, • N. Hue lm**i* C— C -»» "»*• 

FA T OP MOUSTACHE and illustrated catalogue for 10c; 
I ahull 111 3 for 26c TuiKBia & Co., Bay Shore, N. y. 

Jan. 5, 1889.] 

fACIFie I^URAb press. 




Farmers, DairymenJMmen Machinists 

Blacksmith's Dril 
Press, Hand Feed: 
Weight, 65 lbs. 

Combination Anvil 
and Vise, hardened 
IIH..-T face, 6nely polished 
weight, 60 lbs. 

Farmer's Forge 
No. 6 B, will heal 
lj-inch iron. 

Hammer and 
Handle. 2 tbs. , 
solid cast steel. 


blauneuiitu's au> and OUlScIo MB 

li lbs each; both, solid cast steel. 

gf Farrier's Pincers, Cast Steel; 12 inch. 

Shoeing Hammer and Handle; weigh 
9 ounces. 


And we offer this complete 


Which is hardly half the regular prices, and none can 
afford to be without this set. Orders by mail promptly 
filled. Address, 


Nob. 3 and 5 Front St.. 

San Francisco 

Bean Spray Pump. 

Orchardists and Nurserymen 



For two 3 ears and given it their hearty indorsement. 
When charged it will throw a spray continuously for 30 
minutes without operating the pump. Two to four 
rows of treen can be sprayed at the same time. Send for 
circular and testimonials. 


Los Gitos, Santa Clara Co , Cal. 


{Hei/iftered Truile MnTk.y 



Would-be imitators try to follow. Shun 
all iniiiittiorm or so-called "Light- 
ning I'llltCTIl" knives, and accept 
| the uolirilM article only, which bears our 
ri'MiMteri'd Inbvl, and has our linn 
name Mrniii|»'<l on the blade. 
' nrOT l/MICr everdevised forcuttinK 
in mow, slack, or bale. Even 
, 'rammled. The selection of the BK>T 
material* and details of workmanship are 
matters of conBtant attention. Emily nharp- 
i etiefi by grinding on the corner of an ordinary 
, grindstone. Its ureal popularity bas never 
, waned For sale by Hardware trade generally. 

The HIRAM HOLT CO. East Wilton, Me, 


Sample Style* of Hidden Name and 

6,1k >r,of« Car.U. CL.ghl (,' It and Tncka, Uv Uttloru. Ihtloqu*. Po«- 
Om/hM Oamw, t,n-1 K<m» jou ra* m»«.JI0 » <)»» «l\on>». All 




309 and 311 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Agents for Growers and Manufacturers. Charterers of Vessels for all Trades. Agents 
for the Mexican Phosphate and Sulphur Company's Products. 
General Insurance Agents. 
Have correspondents In all the chief cities of the United States, Europe, Australia, India, China and the princi- 
pal islands of the Pacific Purchase goods and sell California products in those countries. 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast of NATIONAL ASSURANCE CO., or Ireland; 




Warehouse and Wharf at Port Costa. 


Money advanced on Grain in Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
WnU Cargoes of Wheat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited, 

E. VAN EVERY, Manager. A. M. BELT, Assistant Manager. 



Hard "\*r«.r© and Groceries 

Agents for Studebaker agons, Carriages and Buggies, Oliver Plows, 
and Cassidy Sulky ana Gang Plows. 

Country Orders Solicited. T. A. LAUDER, Manager. 


117, 119-125 J 

& CO., 



Kentucky Blue Grass, California and Uah Alfalfa Seed, Wild Oats, Etc. 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS in Oregon, California and Nevada Products. Potatoes, 
Beans, Honey, Butter, etc., a Specialty. 


505 and 507 SANSOME STREET, 

C*2 OO., 



every day. Ask yoi r Grocer for Pioneer brand. It is the best and cheapest in the world Medals 
i awarded iu all l*aira where exhibited. 


WORKS : First and Stevenson Sts., 







MACHINE TOOLS, and full line of 

MACHINE SHOP APPLIANCES carried in stock. 

ELEVATORS (or freight and passenger use, both worm gear and patent double capacity 

WATER METERS of the Worthington pattern. 

ELECTRIC APPARATUS for the generation and distribution of electricity for LIGHT 

aDd POWER. Keith System. 
FLOUR MILL ROLLS ground and corrugated. Gear Cutting a Specialty. 
*3T Prices on application. Send for Catalogue. 




Absolute Guarantee given to do 


Write for illustrated circular, Mfni \m this paper. 



Distributes Fertilizers 


S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

rFree coach to and from tbe House. J. W. BECKER, Proprietor. 

Commission Herchapts. 


Commission Merchants 



Green aDd Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Consignments. 

308 & 310 Davis St., San Francisco 

[P. O. Box 1936.) 
^"Consignments Solicited. 


Grain Broker & Commission Agent 

Member of the S. F. Produce Exchange and 
Call Board Association. 






501, 503, 505, 507 and 609 Front Street 
and 300 Washington St., S. F. 

General Commission Merchants. 


Poultry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Produce and 



— AND — 

General Commission Merchants, 

810 California St., 8. F. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange 

{^Personal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad 
i antes made on Consignments at low rates of interest. 





39 Olay Street and 28 Commercial Street 

San Francisco, Cal. 

C. L. BENTON & CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 


65, 66, 67, California Market, S. F. 


Commission Merchants, 

Oreen an<l Dried Fruit, Produce, Eggs, Etc. 
Consignments solicited. 413, 416 & 417 Washington St., 
San Francisco. 



And Dealers in Fruit, Produce, Poultry, Game, Eggs, 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St., and 221, 228 
226 and 227 Washington St., San Francisco. 

Fruit and General Commission Merchants 


408 & 410 Davis St.. San Francisco 


Commission Merchants. 

All Kinds of Oreen and Dried Fruits. 
oonsioitmkhtb soMOiTBD. 824 Davis St., S. F 



Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boilers. 

Portable Straw-Burning Boilers & Engines. 


Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notloe. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery, 

Including Grape Crushers and Stemmers, Elevators, Wine 
Presses and Pumps, and all appliances u„ -tin Wine 
Cellars. Irrigating and Drainage Pumps. Heald's 
Patent Enerlne Governor. Etc. 

This paper is printed with Lnk Manufac- 
tured by Charles Eneu Johnson St Co., 600 
South 10th St., Philadelphia. Branch Offl- 
oee— 47 Rose St, New York, and 40 La Salle 
St., Chicago. Agent for the Pacific Coast— 
Joseph E. Doretv, 688 Commercial St., 8. 9 


fACIFie f^URAb p RESS. 

[Jan. 5, 1889 

fflA^KET J^EpO^T 
Weekly Market Review. 


San Francisco, Jan. 2, 1889. 

The past week, so far as trade is concerned, was 
a counterpart of its predecessor, but with regard to 
the weather it was of a more favorable character for 
outdoor work in localities where rains have inter- 
fered with plowing. The rainfall the past month 
was above an average in the southern portion of the 
State, a fair average in the San Joaquin and Sacra- 
mento valleys, and slightly above an average in the 
coast counties. The rains in many localities were 
not hard enough to beat the heavy soil into good 
condition for plowing, but in the light-soil sections 
they were everything that could be desired, conse- 
quently there has been an increased acreage seeded 
in the latter localities. For wheat and barley the old 
year closed with a better feeling, particularly for the 
former, in sympathy with the improved feeling 

To-day's cable is as follows: 

Liverpool, Jan. 2.— Wheat— Firm. California 
spo'tlots, 7s6^d(at7S9^ d ; off coast, 39s 3d; juft 
shipped, 39s 6d; nearly due, 39s 3d; cargoes off 
coast, firm; on passage, turn dearer. 

Liverpool Wheat Market. 

The following are the closing prices paid for wheat 

options per ctl: 

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June 

Thursday. "s»d "» 9 i d 7 » !) « d """a 1 ' 1 7,10d 

Friday 7s9d 7s9d 7s9id 7*10d 7sl0d 

Saturday'.'... 7s8jd 7s8J 1 7s94d 7sl0d TslOd 

Monday 7s»Jd 7»9Jd 7si0d 7sl0jd 7sl0Jd 


The following are the prices for California cargoes 
for off coast, nearly due and prompt shipments: 

O. C. P. S. N. D. Market. 
Thursday . JWM S* 9 1 :,9s6(J Inactive. 
Frida\ 39-«d 39-9d 39 61 Firmer. 

Saturday S9«3ti 39 8d 39a3d Dull 

M.nday 39s3i 39..UJ 39,3d Firm. 


Eastern Grain Markets. 
The following shows the closing prices of wheat 
in New York: 

Dav J» n - Feb. Mav 

Thursday lOOJ .... 10ti, 

Friday 1«U 

Saturday 1015 .... 1W, 

Monday ™h 107} 

Tuesday — — 

The closing prices lor wheat have been as follows, 
at Chicago: 

Day Jan. Feb. Mav. 

Thursoay »»4 .... 105 

Fridav 99} .... 105* 

Saturday "01* 108* 

Monday 1018 .... 106| 

Tuesday • • 

New York, Jan. 2.— Wheat— $1.04 for cash, $1.- 
01 for Jan. and $1.06 for May. 

Chicago, Jan. 2.— Wheat— $1 for Jan., $i.oiK 
for Feb. and $1.05:; for May. 

Eastern Wool Market 

Boston, Dec. 28. — The demand for wool this 
week has not been very urgent, and there are no new 
features to report. Christmas holidays had much to 
do with small transactions, but aside from this man- 
ufacturers hive not been disposed to buy. Prices 
are very firm and no concessions can be obtained on 
any grade. Sales of all kinds foot up 2.753.500 tbs 
of both foreign and domestic. The largest sale was 
of 400,000 lbs of Fall California at fall prices. At- 
tention has been attracted by the publication of 
stocks on hand here, which are as follows: 4.107,- 
000 lbs fleeces; 2,317.000. pulled; 1,529,000 Califor- 
nia Spring; 800,000 ( alifornia Fall; 1,224.800 Ore- 
gon; 1,302.200 scoured; 3,758 300 Territory; 742,000 
Texas; 970,003 Kentucky. Georgia and Missouri; 
514,400 sundries; 65,000 Cape; 557,500 Austrian; 
415.000 Mediterranean; 218 500 Russian; 300,000 
East Indian; 135.500 English and Irish combing. 
Total, 18,856,200 Ibi — 17,165.100 lbs of domestic, 
1,691,000 lbs of foreign. These figures are consid- 
erably under those of last year, when the stock was 
30,277.000 lbs domestic and 1,556,000 foreign. The 
largest falling off is in Territory wool. 

New York, Dec. 28. — Wool is strong and quiet. 
Domestic fleeces, 30@38c. 

Philadelphia, Dec. 28. — Wool is firm and un- 


New York, Dec. 28. —The growing harmony in 
railroad rates has had a favorable influence upon the 
tone of trade. The season thus far has been ad- 
verse to the sale of woolen goods, but the production 
continues solid in price, favored by statistical con- 

Corn oil, a new venture, is in view here. 

Raisins are firm for prime and bunch. Low 
qualities are unmarketable. 

There is no change in evaporated or canned goods. 

Lima beans are quoted at $2.75. 

Light amber honey, if here, would be quoted at 
7)»c. The weather is unfavorable for any showing. 

Regarding the export of hops, all selected State 
tone up the market, but more of the same influence 
is needed to help rates right through. Still the in- 
quiry is acceptable after a long lull. Brewers rjive 
i8@2oc and get bargains from weak winter holders. 
Pacifies that bring 20c are thought to be well sold. 
The exports lor the week were 749 biles, and prices 
ranged as before. 

Local Markets. 

BAGS— The market is reported firm on the part 
of importers, but buyers are offish. Importers hold 
at last week's quotations. 

BARLEY — The market is without essential 
change. The inquiry is fair for all the better grades. 
On Call, futures hive been dealt in to only a limit- 
ed extent and at slight fluctuations. 

The following are to-day's Call Board sales: 

Morning Session: Buyer season— 100 tons, 9054c; 

100, go'/ic ctl. Afternoon Session: Buyer 1889 
- 100 tons, $f.55#; »*». $i-SSX; 400. $i-55*< 


BUTTER- Under heavy receipts and a strong 
selling pressure the market is weak at quotttions. 
There is very little Eastern to be had. 

CHEESE— The market is barely steady under a 
ght demand. The stock is light. 

EGGS— The market for choice ranch is firmer at 
an advance, 37&C being readily obtained to-day. 
The stock here is light, with light supplies looked 
for from the East. 

FLOUR— The market is steadier at the late de- 
cline. The demand is only fair. 

WHEAT — The market closed the old year strong, 
and opened the new year steady with a firm tone. 
Buyers appear more anxious, although talking the 
market down. On Call, futures have been quiet. 

The following are to-day's Call Board sales: 

Morning Session: Buyer 1889 — 100 tons, $1.55^; 
300, $1.55. Buyer season — 40010ns, $1.49^; 300, 
$i-49M; 900, $i.49K $ ctl. Afternoon Session: 
Buyer season — 600 tons, $1.49^; 100, $1.50 t)? ctl. 

Local Markets. 

The following tables give the highest and lowest 
prices paid on Call during the past week: 


B. '83. a S. B. '88. S. 89. Jan. 

Thursday i h 149 * 154 

mtUMay.... -J, 148} 152 

Fridav t h. 142ft 1491 163} 137J 

* ,ma} (I. 141} 148 152} 136J 

{*::<: " 8i }g| 

u:::: 1$ p :::: :::: 

Tuesday -[ h 


Buver Season. Buyer 1888. Buyer 1889 

H. L M. L. H. L. 

Thur-dav. . 90* 90* 79 7KJ 9tl 

Friday 90$ .... 78} 78 96 .... 

Saturday.... b9j 89} 78} 78 9«i . . . . 

Monday 90 89} 



Market Information. 


From the Mark Lane Express of December ioth, 
the following is culled: Extremely mild weather has 
prevailed during the past week throughout N. W. 
Europe, including the United Kingdom. The tem- 
perature in England has been higher than in Italy 
or Spain. Such climatic conditions are, of course, 
entirely abnormal, and cannot be expected to con- 
tinue, but during the period of their prevalence they 
necessarily exert an important influence on trade. 
The ordinary retail consumption of breadstuffs is 
certainly diminished, and this reacts powerfully 
upon the wholesale trade. Meanwhile the aspect of 
the country is very satisfactory, the wheat plant 
wherever above ground showing a vigoious plant of 
regular growth and exceedingly healthy color. The 
only danger is of too great precocity, but the colder 
touch which has been felt in the weather since Sat- 
urday morning may mark a change from conditions 
which, however pleasant, cannot in December be 
regirded as seasonable. The mild weather in 
Fiance has caused a rapid growth of the autumn 
wheat, but it has also led to insect pests appearing, 
as well as to an abundance of weeds; moderate frosts 
would therefore be welcome. 

An official report of the Agricultural Department 
contains a table showing that of the wheat exports con- 
tributed to the world's markets by the United States, 
Russia, India, Australia, and Argentine, the United 
States furnishes the following proportions: 

Per cent. 

Per cent. 

1884 40.34 

1885 35-44 

1886 47-97 

1880 69.13 

1881 55.70 

1882 49.78 

1883 34,86 

Of the wheat and flour supplies purchased by Great 
Britain, however, we furnished 35 per cent in 1871, 
65 per cent in 1880, and have since fallen as low as 
47 per cent, and again risen to 61 per cent in 1887. 
In the year last mentioned, while we furnished 61 % 
per cent, India furnished n\i per cent, Russia 7% 
per cent, British North America 6'A per cent, and 
other countries smaller proportions. The proportion 
furnished by the United States was greater in 1887 
than in any year since 1881, while Russia furnished 
only one-hall as much as in 1885. and India furnish- 
ed less than any year since 1883. 

The closing week of the year sustained its reputa- 
tion for general inactivity in cereals, although, com- 
pared with the like time in 1887, more trading was 
done in wheat. The only drawback to a larger volume 
of business was the stiff views entertained by holders. 
The Hatter's firmness necessitated, in some instances, a 
higher range of values to be paid so as to meet press- 
ing wants. With more settled weather it is claimed 
that buyers will be forced into the market at a still 
higher range of values. The exports so far this sea- 
son, with flour reduced to wheat, aggregate over 
500,000 tons, and the engaged tonnage in port, load- 
ing and to load, will require fully 80,000 tons more; 
this is independent of flour shipments. There can 
be no doubt but at the close of the season the carry- 
over stock will be considerably less than on July 1, 
1888. This knowledge causes holders to be firmer in 
their views than they otherwise would. 

Advices from the agricultural districts report that 
plowing has been light where the soil is heavy, but 
very extensive where the soil is loamy and of a sandy 
character. This latter has particular reference to the 
west side of the San Joaquin river. With settled 
weather there will be more general plowing in the 
sections where it is now nearly impossible to run 
plows. Patrons of this paper will confer a particu- 
lar favor in advising the writer, J. R. Farish, regard- 
ing the acreage seeded to grain and the outlook for 
more being put in. Address above, care of this 
office. . 

1 barley, the market the past week was quiet, 
but by those who are close students of the situation 
it is claimed that the nurket is working into good 
position for a higher range of values before th close 
of the year. The supply in this State of thee better 
grades of barley is light, but of poor to fair is large. 

The consumption, considering the improved pastur- 
age, is quite large; this is due to more farm work. 

O its are heavy under a moderate demand, large 
stocks here and liberal supplies to draw from. 

In corn, the market is reported to be dull and 
heavy, with buyers still favored. The stock here 
is large while the demand is slow. 

Rye is still reported t j be dull, with prices in buy- 
ers' favor. 

Buckwheat is without essential change. 


The New York Commercial Bulletin, Dec. 27th, 
says: Evaporated apples have been selling fairly 
well of late, and to-day some further operations have 
come to the surface. Sales have been made of some 
2000 cases prime, pirt lor export, and the remainder 
for home account, at 55i@5J4c, and at this range 
the market appears to rest upon a decidedly steadier 
basis. Exporters are beginning to exhibit more in- 
terest. The low prices and freer offerings of height 
room have combined to assist the foreign movement, 
and hopes are expressed that the same will continue 
so as to relieve the market and country of what is 
now generally acknowledged as a surplus stock. 
The consumption at present is very heavy, but the 
low prices of tne fresh fruit have stimulated packing 
to such an extent that from all sections come re- 
ports of an abundance, the quantity evaporated be- 
ing for the time lar in excess of trade requirements. 

Choice apples were in good demand for the holi- 
day trade, but at the close the inquiry is offish. 
Holders claim that the supply of choice apples on 
this coast is light, and therelore are not disposed to 
shade prices on good keepers. Poor, defective ap- 
ples are, as usual when compared with choice, in 
buyers' favor. The East continues to send freely to 
this market. 

.Some few strawberries came in the past week, and 
sold at the rate of $18 a chest. 

California oranges continue to increase in quan- 
tity and improve in quality. 1 he high prices still 
ruling, compared with foreign, are against their sell- 
ing readily, but as the foreign will soon be out of 
market, the trade will be forced to confine itself to 
home production. Free shipments are being made 
up North. The crop is now conceded to be not 
only larger than that of last season, but also of bet- 
ter quality. 

Limes and lemons are without essential change. 
Receipts are free, while the demand is only fair. 

In dried fruits there is absolutely nothing new to 
report. Heavy shipments to the East on consign- 
ment have done much in creating a heavy and un- 
certain market there. Holders of the more choice 
grades of all kinds express confidence in the future, 
and so far as can be ascertained, are not willing to 
accept lower figures to effect sales. The supply of 
poor to fair is said to be quite large. Shipments 
overland are reported to have been very heavy in 
last month, considering the large shipments hereto- 
fore made. 

Raisins are quiet, but not more so than holders 
expected. The supply of choice on this coast is very 
light; even that of fair to good is not Urge for the 
season. The pack is estimated by G. W. Meade & 
Co. at 915,000 boxes, but other authorities place it 
at 1,000,000 to 1,100,000 boxes. The writer's re- 
turns make it a little over 1,000,000 boxes. 


Hay continues steady, with a strong tone for the 
more choice. The demand is not urgent, owing to 
a prevailing impression that after the roads are in 
better condition, farmers' deliveries will increase, 
causing more of a selling pressure than for some 
time past. The consumption continues quite free, 
although not as large as up to December. 

Ground feed is without essential change. Receipts 
are not large, but then the demand is less. 


With more settled weather and improved roads it 
is claimed that there will be heavier offerings of 
bullocks and mutton sheep. In view of this there is 
a disposition to shade prices on bullocks. Hogs are 
in good demand. The eitablishing of a large smoke- 
house in this city by the Armour Packing Company 
makes it quite certain that there will be a stronger 
competition for hogs. Milch cows are wanted lor 
Inth dairy and family. Prices are hard to get cor- 
rectly, being governed largely by the wants of buy- 
ers. In horses there is nothing new to report. 

The market for dressed meat is quoted as follows 
by slaughterers to butchers (to get the price of stock 
on foot, tike off one third of the price for stall and 
grain fed and one-half from the price of grass fed, 
that is animals running at large). 

HOGS — On foot, grain fed, 6H@6#c lb.; 
dressed, 8}^@9C t? lb.; soft, 5 !4@6c # lb. ; dressed, 
7«@8Kc «? lb. Stock hogs, 4@5C lb. 

BEEF— Stall fed, 8@8!4c $ lb.; grass fed, extra, 
7%@— 1? lb.; first quality, 6@7C # It).: second 
quality 4 K (§6 ^ lb. ; third quality, 4@sc ijr lb.; 
fourth, 3(i(4C $ lb. 

VEAL— Small, 8@ioc large. 6® 8c. 

MUTTON— Wethers, 6%@yc (? lb.; ewes, 6 
@6J4 c lb. ; lamb, spring, 7@9c ffr lb. 


Green peas and fresh tomatoes continue to come 
to hand from the southern part of the State. The 
weather in many sections of the State has been pe- 
culiarly favorable to early vegetables, and without 
some unexpected radical change for the worse in the 
weather, a large crop of garden vegetables, and 
much earlier than in 1888, is assured. 

Cabbages are moving off fairly well at current 
quotations. It is claimed that early in this year 
there will be quite a demand from the central mar- 
kets, with a strong probability that the overland 
shipments herein will equal last year's. 

In root vegetables, there is nothing new to report. 

Potatoes are without essential change. There have 
been free arrivals of poor, which to be marketed had 
to be offered at low prices. Some received are said 
to have been unfavorably affected by cold, frosty 
weather. This refers more particularly to receipts 
from Oregon. 

Onions continue in buyers' favor, under h~avy 
receipts. The demand is chiefly for the more choice 


The market continues very strong, with a light stock 
here and a good demand. On yesterday. Tuesday, 
a new overland freight tariff went inio effect. This 
advance is probably due to the market going up at 
the East, as the railroads want the cream of all that 
is going. By the new rate iKc per pound is 

charged on grease wool and 3c on scoured to New 
York, Bjslon and common points. There have 
been three changes dunng the year in overland 
freight rates on wool. In January last the rate was 
fixed at i}4c per pound on grease wool and ac on 
scoured. The rate in March was altered to ajic 
per pound for scoured, and i^c for grease costing 
over 12c per pound, 1 ; , 1 lor wools at 12c and under. 
In September there was a reduction in grease wool 
freights to ijfc, regardless of valuation, the rate on 
scoured remaining unchanged. 

From the Commercial News ol Jan. ist, the fol- 
lowing summary of tonnage movement is compiled: 
1889. 1 868. 

On the way to this port 184 394 268 708 

On the way lo neighboring polls 37,540 48,109 

In port, disengaged 22,706 97.306 

In port, engiged for wheat.... 54,981 21,977 

Totals 299,621 436,190 

To get the carrying capacity, add 60 per cent to 

the registered tons as given above. 
From July 1st 10 Jan. ist, the following are the 

exports from this port: 

1889. 1888. 

Wheat, ctls 7.597."57 4.835.7'7 

Hour, bbls 351,733 362.089 

Barley, ctls 1,061,698 373.590 

Heavy receipts of poultry, with California and 
Eastern, caused some shading in values. Some of 
the dressed received overland had to be sold 
for the best piices obtainable; choice fetched fair 
prices. The market to-day is somewhat unset led 
and hard to quote correctly. 

Wild game has been off -ring quit J freely, but then 
the demand was good, which kept prices fairly well 

Hops are dull, but not more so than usual at the 
close of the year. As the supp'y on the coast is 
light, it is claimed that values will n it g > lower. 

Choice beans can be sold to good advantage, but 
poor and indifferent are hard to place. 

Choice mustard is in good demand, but poor is 

Fruit s and Vegetables. 

Extra choice In good packages fetch an advance on top 

quotations, while very poor grabs sell less than tbe lower 
quotations. tVKDKaSDAY, Jan. 2. 1889. 

Apples, bx, com 65 ffl 90 do Rune Peru. — ft* — 

do Choice .... 1 00 1 1 50 do B. Hauib'g —Of _ 

Apricots, be... — & — do Muscats... - ft* — 

do Royals lb. — @ — doM.laga.... - ftf - 

Bananas, hunch 2 '25 ft* 'i 25 do Tokays — ft* — 

Blackberries, cb - 9 — do Oonuobon. — @ — 

Cherries, wh, bx — @ — do I«al>el!a ... — @ — 

do black, bx . . — (j* — OotmoM, ton. . — (• — 

do Royal Add — @ - Mi.siou do — & — 

Cranberries 10 00 i.erl2 00 N.-ctariues, bx.. — ta - 

Currants ch — & — Wa'ttnel'lie. 100. — @ — 

Qo .sebiTries lb. — @ - Cauteloupes, cr. — @g — 
Limes, Mex, 5 '0 (5 6 00 VKUETABLE8. 

Lemous.1 al. bx 2 50 frf I 00 Asparagus bx . . . "i — 

do Sic 1). DO*, 1 50 (it fi no do cxtacholoe - & 

Orauges.Comhx 1 75 fit 2 2S Okra. dry. lb . . 15 6) 15 

do Choice 3 on ut 3 25 do Green bx. . — fit — 

do Navels I'arai.ips. ctl 1 00 fi? 1 25 

choice I 00 (a 5 .71 lV|ipera, dry, lb. 8 fi» 10 

do do Com. . . 2 50 «x 3 SO do green, bx. . - @ 
Persimmons, It.. 21"f 5 Squash, Hum- 

i^ujnces, bx — <a — mer, bx — <i* — 

Peaches, bi com — 8 — doM'r'w-fattnl3 00 @15 00 

do E.\ cb'ce, bx - W — String beaus, lb. — & — 

Hile'sE.uly. bx. — W — Turnips, ctl 1 i"0 <3> — 

Pineapples, doz. i £0 (a 5 50 Beets, sk 1 00 fi? — 

Raspberries ch . . — W — iCabbsge, 100 lbs 50 ft* 60 

Strawberries ch. — ft* — Carrots, sk 30 @ 50 

Pears, bx — l<* — 'Green Corn, cr. — i@ — 

do Choice.... — ft* — Green Peas, lb.. — ft* — 

Plums. 6* lb — ft* - Sweet Pea., lb. . — ft* — 

Prunes, trench. — id — Mushrooms, tt... 5 @ 25 
Fiis, black, bx.. — (ft — Khulia b bx. . . . & 

do white, bx. - @ — Cucumbers, bx. - & — 

Gra|ies, per box. G tflic, lb — @ — 

do Swtwater. — ft* — Tomatoes, rv., bx — @ — 

Dried Fruits, Etc. 

The q'iotat r nns given below are for average prices paid. 
Choice to extra choice fetch an advance on tbe highest quo- 
tations while poor sells slUbtly below the lowest quotations. 

Prices named for sun-dried are fur fruit in sacks. Add 

for 5u-lt>. lioxes i.c iter lb., ajd for 25- lb boxes ic to lc per lb. 

Apples, suu-dried, quarters, common 21ft* 31 

prim. 3}(a 41 

" " " choice 4tft* 

sliced, common Z\*a 

" " prime 4lft* 

" choice 5 ft* 

" F.vap. bleached, ring. 541-lb boxes 6 ft* 

Anricots. sun-dried, unbleached, common 4 5$ 

■" prime 5l*» 6{ 

eh loe 6,<j» 7 

bleached, prime 11 It 

• boioe 1J ft* 13 

fancy 13K<» 15 

" Evap. choice. In boxes 14 ft* 15 

" ' fancy, " 16 ft* 17 

Figs, suu-dried, back - ftj — 

" whit« — ft* - 

" " " washed — ft* — 

" " " f»ncy - ft* — 

" " " pressed 4 ft* 5 

" " " unpreased 2 (a 

Grapes, sun-dried, stemless .... 3 ft? 4 

" " unstemmed 2Jftr 3 

Nectarines, suu-dried 4 ft* 9 

" evaporated, in boxes 7 ft* 10 

Peaches, suu-dried, impeded, oouimon 4 ft* 5 

11 " prime 66* - 

choice 6Jft* - 

" " " fancy 7 <g 8 

evajiorated " choice 10 ft* 11 

" " " fancy 13 ft» 14 

" suu-dried, peeled, prime 12 ft* - 

'• " " ebolea 13 ft* 

" " " fancy 15 ft* 

" evaporated, " in boxes, choice 14Jft> 

" " " fancy 16 ft* 

Pears, sun-dried, quaite s 3 ft* ' 5 

sliced 4ft» 5 

" evaporated, in boxe* tg , — 

" ting M — ft* — 

Plums, pitted, suu-dried 4 ft* 6 

" " evap. in boxes, choice — ft* — 

" " " l.iney — ft* — 

" nnpitted, 1J « 2 

Prunes, Cal. French, ungraded s'zes 6 @ 6 

'• " graded " 90 o MO .. 4 ft* 4) 

" •• 8" to 90 41 a 5 

" " T0t<. 5® S« 

" •' 60 to 70. . . . 5!« 6 

" " 50 to 60 6 «* 6J 

Fancy sells for more money. 


Comb, dark, 2 lb frames, 60-tb caaea, *l lb. ..... . 8 <g 9 

amber, " " 0*. new " in ft* 11 

white " 121® 131 

Extracted, dark, 5-gal. cans, 2 cans to case, lb. 5 fif 5( 

" amber, " " " . 54ft* 6 

white, " " . 6 ft* 6t 

Comb, 2-tlns, 2 doz. to ease, >> doz $3 75 

Extracted, " " S z5 

" 4-lb tins, 1 doz. " 4 75 


Halves, quarter* and eighths, 28, 60 and 76 cents higher 

respectively than whole box prices. 

London Layers, choice > M f J 80 (3 3 00 

" fancy, " 2 10 @ i 25 

Jan. 5 1889.] 



Layers, if) bx 1 60 @ 1 70 

Loose Muscatels, common, bx 1 35 <<» 1 40 

•' choice, " 1 55 @ 1 70 

" fancy " 1 70 @ 1 90 

Unstemmed " in sack', $ tb 4J@ 5 

Stummed " " " 5 @ 51 

Seedless " V " I (to I 

" * 20-Ib bx ... 1 00 @ - 

" Sultanas, unlileached, in bxs !• II.... :.'.•.» 61 
" " bltachcd " "... — @ 

Domestic Produce. 

Extra choice in good packages fetch an advance on top 
quotations while very poor grades sell leeis than the lower 


Bayo, ctl 2 30 @ 2 75 

Butter 2 50 <g 3 01 


Pink. . 
Large White 
Smell White 
Lima. . . 

Fid Peas.blkeye 1 60 
do grfen ..... 1 60 

2 00 <g 2 15 

2 00 @ 2 35 

2 25 8» 2 50 

- ® - 

1 90 @ 2 15 

Wednesday. Jan. 2, 1889, 

Soft shell 10 @ 12 

Paper shell... 14 & 15 

Brazil 8 @ 10 

Pocaua 10 @ 17 

Peanuts 4 ft* 6 

Filberts 10 @ 12 

Hickory 5 @ 8 


3 25 to 3 50 lEarly Rose 35 @ 50 

" 1 80 Chile 50 to 65 

1 75 Peerless 40 ft* 60 

45 @ 75 

River Reds 30 to 50 

Burbanks 40 ft* 85 

(Julfey Cove.... 50 ft* 80 

Sweet 50 @ 1 00 


Hens, doz 5 00 ft* 7 00 

Roosters 5 50 (3 8 00 

iBroilers 3 50 ft* 4 50 

22}, Ducks, tame.... 6 00 ft* 9 00 

— Geese, pair 2 00 ft* 2 50 

— do Goslings. . . — @ — 
20 (Turkeys, Gobl'r. 16 ft* 19 
26J Turkeys, Hens. . 13 J@ 20 

> gri _ 

do 1 25 ft* 1 45 IJeraey Blues. 

South'n $ ton.. 60 00 ft*80 00 

Northem 60 00 @80 00 


California 5 @ 6 

German 61® 7 



OaL Com. to fair, lb 20 to 

do good to choice 25 @ 

do Fancy br'uds 27jft* 

do pickled. ... 15 ft* 
Eastern in tubs. 20 ft* 
do in rolls.... 25 ft* 30 10 ft* 14 
Eastern style... 12; <t 14} 

Cal. ranch, doz. 32t@ 36 

do. store 25 ft* 30 

Eastern 20 ft* 274 


Bran, ton 15 00 tol6 50 

Feed meal 28 00 ft( 2!) 00 

Gr'd Barley 19 00 ft*20 00 

Middlings 17 00 ft»!8 F0 

Oil Cake Meal . .30 00 ft*31 00 


Wheat, per ton. 10 00 ft*14 59 
Wheat and Outs 10 00 5M4 00 

Wild Oats 11 00 ft*13 00 

Clover 11 00 W13 00 

Tame Oats ....Id 00 ft*13 50 

Barley 8 00 toll 50 

Barley and Oats 10 00 @12 00 
Alfalfa, 8 00 tolO CC 

Straw bale 55 @ 65 

Extra, CityMills 4 75 ft* 4 85 
do Oo'try Mills 4 50 ft* 4 75 

Superfine 3 50 4 00 

Barley, feed, ctl. 72Jto S1J 

do dressed 20 ft* 22} 
Rabbits, doz.... 1 00 ft* 1 25 

Hare 1 75 O 2 25 

Quails 1 00 ft* 1 50 

Mallards 3 50 to 4 50 

Sprigs 1 50 @ 2 00 

Teal 1 25 to 2 00 

Small ducks .... 1 00 ft* 1 75 
Cauvashack.... 4 00 ft* 6 00 

Gray geese 3 00 ft* 3 50 

Brant 1 25 ft* 2 00 

Cal. Bacon, 

Heavy, lb 12 ft* 15 

Medium 13 ft* 14 

Light 13 to 14 

Extra Light.. 14 ft* 15 

Laid 11 ft* 12 

Cal. SmVdBeef llift* 121 

Hams, Cal 15Jto 16| 

do Eastern ... 17 @ — 

12 O 
12 ft* 



Clover, Red . . . 

White 20 ft* 

Cotton 20 <§ 




Perennial . 

do Brewing... 90 ft* 95 [Millet, German, 
do do Choice. . 97ift* 1 05 do Common.. 
Chevalier ence 1 30 ft* I 40 MuBtard, yellow 
do com to good 1 10 ft* 1 20 do Brown .... 

Buckwheat 2 75 ft* 3 25 iRape 

Corn, White.... 1 U7ift* 1 17} Ky. Blue Grass. 

Yellow 1 07}© 1 15 

Oats, milling.... 1 20 @ — 
Choice feed 1 17J@ 1 18j 

do good 1 15 

2d quality 
Sweet V. Grass. 

10 ft* 
7 @ 
5 @ 
5 ft* 


14 ft* 
13 @ 
75 ft* 

Orchard 14 ft* 16 

do fair 1 10 ft* - 

do Gray 1 05 (3 — 

Rye 1 75 ft* 1 85 

Wheat, milling. 
Gilt edged.... 1 5!}ft* 1 53J|Crude, lb 

do Choice 1 50 ft? — 

do fair to good 1 45 ft* 1 47} 
Shipping, cho'ce 1 431ft* 1 4i 

do good. I 4l};<* 1 42} 

do fair 1 37}ftj 1 40 


Dry 13 ft* 14 

Wet salted 5 ft* 6 


Oregon 12}ft* 17} 

California 12}ft* 17! 


Red — ft* - 

Silver-skin 30 ft* 60 

NUTS - Jobbing. 
Walnuts, Cal. lb 7 ft* 9 

do Chile 13 ft* - 

Almonds, hd shl. 5 ft* 7 





Mesquit. . . , 


3 O 

Refined 6 @ 

sniiNo -1888. 
Humboldt and 
Mendocino. ... 

Sac'to valley 

Free Mountain. 
S Joaquin valley 
do mountain. 
Cala'v & F'th ll. 
Oregon Eastern, 
do valley 


8o'n Coast, def. . 
So'n Coas*. free. 

San Joaquin 

Mountain, free. 

6 @ 8 

18 ft* 
15 ft? 
18 ft* 

n <a 

13 ft* 
15 ft* 
21 ft* 
10 ft* 

15 to 

California Products at Chicago. 

Chicago, Jan. 2. — Of California fruits there are 
some Easier Beurre pears left and sell in a small 
way at $3.25(0)3.50 $ box. 

Trade in California dried fruits, which ruled so 
active during the fall, became suddenly quiet late in 
the year, with the quietness attributed to stock-tak- 
ing and other causes calculated to make the produce 
markets quiet around the holidays. Stocks are 
heavy and prices are very reasonable for all lines, 
and holders have no doubt but that the period of 
dullness latelv experienced will soon pass. As yet a 
steady feeling prevails, with quotations as follows: 

Apricots — Evaporated, bxs, 15c; bleached, bxs, 
14c; do, sun-dried, sks, o@ioc. Peaches — New, 
bleached, unpeeled, 854@toc; do, peeled, bxs, 14(a) 
15c; do, sun-dried, sks, unpeeled, 6X@7c; do, new, 
evaporated, unpeeled, io@iic. Nectarines — While, 
bxs, 9@i2c; do, red, bxs, 8@nc; do red to white, 
sks, 7@ioc. Plums, new, pitted, o@ioc; new do, 
unpitted, 4@7c; Prunes, according to size, in sks, 
5@oc; Silver, io@i3C. 

Raisins— Loose Muscatels, old, box, $; 
do, new, $i.30@i.6o; London layers, new, $2.25® 

Beans are just about steady. The market has 
been ruling quiet for some time, but as the holiday 
season is now passed an increase in business is 
looked for. Current prices are as follows: Cali- 
fornia pea beans, $i.o5@2. Lima beans, California, 

ft, 4#c. 

When completed, the dam across the Ameri- 
can river at Folsom will contain over 20,000 
cnbic yards of masonry of the heaviest kind to 
be found on the coast. The water will fall over 
it from a hight of 56 feet. That volume of 
power which the State proposes to utilize in the 
prison manufactures and for lighting by elec- 
tricity and other purposes will be about (100- 
horse power. The company which is superin- 
tending the enterprise, however, will have at 
command at least 5000 horse power. It is in- 
tended by the projectors of the scheme to trans- 
mit a large volume of this power, by means of 
electricity, to Sacramento, there to be utilized 
in driving the machinery of factories and mills 
and also for electric lighting. Besides furnish- 
ing the great volume of power for Sacramento's 
industries, the water company will irrigate 
about 50,000 acres of land. 



Bed Bluff. 


8. Fraud sco. 



Los Augeles. 

s»an Diego 





















Dec. 26-Jan. 1. 









rather.. | 




gather. . 











eather. . 








eatber . . 

































































































































































































































































< 'm 













1 04 

1 60 

1 4J 





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Explanation.— "1. for clear; Cy., cloudy; Fr., fair; Fy., foggy; Cm., calm; — iudicates too small to me wire. Tnupe'-a'.ure, wind and weather at 12: JU M. (Pacific Standard timel 
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DEWEY & CO.. Publishers, 
No. 220 Market Street, San Francisco. 

The coal we receive from Baltimore under 
the name of Cumberland is largely used by 
ironmongers, instead of coke, though they use 
both. From 1870 to 1873, our receipts of Cum- 
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from 2200 to 9800 tons per annum. Since 1874 
we have been receiving larger supplies of that 
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were 11,400 to 16,172 tons per annum, or 54,- 
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In 1878 the imports were only 9900 tons, and 
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A few tons Apricot and Peach Seed. Persona having 
such for sale address immediately, S. M. A., Box 2361, 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Poultry and Stock Book 

Niles's new 
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r e f e r e nee 
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A New Edition, over 100 pages, profusely illustrated with 
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book for the orcliardist (in prena ration). 

and brief dem:ri)>tions, by I. Bleasdale, D. I). Invalu- 
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the growth of this fruit. It contains full instructions 
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A practical treatise full of useful hints for beginners in 
this State; 20 pages. Pamphlet, price 25 cents. 

annual conventions have resulted in bringing out the 
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growth of different fruit* in this St<»te. The subjects 
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By Prof. Hilgard, 138 large pages, bound in stiff cloth, 
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Ni'lES^STOCK AND POULTRY BOOK— Pamphlet, giv- 
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State; 120 pages, post-paid for 60 cents. 

EASES— Post-paid for 25 cents. 



By F. S. BURCH. 



3,000 PERGHER0N \ 

French Coach horses, 




of serviceable age. 
150 COLTS 
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35 Fine Engravings showing 
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by mall to any address. DEWEY St CO., 
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Nevadillo Blanco, Picholine 

And Other New Varieties. 

One to three feet high. 
JOBN COOKE, Nurseryman and Florist, 

East Berkeley, Alameda Co., Cal. 

Injurious Insects of the Orchard, Vineyard 
Field, Garden, Conservatory, etc-, 


Remedies for their Extermination. 

Late Chief Executive Horticultural Officer of California. 
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in the subjects treated. It is designed to convey practi- 
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Price $4, postpaid. For sale by Dewey & Co., publish- 
ers, 220 Market St., San Francisco. 


1358-1360 MARKET ST. S.'E 





Persons having s uch for sale address immediately, 
S M. A., Box 2361, 

San Francisco, Cal. 

The German Savings and Loan Society, 

526 California Street. 

For the half-year ending December 31, 188S. a dividend 
has been declared at the rate of five and one-tenth (5 1-10) 
per cunt per annum on Term Deposits, and four and one- 
fourth (4J) per cent per annum on Ordinary Deposits. 
Payable on and after Wednesday, January 2, 1889. 

GEO. TOURNY, Secretary. 

GALT POULTRY YARDS, S. W. Palin, prop'r, 
Gait, Sac'to Co., Cal., importer and breeder of thor- 
oughbred Ply, liocks, Lt. Brahmas, Langshans, Wyan- 
dottes & P. Cochins; eggs, single sitting S3, 3 sit'gs »7| 

JERSEYS— The Best Herd, all A. J. C. Registered, is 
owned by Henry Pierce, San Francisco. 



[Jan. 5, 1889 

Seeds, Mapts, fee. 


All Fresh, Hardy, Healthy Stock. 

Transplanted Cypress, to 10 inches high, in boxes of 
100 ear'i, at *2 |*'r KO; 8 to 15 inches, of 70 per box, or 
10 to 16 inches, of 60 per box, at »2 per box. Monterey 
Pines, 8 to 12 inche", of 70 to SO per box. at $3 per 100; 
12 to 18 in' lies, of «0 pe' bnx, at $4 p r 100. Acacia Me- 
lanoxvlon (Yellow Bloouiins Kvcrurcen), 1 to It fret, of 
20 to 80 i er >-ox at per 100; H to 2 feet at «7 50 per 
100- 2 to 3 eet, at S10 per 100. Blue and Red Gutn Trees 
of ill -tan an prices. Ala" seeds ot the above kin s. 
All goods deliverfd free to shippinir point and forwarded 
in flrBt-class condition Send D a'ts, Postal Orders or 
Noies to OKO R. BAILEY, Park Xurserv, Berkeley, Cal. 

WHITE ADR'ATIC FIG Trees & Cuttings. 

Kreiao-Grnwn Tahiti Orange 
s<. fillings. 




At Reasonable Rates 

Whi'e Adriatic Vigs grown ard packed by me f w ra'e 
hj Goldberg, B wen & Co., S F .aud TiUsnnu ft Bendel, 
8. r. 

M. n^NinK*. 



Nursery and Fruit Farm, 

Lodi, C/i l . 

JAUE3 A. ANDERSON, Manager. 



Shrubs, Vines etc., both who'esale and tetail at 
Lowest Rates. 
SPECIALTIES -Nonpareil Almonds I X L Almonds 
Royil Apiicots. Fiench Prunes, Banletf Pears, Chok-d 
Ptaches in variety. Catalogues on app ication. 


120 Sutler St., San Francisco. 


(See Rural Prrbs of Feb. 12, 1887, page 125.) Accli- 
mited Trees now In our various nurseries for cale. 


Fend for our New Catalogue. Mailed Free 




Shipped to California K-t season and arrived in good 
condition. All the leading varieties. Largest stock in 
Florida. Send for Illustrated Catalogue. Special prices 
lo large lots. 

Palm SprlDga, Orange Co., Fla. 
Altamonte Nurseries. 


Oriental and Nouthern Fruit*, many uf which 
are adapted t^ti e exrrewe South aud oth*r* farther North. 
The largest «t ck of Peach and Plum Trefs ever fTOWU in 
Florida, in^lu-'ing ruauy varieties o' extremely early ultra 
Southern PeaelK-p* of Oriental 

l*lum«. A fml line Of Olives, Firs, Apricot*, Pecans, 
.Tap.n Persimmons and other fruits. The MntMuma 
Oranyf is tin' hardieft kuowo variety and one of the best. 
Send stamp for Illu»tratt;d Catalogue, Price List and Mail- 
ing List. Mention this paper. Addr *s. <J. 1*. TABEK, 
t^len. hi Miirv. linker Co.. Florldn. 



The best kind for Shipping and Canning. 
General assortment of all kinds of 




Also, a large stock ot imported Fruit Tree 8» odlings, 
Apple, Pear, Myrobolan Plum and Mazzard Oheny. 
A large stock of dormant buds, heavv-rootcd. 

Send for prices. 


Marysville, Oal. 

Formerly of Martinez, Cal. 

In am: Wbstcott. 






Grass, Farm and Garden Seed*, Plants, 
Trees and Bulbs in Stock. 

Correspondence Solicited. Catalogues Free. 

406 & 408 Sansome St , San Francisco, Cal. 



Probably a native of Klunath K'ver, California, is 
found growing on the bars and its hankB up to high 
water mark. The seed having been deposited by the 
freshets, grows among the cohb'es in the gravel, slick- 
ens and sand; yields an immense amount of feed for 
stock, and attains a hight of 10 to 12 feet. For particu 
lars, information, samples and seed, apply to 

THOS. A. COX & CO., 

41 1 Sansome St , - San Francisco. 


Budded on 3-year-old Trectt and 3 years' 
£roath from hud. 


Apples and Pears- 
Ornamental and Shade Trees : 

fatalpa Sreciosa, Silver-Leaved Maple, Box Elder or 
Meguudo M . ' alifornia Srft Map'e, Birch, L< mhardy 
Pop a-, Pepper Trees in boxes and pot", two varietieH 
Pi to«porum, Red Quin, Cypres", Montrrey Pine. Ri'ses 
and Shrubs. Calif >rriia "an Pa mi, whol-sale and rct il. 

(*. TOSETT1. San Leardro, Cal. 

Choicest lot ever presented for sale— feed- 
less, thin skin most delicious flavor 
and true to name- 

To Nurserymen in lots 1000 ro 10 000 or up 

To Farmers in lota 100 to 1000 or up 

To Uwdem rs in lots 1 diz. to 100 or up 

SPECI AL LOW KATES, according to number 
which defy c mpetiti >n and surprise every one, as all 
mus- be sold w thin 30 days. Correspond or send ordecs 
immediately and not lose this opportunity. 

Importer and Dealer in Seeds .v >1 proprietor of the 

lmprnvMtl Egg; Food, 
425 Washington St, Pan Francisco 


Seed Merchant. 


Onion Sets, Grass, Clover, Vegetable 
and Flower Seeds. 

Largest Stock and Most Complete Assortment. 

Illustrated des rintive and priced serd catalogue for 
1SH9, the most, elaborate and valuable of its kind of any- 
Pacific Cuast publ cation, mailed free to all applicants 
Addres : E. J. BOWEv, 

Hi 5 & 817 Sansome (St., Sao Francisco, 
Or 65 Front St , Por'l»nd, Or. 



Capital Nurseries, Sacramento, Cal. 

Innfl finn °' t' 1 *** 1168 * Trees ever offered on this Coast, in lota to suit, at lowest market rates, A com 
iUUU.UUU pletc aaaortment of Prunes, Plums. Apricots, Almond, Peach. Nectarine, Apple. Pear, Cherry, 
Orange, Lemon, Olive. Cirapevines Berry Plants. Shade and Ornamental Trees, Miruhbery, Fluwerinir Hants, etc.; 
in -act. everything to be found in a first-class Nursery We would cill special attention to our immense stock of 
Orange and Lemon Trees. Extra fine stock of all the best known varieties, positively fee fiom Insect Pests. 
These fine Trees will he sold, either wholesale or reta'l, cheaper than ever before on thiB Coast. We can 
also supply any desired quantity of Magnolia Orandiflora Trees very cheap. 

We are better prepared thin season to supply all kinds of Nursery Stock than ever before. See our Sto^k and 
conn are it with other-* before placing your order*, or correspond with us. 8PKCIAL TE!l\*N GIVEN ON URGK 
OKDEkh, e pe tally on Orange, Lemon and Magnolia Trees. We woul j also call t-pecial attention to our unusuady 
large end complete assortment of all kinds of 


Kvery kind and class of the best and freshest Seeds, both wholesale and retail, vary low; also a complete rtock of 
Flowering Bulbs. 8«n«l for on r N«w Illustrated Seed and Tree C»'»lneu«. It i' 'he duct and 
most complete book of the kind we have ever issued. Sent free on applicatitn. Address all communications to 

W. R. STRONG & OO., Sacramento, Oal. 



trf ft? rnf 

— roK— 

Cheapness and Dura, 


Cannot be Torn. Any- 
body can pat It on. 

No Coal Tar^ Ho Odoi. 


Cattlemen, Ranchmen 
and Settlers. 


310 California St.. San Francisco. 

FRUIT TREES! \ Fished isaa { FRUIT TREES! 


Agency of CALIFORNIA NURSERY CO., Niles, Alameda Co., Cal. 

We have now (or sale at Lowest Market Rates the Largest, Be t Selected and Healthiest Stock of 

Fruit Trees, Grapevines, Olives, Small Fruits, Etc., Etc. 

Ever offered on the Pacific Coast, Including all the new varieties, all grown on new land at the above 
Nursery and free from scale and other pests. Samples o( the trees always on hand. 

Seeds ! Seeds ! Seeds ! 


Grass, Clover, Vegetable, Flower and Tree Seeds, 

And Ornamental Trees and Plants, Bulbs. Roses, Magnolias, Palms, etc , 

it i,i i w km k at its. New Catalogue (or 1888 mailed on application. 

p o. box 2059. THOS. MEHERIN, 516 Battery Street, 




Send, (or Catalogue. Mailed Iree. 
1426- 1428 bU Louis Ave., Kansas City, Mo. 



Established 186a 


French Walnuts, Home-grown Oranges and Rooted Grapevines. 

Illustrated Catalogue and Price List (or the season ot 1387-88 free to all sending (or them. All Trees, Vines, 
etc, guaranteed (ree (rom scale and other injurious pests. A certificate ot inspection furnished to all. 
A (ull line o( Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Vines and Hothouse Plants. 

E. O. CLOWES, Proprietor 

(Successor to W. a WE8T), 

Stockton, CaL 


460 ACRES. 






White Adriatic Fig, Ten Tested Varieties of Table Figs, Olives, 
Pomegranates, and also a Fine Collection of Palms, 
Roses and Oleanders. 

tS" A five-pound box of White Adriatic Figa sent by express prepaid to any address on 
receipt of $1.50. Send f or Fall Catalogue and wholesale price list. Address all letter* to 

F. R0EDING, Proprietor, Fresno, Cal. 







Fruit Trees, Olives. Oranges and Lemons, Nut Trees, 

Wine and Table Grapes, Berry Plants, Shade Trees, 

Evergreens, Shrubs, Roses, Etc., Etc. 



Nilos, Alameda Co., Oal. 

Jan. 5, 1889.] 


Seeds, Wants, fee. 


FOR 1889. 

Great Reduction in Prices. 


The Best Orange Tiees are now within the 
reach of all planters. Genuine Riverside 
Washington Novels, of our own budding, and 
other vari. ties at ab' ut one-half usual pricec. 
Orange orchards $300 to $403 an acr . Orange 
and Vineyard lands at low prices. 
Send for Circulars. 





Established 1853. 

Cypress, Pine & Gum Trees 

All Transplanted, from lj to 3j feet high. 


I3f Samples can be reen at our store. 

We have always on hand a large sur-ply of the Choicest 
Hardy Grown Grass, Clover, Vegetable and Tree Seeds 
direct from our farm. 

^"Catalogues free by mail on application. 

409 & 411 Davis St., San Francisco. 

Fine Small Fruits a Specialty. 


Firm and Luscious, stands travel finely, bears im 
menselv. and has two crops a year; 76 certs per d zn; 
83 per 100. Also Strawberries, Blackberries, Goose ber 
ries, Cu. rants, etc., of the flneot imported varieties. 
Prices on application. Li. U. Mc JANN, 

S^rra Cruz, Oal. 






Importers of Australian and Japanese 
Seeds and Plants. Holland Bulbs. 

New Crop ESPERSETTE (Sainfoin) 
tf Catalogue free by mail. 


41 1. 413. 415 Sansome St . San Fran co. 


25,000 PEAR TREES, 

One and two > eare, Bartlett, Howell. Beu re CJIMrve u, 
Winter Nells' and othe- s Ali*o a general assprtme r. ol 
Apples, Oherri>8, Peaches, Plums, eta Piices furnished 
on application. Address, 


Peialuma. Cal. 


Five pounds and over, $1 per pound; less than five 
pounds, $1 SO per pound. 

Vitis Californica Seedlings. Phylloxera Pi oof. 

$10 per 1000. 

P. 0. Box 8. [Mlddletown, Lake Co. , Cal. 


— THE — 

Larges Slock of Trees in 
the State. 

The only Fig that, should be 
planted for Drying. 








Cherries, Nectarines, 




i hade Trees and Ornamen- 
tal Shrubs, 

Greenhouse Plants, Roses, Etc 

A complete assortment of Routed 
Orai es and Cuttin-.'S. All trees war- 
lan'ed free from Scale or Aphis. 

iarCatnlogue free. 

W. M. Williams & Co. 

Box 176. 

425 1 1th St., Oakland, Cal. 


Established 1865, 

Watsonville, Santa Cruz Co., Cal. 


Apple, Pear, Cherry, Plum, Peach, 

Apricot and Nectarine, Nut and 

Shade Trees, Wine and Table Grapes, 

Strawberry and Raspberry Plants, Etc. 

We would most respectfully inform the public that our Treps are grown on the very best of 
land without irrigation. Having 50 acred in Strawberries and Raspberries, we can supply the 
best of plants in large quantities. 

*3TSend for Catalogues and Price List to 

JAMES WATERS, Proprietor, 

Watsonville, Santa Cruz Co., Cal. 




Comprising all the Leading and Desirable Varieties 


Olives, Oranges, Persian Walnuts, Deciduous and 
Evergreen Ornamental Trees, 



Seed and Tree Catalogues on application. 

TRUMBULL & BEEBE. 419 & 421 Sansome St.. S. F. 

Come, Fellow Farmers! 

t is the good tbinps and (ho now things vou want. 
"TO is a Catalogue full of (horn! Do you want tested 
seed, raised from stock selected with extra care, 
grown from the host strains, trot from the origi- 
nators? I aim to have mine just such. Do you 
want new varieties that are really good, and not 
merely novelties? I aim t<» have mine* such. Do 
you want seed that the dealer himself has faith DDOUffl) 
In to warrant? I warrant mine, as sec Catalogue. Do 
you want an exceptionally large collection to select Irom : 
Mi:>e is such. Do you want (hem directly from the grower? 
T grow a large portion of mine— few seedsmen grow any! My 
egetableaml Flower Seed Catalogue for lSrtiiFRKK to every- 
body. JAMES J. H. GKKGOKY, Marblchead, Mass. 

The Lakeland Nursery Company, 

Offer their immense stock t.f Citrus Fruit Trees, all choice and healthy, at a bargain Varieties strictly Pennine 
and con6'st of the following popular kinds: Homosassa. Magnum BonuTO, Nonpareil, Majorca. JafTa, Meditcrran 
ean Sweet, Hart's Tardiff, Maltese Blood, Washington Navel, Du Hoi, Sweet Seville, Centennial. Madam Vinous, 
Maltese Oval, St. Michael, Tony, Mandarin and Tangterine. Lemon, Sicily, Bclair Premium and Villa Franca. 
Lime, Tahiti and Florida. Citron, Lyman. Sweet and flour Orange, a**d Qrape Fruit Seedlings. 
£3TSpecial prices quoted on large orders. Send for descriptive catalogue and price list to 

B. H. TISON, ItiiKiiif.xM Manager. 

DEWEY & CO.J N ^| 2 a ? ^ A a " P ^ n T t |? t T -}PATENT AGENTS. 


California Advance Cherry, 

Seedling of Early Purple Guigne, by the origi- 
iat^rof "Centennial" Cherry. 


Plums, Figs, Pears, 

Olives, Peaches, Nectarines, 

pples, Cherries, Walnuts, 





California Seedling Oranges. 


Napa City, Cal. 


Should be planted on every Farm and in every Garden 
in the UMted SUtes 
An immense stock of New and Old Varieties of 

Fruit, Forest and Ornamental Trees and Shrubs 

Including the new-named var'eties of 


And all kinds of Small Fruits, Grapevines, Forest Tree 
Seedlings for Timber Claims at. hard-time prices. 

A paper devoted to Fruit Culture Free to all who buy 
81 worth of stock. Trees and Plants by mail a specialty. 
Three hundred acres in nursery within 60 miles of the 
center of the United S ates. Splendid shipping facilities. 

Send at once for price list. 

Jefferson noun i. y. Fa'rbury, Nebraska. 



Seed St. ire ajt your door. Send for mi r illustrated cat- 
alogue of everything for the Fnrm and Garden. 



One and a <Juarter Million Tree*. 

56,000 Bartlett Pear, 20,000 Winter Nelis Pear, 20,000 
Ururre d'Aujou F'ear, 25,<00 Royal Ann Cherry, 16,000 
Black Tartarian, 16,000 Black Repub ican, 30,000 Fsopus 
Upltze betg Apple, 25,000 Baldwin Apple; 20 OCO North- 
ern Spy Apple. On whokroot transplanted stock. /II 
other Btai dard varieties in proportion. Quarantoed no 
insect pests. Send for otalogue to 

J. H. SETTLEMIER, Woodburn, Oregon. 


One year old, 8300 for the lot, or $20 per M; also Dor- 
mant Buds, Peach and Apricot, 350 per M. Fan Palm, 
Ash Trees, Texas Umbrella, 10 rents each. PARADISE 
NURSERY, Phocnix, Arizona. D. TURNER, Manager. 



[Jan. 5, 1889 


There is nothing made equal to 


They are perfectly adapted for use in hard ground and are the 
lightest running, most easily handled and most perfect working 
Plows in the market. 

They have grown more rapidly in public favor than any 
Plow ever made, and have received more testimonials of merit 
than almost any other tool in the market. 

They take with the farmer, and satisfy where all 

A Bonanza to the Farmer! 



Never before has a Gang Plow been made that was suitable for use in a ten-acre patch as well as in a quarter section field. 
The New Deal Gang turns square corners without lifting. It plows close to fences. The horses need not tramp down the 

plowed ground. 

It saves its cost every time it plows 160 acres. It is the most economical plow a farmer can buy, as it saves horses, saves hired 

help, and so saves time and money. 

The £5 Gang is equipped \ -v 1 1 1 1 8, JO, 12 and 14 inch Plowzs. 
*• 3 ** " " ** S, lO and 12 " *• 

44 ^ 44 4. .4 4. Q tHJCLCX lO " " 

S " ** " 8 . i .id lO 


HAWLEY BROS. HARDWARE CO., San Francisco, Cal. 



Fi Carriaps, Wapns, Carls and All lis of ipeltnral Iiplsicits. 

Manufacturers of 

Stockton Reversible 


Shaw's Slip Share 


The Reversible Gang Plow is used for shallow plowing and for plowing in grain. This is an economical plow and can be run at less 
expense than any plow made. Shaw's Slip Share Gang Plow is used for deep plowing or summer fallowing. It is the lightest 
draft plow made, and turns the ground in good shape. The bottoms for this plow are interchangeable with the reversible plow 
bottoms and are bolted on to the same frame. We have testimonials from numbers of the most prominent farmers in the State 

testifying as to the excellent qualities of this plow. 

More Stockton Gang Plows Sold in 1887 and 1888 than any other Gang Plow. 





Vol. XXXVII.-No. 2. 


$3 a Year. In Advance 

Single Copies, 10 Ots. 

The Cleveland Bay. 

The Cleveland Bay is gainiog popularity 
rapidly in California, and bids fair to occupy as 
important a place in the public mind on this 
Western Slope as it has already commanded 
east of the Rocky mountains. Some most ex- 

United States by Stericker Bros, of Illinois in 
July, 1885. He is recorded as No. 68 in Vol. 1 
of the American Cleveland Bay Stud Book. 
His sire was Young Candidate, winner of the 
first premium at the Great Yorkshire in 1875, 
and sold when 11 years old for 12000 to go to 
Australia. He was counted the finest Cleve- 

California and in 1886 took the first premium at 
the Contra Costa Fair. In 1887 Royal Studley 
was successful in taking first premiums in the 
"all work " class at Sonoma County Fair and at 
the Sonoma, Marin and Napa and Solano Dis- 
trict, and the second premium at the Golden 
Gate Fair the same year. This record at the 

all well exhibited in Royal Studley's form and 

The Cook Stock Farm, of which a description 
is given by a contributor on another page of 
this issue, has quite a group of Cleveland Bays, 
as well as other breeds of horses and cattle. 
A colleague of Royal Studley is another famous 

iillllllllllllillliil'll illlllli'lHHHlllilllilliiili IIIIIIP'ViMjilhjIiiilNMin.^Hlllll 1 !"^ 


cellent representatives of the breed have been 
imported and are now being bred with care and 
intelligence and with full belief in the value and 
general acceptability of the breed by those who 
own them. 

We have the pleasure of adorning our first 
page this week with the portrait of Royal Stud- 
ley, a splendid imported stallion which heads 
the Cleveland Bays on the celebrated breeding 
farm of Seth Cook near Danville, Contra Costa 
county, California. Royal Studley was foaled 
in the spring of 1883, and was brought to the 

land Bay of his day. Royal Studley's dam was 
by Whalebone, also a winner of Great York- 
shire and Royal honors. Royal Studley's earlier 
ancestry was also honorable, and he shows hie 
descent in every feature and action. He is a 
fine, rich bay in color, has superior movement 
and wonderful style. 

Royal Studley has had a full career as a 
prize-winner in this country. He began with 
the year of his arrival by taking the first pre- 
mium in bis class at the Illinois State Fair in 
1885. After this victory he was bronght to 

Golden Gate Fair he beat in 1888, for he won 
the sweepstakes, open to all. He also stood 
first in the special clasB at the State Fair of 1888. 

Royal Studley is a splendid specimen of the 
Cleveland Bay, which is confidently put forth 
as the best breed for carriage and general- 
purpose horses. We have previously given 
general notes on the characteristics of the 
breed. Their rich bay color, good hight, slop- 
ing shoulders, short back, powerful loins and 
long quarters, well-carried head and general 
aspect, betokening activity and strength, are 

Cleveland Bay, Napoleon, whose portrait we 
give on page 37 of this issue. Napoleon was 
foaled in 1885 and imported in 1S87. He has 
an excellent pedigree. He is a beautiful bay 
with black legs and deep girth. He took the 
first premium in London in 1887, besides a 
silver medal, showing against horses of all 
ages, the competition being open to all En- 
gland. He also won other victories abroad, and 
in this country took the second premium at the 
Illinois State Fair in 1S87, and the first at the 
great horse-show in Chicago the same year. 



[Jan. 12, 1889 


Spring Flowering Bulbs. 

[Read at the l:jt meeting of the State Floral Society 
by F. A. Millkr, San Francisco.] 

To do full justice to this most interesting 
subject requires more time than I can give it 
now. I cheerfully give you my experience, 
hoping that others may improve on my remarks, 
and add what I may omit. I will confine my- 
self, to the more ordinary treatment of bulbs, 
by which any one may succeed, and shall not 
toach the artificial methods of manipulation 
used by practical florists for cat flower purposes 
in and out of season. 


Beginning with the ever-popular hyacinth, 
three methods of treatment are practiced; they 
can be grown in water, for which purpose 
glasses of particular shape are made. Only 
very strong and sound bulbs should be selected 
for thi9 method. The glass is tilled with water 
up to the neck, so that the bulbs placed on top 
of the neck will just touch the water. After 
setting the bulb, place the glass in a dark, cool 
room for about three weeks. In doing so, roots 
are developed and top growth is retarded. Once 
a week the water should be changed without 
removing the bulb from the glass. In course of 
three weeks, more or less, the glass will be well 
filled with the roots, when it should be brought 
to the light near the window. The ordinary 
warmth of the room will stimulate top growth 
and eventually bring out a good spike of 
fragrant flowers. The process is an interest- 
ing one and generally quite satisfactory. I 
prefer the single varieties of hyacinths for 
this purpose. They are less top heavy than the 
double flowers and keep the position of the plant 

Another method is the cultivation in pots. 
Select good sound bulbs, one for a five-inch pot 
or three for a six-inch pot. The soil in which 
they are to be planted should consist of two- 
thirds good loam, mixed with one-third of sand 
and well-rotted manure. See that the pots are 
clean; fill them with the prepared soil, rather 
loose, to within one inch of the top; then place 
the bulb in position and press it firmly into the 
soil, so that the top of the bulb comes within 
one inch of the rim of the pot. Then fill' in 
more soil, so as to cover the top of the bulb 
about a half-inch; press down the soil gently all 
around; water well with the rose of a water- 
ing pot and set the pot away in a dark, cool 
place in the house, or if outdoors, cover 
with a box; or, what is still better, plunge 
the pots in the ground and cover to the depth 
of three or four inches with moss or sand. 
All this is done for the purpose of developing 
roots and to retard top growth. After three 
or four weeks, when the pots are well filled with 
roots, bring them to the light and warmth of 
an ordinary room. The roots having been de- 
veloped first, the bulbs have a proper support 
to develop their flowers to perfection. 

The third method consists in planting the 
bulbs in the open ground, where they are ex- 
pected to flower. This can be done at any time 
from November until January, or even later, 
if the bulbs are still in sound condition, and 
have not sprouted too much. Well-prepared 
■oil, deeply cultivated, such as we would have 
for most other garden plants, will do very well 
for hyacinths. The bulbs should be planted 
about six to eight inches apart, three to four 
inches below the surface and set firmly. Noth- 
ing will prevent them from developing good 
flowers except insect pests, which may be kept 
away by an occasional application of wood 
ashes or other well-known remedies. 

Crocuses and Snowdrops 
Are great favorites with the Eastern and Euro- 
pean people on account of their early blooming, 
when flowers of any kind are few and far be- 
tween. I am told very often, and by practical 
gardeners, too, that they will not thrive in 
California. 1 cannot quite agree with this 
proposition. While I am not prepared to advo 
eate a very extensive cultivation of these bulbs, 
because in our mild climate we can have other 
and perhaps more showy flowers, quite as early, 
I still hold that they should not be entirely 
neglected. A bed of crocus, with its bright 
and varied colors, is very attractive, and a 
clump of snowdrops, with their graceful little 
bells, very charming. The crocus bulbs should 
be planted about three to four inches apart 
and three inches deep; snowdrop about the 
same. Now the reason why many people do 
not succeed with them is because they plant 
them too late. The bulbs finish their growth 
in Europe very early, and are fully matured in 
May. They cannot be kept very well more than 
five or six months in a dormant condition. 
Ihis makes the proper planting season in Octo- 
ber, or as early as they can be procured from 
the importers. Tbey soon lose their vitality 
after that time, and although the bulbs may 
look sound, they cannot ba trusted after this 
month, and yet our good people will purchase 
them from the dealers as late as April, when the 
germ of the bulb is entirely gone. As I said 
before, if you wish to succeed with the crocus 
and snowdrop, plant them early in October. 
Do not disturb them after their fbwering sea- 
son, a9 they will produce their flowers for a 
number of years. About 

We hear the same Btory, and true enough their 
success so far is quite limited under open- 
ground cultivation. However, I have seen 

some very good tulip flowers produced in Oak- 
land and other places in the open ground. The 
tulip is another one of the bulbs which should 
be planted early, as it does not keep its vitality 
very well. In richness of coloring they are 
superior to hyacinths. For pot culture they 
are to be treated about the same as hyacinths, 
but they should be potted in October. For out- 
door cultivation they can also be treated like 
hyacinths, and should be planted in October, 
four inches deep, and about five inches apait. 
They remain in the ground from three to four 
years, and are very apt to produce a better re- 
sult the second season. Failures in growing 
tulips successfully may be attributed chit fly to 
late and shallow planting. They should be 
planted in groups or masses, and are then, on 
account of their brilliant coloring, very effect- 
ive. Some good, sound tulips, especially of 
the late show tulips, can still be had at this 
time (Dec. 14th), and those who wish to plant 
had better not delay any longer, and be particu- 
lar in the selection of sound bulbs which do not 
yet show any vegetation. 


Are doing so well with us here under ordinary 
treatment that it seems unnecessary to say 
anything about their cultivation. But as many 
of the better varieties are very little known, it 
may be well to speak of them, and encourage 
the cultivation of superior kinds. The family 
of narcissus is divided into various sections as 

(1) The Tazetta Section, or bunch-flowering 
narcissus, among which we find the common 
Chinese narcissus, the Paper White, Staten 
General, Grand Monarque and Prince of Orange, 
nearly all of which are cultivated here, and do 
well with everybody. 

(2) The Jonquil Section, producing small 
yellow flowers, single and double, are well worth 
cultivating, as their exquisite fragrance and 
their productiveness of flowers are very much 
in their favor. If left in the ground undis- 
turbed, they yield better after once becoming 
thoroughly established. 

(3) The Daffodil Section is not so well 
known yet, and as lordly gems of their type, 
they should be in every garden. Such varieties 
as Incomparabilis and Bulbe Codinzu (or Hoop 
Petticoat Narcissus) are very floriferous and 
most effective. They surpass in beauty of form 
and agreeable perfume all other flowering 
spring bulbs. 

(4) The Trumpet Section is also quite 
scarce hereabout as yet. Their forms are most 
elegant, and are well adapted for ladies' wear. 
The bi-color variety, of a pure white perianth 
and rich yellow trumpet, is simply magnificent. 
The Scoticus (or Garland Lily) ia also very 
fine: Trumpet Major of a rich yellow; the No- 
biiia and others are all very good. 

(5) The Double Flowering Section is not so 
highly esteemed, and I myself much prefer the 
single-flowering Narcissus. Still some such as 
the Koman, the Van Lion, the Incomparable 

i (regularly known as Butter and Eggs) 'and the 
Double White, which is as fragrant as a Cape 
Jasmine, are admired by many. 

(6) The Poeticus Section should not be 
omitted. The variety called Dandy, white, 
with a lemon-yellow cup, and the Poeticus, 
which is white with an orange-red cup, are 
both very attractive and deserve to be culti- 

Most of the Narcissus may be grown in 
water, but the Tazetta Section, or bunch-flow- 
ering Narcissus, are best adapted to this 
method. All Narcissus should remain undis- 
turbed in the ground, and with a good annual 
top dressing they will hold their own for three 
or four years. I would advise, however, t5 dig 
them up after the third flowering season, re- 
plenish the soil with plenty of old rotten ma- 
nure, and replant again early in the fall — as 
soon as the rainy season has fairly set in. The 
best time to take them up is in June, when the 
leaves begin to decay. The strongest built 
should be selected and kept as other bulbs, in a 
dry, cool place until fall. 

Ranunculus and Anemones 

Are worthy of better treatment than they gen- 
erally receive. The flowers of both are beauti 
ful in form as well as in diversity of color. 
They do not require any particular treatment. 
They also make good pot plants. A light loam 
well enriched with old manure suits them best. 
The bulbs are of a very dry nature, and have a 
lifeless appearance, I have found that on this 
coast they frequently lie in the ground a long 
time before they begin to vegetate. I cannot 
aocount for this. The bulbs keep well in a dry 
state, and they may be planted in autnmn, or 
during winter, or in early spring. I would 
advise the following treatment for California: 
In February, a month earlier or later will not 
matter much; lay the bulbs between two layers 
of moss, which may be kept outside or in a cel- 
lar in a box. Moisten the moss well, and see 
that it is kept damp. The bulbs will readily 
begin to make roots and start to grow; then 
plant them in pots or in the garden, where they 
are expected to flower, and the result will be 
surprising. They will go ahead rapidly; will 
flower in spring and continue to bloom for a 
long time. They don't want to be disturbed, 
and will do well for a number of years, but the 
ground should be enriched every winter with 
a heavy top dressing. They should be Watered 
freely in dry weather. They will amply repay 
the little care and trouble bestowed upon them 
The Lily. 

Volumes might be written on the treatment 
of lilies, and yet we would ask for more in 

formation. They are not spring flowers exactly, 
but a great deal depends on the management of 
the bulbs at this particular time, when they are 
offered for sale, and therefore it is proper to 
speak of them now. The natural habitats of 
lilies are widely distributed, and this fact alone 
makes it difficult to cultivate them all success- 
fully in any one locality. This is readily illus- 
trated right here in California, the home of not 
less than eight distinct species. Lilium Wash- 
ingtonianum, for instance, is found in the 
Sierra Nevada mountains, where it flourishes so 
well. It is a beautiful white lily, and very 
fragrant, but in vain has it so often been tried 
about here, and never succeeded. We may 
eventually succeed, but I doubt it. The at- 
mospheric and probably other conditions under 
which they thrive there are not at their dispo- 
sition here. Bat we do succeed well with 
Lilium Ruberaem, a very beautiful lily, open- 
ing pure white and soon changing to a satiny 
pink. It is found in Mendocino and Lake 
counties. I find no difficulty in flowering 
it here. Out of over 100 varieties of 
lilies in cultivation in Europe, surely we ought 
to succeed here with 12 to 15 of them. The 
following kinds have been and are now grown 
with success here: Lilium Candidum (so-called 
St. Joseph lily), L. Longiflorum Album, L. 
Ilirrisii, L. Auratum, L. Lancifolium Rab- 
rum, L. Lancifolium Album and L. Thunber- 
gianum. In a few instanoes others may have 
grown to peifection, but not to my knowledge. 
I have flowered Lilium Tenuifolium, and got a 
beautiful and almost graceful flower of a brill- 
iant red; Mr. Sievers, I believe, also had good 
success with it. Bat others ought to do fairly 
well here; our California Lilium Humboldtii I 
have been very successful with. Lilium Han- 
soni may do well enough here, and Krameri 
might also do well. It is really worth while to 
give these and others a fair trial. However, 
there are several difficulties to be overcome. 
Lily roots should not be kept out of the ground 
a day longer than is absolutely necessary, and 
when once planted they should not be disturbed 
except for very urgent reasons. 

Unfortunately, dealers in these bulbs are 
sometimes over anxious to receive them early. 
They insist upon the importer delivering them 
early, and in order to satisfy the unreasonable 
demand of the dealer, the grower goes to work 
and takes the bulbs up before they are fully 
matured, and consequently are not in a condi- 
tion to flower well, if at all. After these bulbs 
have been taken up before maturity, four to six 
weeks or more are consumed in their transit to 
destination, and, to say the least, they are in a 
deplorable condition. I give you a parallel case 
in my own experience. I supply California lily 
bulbs to Eastern and European houses. They 
all want them early; yes, I have been requested 
to have them in New York in September. Now 
our California lily bulbs are not in a matured 
condition before the middle to the end of Octo- 
ber, and the best result during my 25 years in 
that business was obtained from bulbs dug up 
in November. Our lily bulbs which arrive from 
Japan in December will give a better result 
than those which have arrived in September or 
October. In our climate we are enabled to 
plant lilies out in mid winter, and if we can pro 
cure well matured sound bulbs in January, and 
plant without delay, we are very apt to succeed 
in flowering them. 

The bulbs require a deep, rich sandy loam well 
drained; they should be planted at least four 
inches below the surface, and the soil should be 
pressed around them firmly during the opera- 
tion, holding the scales firmly together, and not 
allowing any particle to lodge, between the scales. 
This also shuts out water draining down from 
the surface, which is very important; the scales 
of these bulbs are in fact their life-preservers. 
Some cultivators not only do this, but give ad- 
ditional protection to the bulbs by laying a 
piece of tissue paper over the top to keep the 
soil from falling between the scales. In culti- 
vation of lilies in pots, I would advise the use 
of pots Urge enough to complete their growth 
without shifting into larger ones. 

The Lily of the Valley is the moBt admired 
spring flower of all, loved by everybody, and yet 
few are successful with it. Most people con- 
sider it an unyielding pet; still it will yield to 
the manipulation of the practical florist to such 
an extent that, in New York City, its flowers 
may be obtained for about eight months in the 
year. The Lily of the Valley is a native of 
Continental Europe, and its bulbs or roots come 
to us in two forms, one of which is in the shape 
of a number of flowering as well as leaf pips 
grown together in one almost inseparable mass, 
a good clump containing from 5 to 8 flowering 
pips. The other form is the single flowering 
pip, with a few roots attached to it. These 
single pips are imported annually by the mill- 
ion, and furnish the flowers offered for sale by 
the florists. They are preferred to clumps on 
account of their cheapness and light weight, 
and importation of clumps is fast becoming a 
thing of the past. The pips are not adapted 
to permanent cultivation, and to establish them 
in the garden is totally impracticable, at least 
as far as our experience or knowledge goes, up 
to the present time. It is barely possible that 
a number of pips planted together in a pro- 
tected and partially shaded place, may in the 
course of a few years establish themselves, but I 
I could not advise the attempt. For successful j 
cultivation out of doors, nothing will do but a I 
clump, I believe; that we can establish the Lily of 
the V alley permanently in the garden is practi- 
cally proven by the fact that Mr. Delaher of Oak- 
land has succeeded in making them a complete | 
success for years. There ia no reason why othera 

should not do likewise. They should be Blunted 
in partial shade under trees, protected from 
dry summer winds, covered with leaf-mold to 
the depth of at least an inch, and should be 
watered during the dry summer season at least 
twice or three times a week. Under this treat- 
ment, clumps of the Lily of the Valley can be> 
made a complete success, I think. The proper 
time for outdoor flowering would be about 
April in this climate. The flowera which we 
see in the florists' windows during the winter 
montha are produced by forcing the pipa into 
bloom in a temperature of 80 to 90 degrees, 
which operation is impractical for most ama- 


A New Foe of the Peach. 

[The following was read at the Fruit Growers' Conven- 
tion at Chico by W. G. Klee, State Inspector of Fruit 


Daring the last year an insect belonging to 
the clear-winged moths (JZgerias), and new to 
science, haa attracted attention. I refer to the 
California peach root-borer. My attention was 
first called to this pest by Mr. J. Britton of 
Santa Clara, who in May last sent me specimens 
of the insect in various Btages, but in such con- 
dition that the exact species could not be 
identified. Enough, however, could be seen 
from which to conclude that it was a near ally 
of the pernioious Eastern peach root-borer, 
Sannania . Egt ria) exitiata. In Mr. Britton'a 
company 1 visited shortly afterward the in- 
fested region, which lies about 2$ miles south- 
west of San Jose, and I obtaiued some few 
specimens of larva- and chrysalids. Not satis- 
fied with my result, I again visited the place in 
company with Mr. Albert Koebele, Prof. 
Riley's agent, and Mr. H. Brainard of the 
Santa Clara Valley. Together we apent the 
greater part of the day on the place of Mr. 
Leigh, aouthwest of San Jose, and obtained a 
number of specimens of both larvae and chrys- 
alids. These were readily found by removing 
the soil from around the base of the trees and 
laying bare the bark for several inches. Gummy 
exudations indioated the presence of the borer, 
and with a knife it was easily extracted. This 
borer worka directly under the bark, feeding on 
the cambium layer. Its tunnels, which are 
more or less vertical, vary from 4 to 8 
inches in depth and from 2 to 4 inches in 
width. The larva has a great appetite, yet on 
account of its habit of working downward, the 
tree is not as quickly girdled as when the East- 
ern peach-borer is at work. Frequently three 
or four borers were found at work, and still the 
trees apparently were not suffering very severely. 
A tree badly attacked by the borer commences 
to look yellow, generally about the time the 
frnit commences to enlarge, and often after a 
hot spell of weather it begins to wilt; however, 
if only a portion of the bark is girdled, it may 
show no signs. To ascertain the presence of 
the borer, the soil must be removed, as it works 
invariably underground. 

With the exceptions of two cherry trees, we 
found only peach root affected, but anything on 
this root is plainly liable to attack. It seems, 
however, that there is greatest danger of infec- 
tion on lands of a heavy nature. In fact, in go- 
ing over several acres of this character, we ob- 
tained mostly all of our specimens, while hard- 
ly any were found on sandy soil adjoining. In 
this respect our observations agreed with the 
experience of Mr. Leigh, who confidently as- 
serted that these insects had been observed by 
him for ten years. 

Whether the plum root is attacked or not, 
we have not been able to prove conclusively, 
as we saw but very few on plum-root trees in the 
immediate neighborhood; bat there is strong 
probability that both plum and apricot are re- 
sistant. The matter requires thorough inves- 
tigation and I intend to try the experiment of 
oolonizing the borer on plum roots. The spec- 
imen I have collected shows the insects in their 
various stages. The grub or larva is pinkish 
when alive; the chrysalis ia brown, and the 
cocoona spun of the caatinga and borings of the 

This species requires evidently a year for 
its full development, and as the moth ap- 
pears in May and June, the egg must be laid at 
the time. Theee are laid juat below the sur- 
face, and the reason that so few worms are 
found on sandy soil is probably because in 
ovipositing the female has to push the abdomen 
into the ground; when it finds that the soil falls 
in, its instinct leads it to avoid such places. 
Planting in sandy soil, or replacing the natural 
soil with a basin of fine sand, will probably prove 
a very good preventive of infection. The sand 
should be placed at least to the depth of four 
inches. A method recommended in the Eist 
for the peach-borer found there, ia the wrap- 
ping of a atout piece of paper around the trunk 
to the depth of six inches, leaving two inches 
above the ground, this to be held in place by a 
collar of mortar. Gas lime, which haa been 
recommended for this purpose, ia too danger- 
ous; while it might do no harm during the sum- 
mer, it would invariably result in damage to 
the tree if thoroughly wetted, and the solution 
was percolating down the trunk. Indeed, I 
have already learned of damage from its uae. 
In my recommendation of using gaa lime for 
woolly aphis on the apple trees, I have invari- 
ably warned against putting it against the 
trunk. In this case, the material to be sue- 
ceaafully used, must be placed against the 

Jan. 12, 1889.1 



trunk. Air-slacked lime, however, may be 
used without any injury, but should be put 
on in the spring after the heavy rains are over, 
in the early part of April. 

Whence Did this Insect Come? 

It being a settled fact that this insect is new 
to science, having been named by Prof. Riley 
Sannania pacifica, we must look for its original 
food plants in this State. I have spent a little 
time looking over the creeks adjoining the in 
fested district, and have failed to find any wild 
trees infested; but I shall continue the investi- 
gation further next spring, as it is of consider- 
able importance to know the wild tree the 
borer inhabits. My conclusion is that it prob- 
ably lives on one of our wild cherries (perhaps 
Prunus demista), but owing, perhaps, to the 
fact that the soil generally is sandy along 
water courses, and the trees of a kind are few 
and far between, the food for the borer has been 
bo restricted that very little increase took place 
until orchard-planting commenced in the vi- 

There is no question that the insect may be 
spread on nursery stock, the eggs being laid in 
the bark, and trees coming from suspected quar- 
ters should be thoroughly scrutinized and at 
least thoroughly disinfected by dipping in cam 
tic solutions. So far 1 have only found the in- 
sect in the locality mentioned, 2.\ miles south- 
west of San Jose; but being a native insect, we 
may look for it in all the orchards along water- 
courses in the coast valleys. 

The mature insects of the California species 
are distinguished from the Eastern species by 
the absence of cross binds of the abdomen, 
which is of a black steel blue. 


Wheat Facts and Figures. 


While the production of wheat has made 
rapid strides, the consumption also shows a re- 
markable increase. The latter not only comes 
from increasing population, but also from a 
larger individual requirement due to its cheap- 
ness, and also to its being served on the table 
in more different ways. In this country it is 
more difficult to arrive at the individual con- 
sumption than it is in the thickly populated 
countries of Europe where the system of com- 
piling statistics is reduced to a science and its 
accuraoy seldom proven wrong. With this as a 
starting-point to arrive at the average individual 
consumption, the writer will take England, 
France and Italy. 

In England, the consumption of wheat aver- 
aged for the period 1876-77 to 1887-88-July 
1st to July 1st of each fiscal year — 338 4 10 
pounds per head of the population. This figure 
naturally showed wide fluctuations, according to 
the crop in the United Kingdom; thus, in 1879- 
80, with a light crop and high prices, the con- 
sumption fell to 298.08 pounds per head, while 
in 1882-3 and 1883-4, seasons of large crops, it 
amounted to 393.72 pounds. To illustrate this 
to better advantage the following figures are 


Year. Population. in Pound'. Per Head 

1885- 36. 080.000 12,1 12,8-4,000 331 2 

lb86-7 36,700 000 11641.860,000 317.16 

188/-8 37,091,000 12,CU0,444,U00 342.00 

In estimating on the probable wants of the 
United Kingdom there are three important 
factors that must be kept in view, viz., the 
home crop, the root crop and the meat supply, 
for the English are conceded to be great meat- 
eaters; but where correct information or statis- 
tics on these are not obtainable, it is hardly safe 
to estimate the consumption of wheat at 342 
pounds to the head, but rather place it at about 
340 pounds, or even less. 

In France the consumption of wheat is much 
larger thao in England, for the Frenchman is a 
proverbial bread-eater. On an average, it ex- 
ceeds 432 pounds per head, and has reached as 
hieh as 446 4 pounds in 1885-6, 457.2 pounds in 

1886- 7, and 460.8 in 1887-8. The last three 
fiscal years show a steady increase in the con- 
sumption per head, independent of a greater re- 
quirement, owing to a growth in population. 

The statistics of Italy are at fault regarding 
the consumption of wheat in that country, but, 
as near as itcan be figured out, it is only about 290 
pounds to the head, although some place it for 
the season of 1887-8 at 308 pounds, but then 
they did not deduct the requirements for seed, 
adding the latter in with the consumption. It 
is very generally conceded that the consump- 
tion of wheat in Italy is increasing, but not to 
the same extent as it is in England and France. 
This is probably due to the Italians being larger 
consumers of vegetables than either the French 
or English, and therefore their wants are not 
only more easily supplied, but also cheaper, 
which is quite a consideration. 

Taking the countries England, France and 
Italy, and it is quite safe to base on their aver- 
age consumption per head the average con- 
sumption of the civilized nations of the world, 
for France is the largest consumer per capita, 
Italy the smallest, and England a medium. 
Taking the average consumption per head, we 
have : England, 338 4 10 pounds; France, 433 
pounds; Italy, 290— a total of 1061 4 10 pounds, 
or an average of 353 24 30 pounds per head. 
Take Italy, Germany and Russia, rye ie largely 
grown and is used extensively as an article of 

food, while in France, Spain and England its 
importance as an article of food is almost en- 
tirely ignored. In the United States, maize or 
corn takes the place of rye and reduces the 
general average consumption of wheat. But 
even with corn largely used as an article of 
food, yet the average consumption of wheat is 
placed at 355 pounds per head. There are some 
statisticians who place it at a higher average, 
hut then the above is the generally accepted 
figure of the trade. 

As the price of wheat has an important bear- 
ing on its consumption, it may not be amiss to 
give the following tables of prices per bushel 
of 60 pounds each compiled from official sources 
in this country, Eagland and France (that of 
the United States is the export value at the 
port of New York) : 



















u. s. 



SI 28 

$1 42 

$1 39 

1 31 

1 72 

1 81 

I 47 

1 73 

1 66 

1 31 

1 78 

1 75 

1 42 

1 69 

1 65 

1 12 

1 37 

1 32 

1 24 

1 40 

1 40 

1 16 

1 73 

1 59 

1 33 

1 41 

1 57 

1 06 

1 33 

1 49 

1 24 

1 35 

1 56 

1 11 

1 38 

1 52 

1 18 

1 37 

1 4-1 

1 12 

1 26 

1 30 

1 06 

1 08 

1 21 


1 00 

1 14 




1 15 


that there has 

been a steady decline in values in France and 
the United States since 1880, and in En- 
gland since 1881. In order to show this on a 
broader and plainer plane, the following prices 
per bushel since 18S1 are given: 

Yfar. England France. Germmv. Austria. U. S. 

1881 SI 38 $1 52 §1 42' 

) 46 
1 SO 
1 21 
1 14 
1 15 


1 37 

. . . . 1 26 
. . . . 1 08 
. . 1 00 
. . . . 94 

1 32 
1 21 
1 05 
1 04 

1 07 

$1 24 
1 01 
1 06 

SI 19 



The price in the United States is the average 
received by the farmer, being on the same basis 
as are those of the other countries. 

The above shows a decline from 1881 to 1886 
of 42 per cent in the United States, 32 per cent 
in Austria, 31 in Germany, 24 in France, and 
nearly 32 in Great Britain. It is to be regretted 
that reliable data is not obtainable from Russia 
and India so as to extend the comparative 
prices, but sufficient is known to the trade to 
warrant the assertion that the decline in prices 
suffered by American farmers has been sharper 
and deeper than that of any other wheat-grow- 
ing conntry. Indian farmers have been pro- 
tected by the decline in silver, as to a certain 
extent have the Russian farmers. Farmers in 
France and Germany receive the highest prices, 
because neither country has a surplus and also 
both protect their farmers by cus-tom duties. 
To the large surplus of wheat grown in this 
country is due the low prices here. Austria 
also has a surplus, while England has to import, 
but has no custom duties on wheat. Compar- 
ing the prices of protected Germany with free- 
trade England and the general average for the 
seven years does not show any decided differ- 
ence, but between that of France and England 
it is quite marked. 

In connection with the above and bearing di- 
rectly on silver as an important factor in the 
world's wheat markets, and also throwing more 
light on " the why " England opposes remone- 
tizing silver, the following is reproduced from a 
paper read by L. C. Probyn, at a late meeting 
in London of the British Association: Wheat 
is the article of Indian export which has been 
most generally referred to as having been stim- 
ulated by the fall in the gold price of silver. We 
have noticed the remarkable development which 
has taken place in this trade, checked only by 
occasional inferior harvests, and by the 
exhaustion of stores from which previous 
increases had been met. Other causes, 
however, have certainly contributed in a 
very important degree to this result. First of 
all, there is the immense railway development 
in India which has resulted in wheat districts, 
with considerable existing stocks in reserve, 
being opened up and connected with the ports 
of shipment. In October, 1878, the port of 
Kurachee was connected by railway direct with 
Lahore, the capital of the Pud jab, a province 
with double the area under wheat of Great 
Britain; and in the same year the Ricporo dis- 
trict of the Central Province was opened up by 
railway communication with Nagpore and 
Bombay. The Rijpootana and Malwa line 
was opened in January, 18S1, and the Oudh 
and Rohilkund connection completed in June, 
1883. In all, there are about three times as many 
miles of railway open in India now as there 
were in 1872. The result of this railway ex- 
tension has been to level wheat prices all over 
India, and to lower them at the ports of ship- 
ment. Bitterly, too, there have been on the 
whole good seasons. Then there is the re- 
duction of sea freight, estimated by Mr. Com- 
ber for the last four or five years compared 
with 1873, at 83. 3d. a quarter. Then there 
was the Indian export duty, coming to some- 
thing over one rupee a quarter, which was 
taken off in the same year. But even with all 
these advantages, with the present price ruling 
in England, trade would not have been pos- 
sible had not the fall in the gold price of silver 
taken place. It is contended by the gentle- 
man to whose opinions I have referred that 
these low wheat prices are only the result of 
the appreciation of gold, and that the expan- 
sion of Indian wheat exports would have oc- 

curred had there been no change in the relative 
value of silver. As, however, was pointed 
out by Mr. Balfour when examining a witness 
before the Gold and Silver Commission, a 
source of supply, thongh comparatively in- 
significant, may sometimes rule prices; and I 
venture to think that the fall of wheat prices 
in Europe is in part the result of the direct 
competition of Indian wheat. This competi- 
tion was, indeed, rendered possible by the 
favorable circumstances which have been de- 
tailed; but it received a fresh stimulus from 
the fall in the gold value of silver, to whatever 
cause this fall was due — a stimulus resulting in 
increased competition and a further fall in the 
gold price of wheat. It is sometimes asserted 
that because the price of wheat has fallen more 
than silver, therefore the former is independ- 
ent of the latter. This seems as illogical as to 
say that because one person unaided could not 
have done a certain task, therefore he could 
have had no part in doing it with the assist- 
ance of another. 

JI[he X) A,F l Y - 

Cheese and Butter from the Same 

The latest approved method of making butter 
and skim cheese in Oneida county, New York, 
is described by B. D. Gilbert, in the American 
Cultivator, as follows: 

I propose to give a description of an estab- 
lishment whose cheese has averaged the ruling 
price at Utica through the season, while the 
butter has sold at 19 to 25 cents. The Bagg 
Brothers of Holland Patent, Oneida county, 
N. Y ., occupy an unpretentious building as a 
factory, but it contains all the needed appli- 
ances for the manufacture of butter and cheese. 
There are four vats of about 4500 pounds capac- 
ity each, heated by steam; gang presses, a 
large, square, revolving churn, a tank through 
which cold spring water flows, and in which 
the deep coolers of cream are set; and a large 
refrigerator storeroom where the butter is 
plaoed after packing, until the shipment is 
ready for market. In talking with these gen- 
tlemen they made the following statement con- 
cerning their method of making a skimmed 
cheese that stands in the front rank of this 
class of goods. 

A Skimmed Cheese. 

From May 1st to October 10th, the milk is 
delivered twice a day, and the same kind of 
cheese is made during all that time. We 
run four vats, holding 4500 pounds each. The 
night's milk is distributed in all the vats as 
evenly as possible, and cold water is run 
around them so that the temperature of the 
milk is reduced by morning to 60° to 65°. This 
milk is skimmed in the morning before any 
more milk is received. Morning's milk is de- 
livered from 6 to 8:30 a. m., and is added di- 
rectly to the skimmed milk in the vats. Thus 
only the cream that rises on half the milk dur- 
ing 12 hours of the night is taken out of the 
whole mess. We heat the milk up to 84" to 
set, then add rennet enough to have the curd 
ready to cut in about 40 minutes. We cut 
with perpendicular knife, both lengthwise and 
crosswise, and then with horizontal knife 
lengthwise, without any interval between the 
cuttings. We used to wait a short time be- 
tween, but cannot see that it makes any differ- 
ence in the quality of the cheese, and as it takes 
less time to go right on with the work, we gen- 
erally do so. Then we let it stand until the 
whey becomes clear, from 5 to 15 minutes, and 
then begin to heat up the vat with steam. This 
takes about an hour and a quarter to a half 
before it reaches the desired limit of 96", but if 
the vat is only half full we should heat about 
2° more, as that amount of milk will not hold 
the heat so well. Then we stir the curd gently 
with our hands for about ten minutes. Then 
put in a rake and stir gently with that. The 
curd then lies in the whey until the proper 
amount of acidity is developed, which varies 
from half an hour to an hour, according to the 
weather and the condition of the milk. The 
acidity is determined by the hot-iron test, so 
that threads will string out about an inch in 
hot weather, but not so much in cooler weath- 
er. The whey is then drawn off and curds al- 
lowed to stand about 20 minutes, not to exceed 
that if there is acidity enough shown. The 
curd is cut half in two and folded back, and 
when the whey is nearly off we cut a channel 
down the middle, so that the whey will drain 
off entirely. Then the curd is again cut 
lengthwise on each side and folded back, mak- 
ing the strips narrower and the channel wider, 
and soon after it is turned completely over in 
order to aerate the under side. Then it is out 
in strips, thrown into the curd sink, and from 
there put through the mill, one of the kind that 
tears but does not cut the curd. We do not 
salt until after grinding. We use 2^ pounds of 
salt to 1000 pounds of milk during warm weath- 
er. The salt is mixed with the curd by hand. 
The curd is then put to press, the pressure be- 
ing applied gradually until it is as strong as we 
can get in the gang press. If the cheeses go 
to press at 1 or 2 o'clock they stay there until 
7 or 8 o'clock the next morning. In hot weath- 
er we wash the cheese with a solution of pot- 
ash, two pounds to four gallons of water. This 
gives a smoother face to the cheese, and they 
are not apt to mold. In summer-time we try 

to keep the temperature of curing-room about 
75°, while in spring and fall we heat it ap to 
80°. The cheese is shipped in about 20 day 
the average, although a somewhat longer 
for curing is allowed in the spring and fall. 

The principal points of distinction between 
this process and that of making full cream 
cheese are as follows: We put the buttermilk 
back into the vats just before the rennet is 
added, not sooner, because it would sour the 
other milk and make it work too fast. We salt 
about one-quarter pound less, and do not heat 
as high, within about 2°. We also mix about 
a tablespoonf ul of saltpeter with the salt for a 
whole vat of milk. We think this prevents the 
cheese from going off in flavor, and has a tend- 
ency to make them " butter down" in the fin- 
gers and show the stock that is in them. 

In the spring and fall a little more cream is 
taken from the milk, and we salt lighter and 
scald lighter than during the summer. 


As I have already said, the butter of these 
creameries sells well, but not up to the mark 
of many fancy dairies. The cows are of mixed 
stock, such as may be found in any farmer's 
dairy, but there are two advantages whioh 
the butter would not have if made at home. 
Firstly, only the lightest and best part of 
the cream in the milk is used — that whioh 
rises in the first 12 hours. Secondly, the 
butter is made by an expert, in large quan- 
tities, and can therefore be relied on for uni- 
formity in color and quality. The method is as 
follows : 

After skimming, the cream is set in deep 
coolers, holding from 18 to 24 quarts. These 
are set in water, whioh in summer is kept at a 
temperature of 60°, and in cold weather is 
heated up to 75°, by means of steam introduced 
into the tank. This sours the cream in 24 
hours, when it is put into a large square Blanch- 
ard revolving churn run by steam-power. In 
the summer the make ranges from 180 to 200 
pounds per day. It is churned until the butter 
comes in granular form, then the churn is stop- 
ped. If not gathered enough, a portion of the 
buttermilk is drawn off, and the churn is made 
te revolve a few times more. When the but- 
termilk is all drawn off, enough cold water is 
thrown in to rinse the butter thoroughly. This 
is drawn off and a second rinsing is given to it 
with a larger amount of water. When the 
buttermilk has been thoroughly rinsed out, the 
butter is taken from the churn, weighed, placed 
on the worker, salted one ounce to the pound, 
and worked four or five times over, until the 
salt is well incorporated with it. It is then 
put into tubs, and in warm weather placed in a 
refrigerator until the next morning, when it is 
taken out and again worked over a few times, 
in order to make it even in color and in salti- 
ness. Then it is packed in tubs holding about 
56 pounds, and set away in the refrigerator 
until the next market day. The tubs are made 
of white ash and soaked in water about 24 
hours before packing. 

The heat of the water goes down during 
the night, so that the cream is churned at 
about 64°. 

The coloring is put into the cream in the 
morning when it is first set in the coolers. The 
"standard " butter color is used. Of course in 
June less color is needed than in the early or 
late months. The " standard " color takes 
much less to produce the result than it would 
be necessary to use of annatto. 

In hot weather it is preferable to have the 
temperature of cream as low as 56 3 for churn- 
ings, but the butter will not come quite as 

This is an outline of the methods in vogue in 
one of the most successful creameries in this 
part of the country. It is well to have some 
knowledge of the process by which a skimmed 
cheese is made that even the judgment of an 
expert finds it hard to detect. 

Look Out for Your Canary Birds — The 
Sonora Independent says: Mrs. Bernard Myers 
and Mrs. Geo. Mapes both had their singing 
canaries killed by butcher-birds a few days ago. 
We understand that Mrs. Myers put " rough- 
on-rats" on the body of the canary (the head 
alone being gone) and left it on the cage. The 
butcber-bird came back, ate it, and died. The 
way Mrs. Mapes' bird was killed, as witnessed 
from Dr. Eichelroth's back garden, was this: 
The butcher-bird swooped down on the cage 
(which was hanging on the piazza upstairs), 
screaming and fluttering its wings. The terri- 
fied canary stuck its head through the wires, 
trying to escape, and was instantly decapitat- 
ed. It is said that the butcher only eats the 
heads, but the reason for this is that he cannot 
pull the body through the bars. 

Grasses in Sponges. — A very pretty foliage 
decoration for rooms or conservatories can be 
made of a white sponge. Fill the sponge full 
of rice, canary, hemp, grass or other seeds. 
Then place it in a shallow fancy-glass dish. 
The prettier the dish is, of course, the prettier 
the decoration will be. Pour water in the 
dish; the sponge will absorb this. Keep 
enough water to always have the sponge moist. 
In a short time the seeds will sprout and make 
the sponge look very pretty. The dish can 
then be placed on a table, or the sponge can be 
suspended without the dish in some position 
where it is exposed to the sunlight. It must 
be well watered, so that the sponge is alwavs 
moist, and it will then exhibit a mans of deli- 
cate green foliage. — N. Y. Mail <fc Express. 


fACIFie I^URAId press. 

[Jan. 12, 1889 


Correspondence on Grange principles and work and re- 
ports ol transactions of subordinate Oranges are respect- 
fully solicited (or this department. 

Tulare Grange. 

Messrs. Editors: — I am very anxious that 
Tulare Grange shall be kept before the people, 
and that the name it has obtained through the 
instrumentality of the State Grange and its own 
honest, earnest earnings, shall be sustained and 
animated by a living Bpirit of growth and 

We have commenced a new year with a new 
set of officers who were installed yesterday by 
Past Master A. J. Woods. At the close of the 
ceremony, the retiring Master, Capt. A. P. 
Merritt, who is now our Gate-keeper, was pre 
aented by the Grange with a watch and chain 
as a visible expression of its feelings and ap- 
preciation of his faithful services as Master of 
the (Jrange, from the dark days of its resur- 
rection to its present recognized position, and 
as a recognition also of his earnest labors as a 
true Patron of Husbandry, and in which he has 
been so nobly supported by his faithful partner, 
who has obtained a high position in the hearts 
of her brothers and sisters of Tulare Grange. 
Bro. Woodman from Michigan was present, 
who told us he had never made a speech in his 
life. But if this effort was his maiden speech, 
I am sorry that it was not delivered 20 years 
ago, so that we now might have had a first- 
class orator in our midst. He pleased us with 
his flattering remarks, and hope that we will 
merit all he said of us. We also received Bro. 
Shoemaker of Pennsylvania by demit, who 
told us of the political power the Grangers had 
in his State, as Bro. Woodman did of the 
Grangers in Michigan. 

We can hardly listen to the tales told of po- 
litical power wielded by Granges eaBt of the 
Rockies and sit easily in our seats. With so 
much at stake the Grange should be felt to 
some purpose at Sacramento. With an unde- 
veloped country capable of sustaining in happy 
homes 30,000,000 of people, half of the present 
population of the United States, and having in 
it only a paltry million and a half of people, 
the whole country and its representatives should 
not rest night nor day till the means of its be- 
ing so shall be inaugurated, which are a per- 
fect system of irrigation, more and cheaper 
facilities for transportation, the breaking up of 
large ownership of land, a united Grange mul- 
tiplied by 100, and other things which I cannot 
now think of. 

As an entering wedge in this direction, Tu- 
lare Grange will at its next meeting discuss the 
adoption of resolutions prepared by an appoint- 
ed committee, which I have already written 
you about. 

They are that part of the surplus at Wash- 
ington which so perplexes politicians be used 
in the development of this country, first, by 
storage of water in the Sierras; secondly, by a nat- 
ural and just distribution of the water by canals 
and ditches, and thirdly, by the construction of 
a canal draining Tulare lake and connecting it 
with deep water on the San Joaquin river to 
render the transportation of produce easier and 

In this it is possible there may be something 
Quixotic — something more than can be accom- 
plished with laws and constitutional require- 
ments, standing Apollyon-like right square in 
the way. All this, however, Tulare (1 range is 
going to inquire into, and learn what the possi- 
bilities are, and press the question upon the 
Granges at large and from them to the sov- 
ereign people. 

We will require to know whether those funds 
at Washington can be reached by the people for 
the general good as easily as they can by bank- 
ers for their private good; if there is a Hell- 
gate standing in the way, whether the action of 
the people through its representatives could not 
blow it up. The politically wise in the Grange 
shake their heads and say it cannot be done, 
and if it could our representation at Washing 
ton is bo small that the States east of the 
Rockies would get away with us every time in 
the general scramble for the released surplus 
which would ensue. 

Have our civilization and sense of justice ad- 
vanced no further than this? Have we not 
risen above the petty greed exhibited by chit 
dren scrambling for pennies thrown out from a 
window for fun ? Sometimes it seems so. Yet 
I believe better of the great American people. 
They are long-suffering and indulgent, but 
when these things cease to be virtues, there 
will be a rattling among the dry bones; for in 
spite of inconsistencies and blunders, the heart 
of the people is in the right place. 

You may look for a report of the discussion 
in prospect, and I hope other Grangers and 
other writers will perceive its importance and 
make it a matter of general discussion and co- 
operation. The subject of co-operation in 
farming interests is hanging on the hook in our 
Grange and will no doubt materialize itself in 
due time, which will be when dry years have 
not drained our purses and when we understand 
the matter better. It is really encouraging to 
note the increase of interest in co-operative sub- 
jects in Granges and Grange papers, and espe- 
cially in insurance. 

The average citizen hates taxes, whether 
looal, State or national, and yet more money is 
paid in insurance than in all other taxes com- 
bined. If fire insurance could be arranged on 

a fraternal basis, as life insurance is by the A. 
O. U. W., and payment only made when actual 
fires take place, we would pay less cash and 
have more justice. Or, if in a city, the muni- 
cipal authorities insured all assessed property 
other than realty, there need be no other tlx 
levied for the support of the city. Of course 
these are all open queBtion6, very crudely pre- 
sented, but I am convinced that they contain 
matter worthy of thought and action. 

If the Grange is to be a success in this State, 
it must be by concentrated action on a given 
line which will have an evident bearing on per- 
sonal interest. It will never be a success if 
confined to social gatherings, ritualistic observ- 
ances and the wasted forces of inconsequential 
eloquence, though all these things are good in 
their place. All of which is fully recognized 
by Tulare Grange and J. W. Mackie. 

Tulare, Jan. 6, 1889. 

Eden and Temescal Grange Meeting. 

Joint Installation, Etc 

HAVWABDS, Dec. 22, 1888. 
Sister Nellie C. liabcoctt, Secretary: — Eden Grange 
instructs me to send invitations to Temescal Grange 
to join them in installing officers on the second Sat- 
urday of January, at io A. M. sharp. Also if your 
Grange accept the invitation if you could make it 
convenient to be with us as early as io A. M. , to 
send us such notice, as it is their desire to make 
preparation to install the officers in the morning in 
order to have more time for social intercourse and 
literary entertainment after dinner. (Our commit- 
tee, Sisters Mary Anway. R. Dennis, H. G.iding, 
a*k assistance on the literary program Irom your 
Grange.) Hoping to extend the old-time greeting 
to each member of Temescal Grange, we are fra- 
ternally yours, Josik Shakai, Sec'y Kden Grange. 

By vote of Temescal Grange on Saturday even- 
ing last, the above invitation was heartily and 
unanimously accepted, and the members expect 
to make a full turnout, and, as usual, have a 
most enjoyable time. Worthy Master Over- 
hiser and Past Master Coulter (with their 
Matrons, of course) have been specially invited 
through Worthy Master Blackwood, and can be 
counted upon for some good Grange talk. Past 
Masters Flint, Webster, aud representatives 
and earnest Patrons from different parts of the 
field will certainly be present. So it will be 
good for all Patrons who can attend to be there, 
and we would bespeak a large Grange gather- 
ing. The Grange meets at 10 a. m. for installa- 
tion. After Harvest Feast, speaking by veteran 
Patrons and others will be accompanied by lit- 
erary and musical exeroises by the younger 

At the last meeting of Temescal Grange Bro. 
Spencer, a good representative of young Ameri- 
can Grangers, was present from Potter Valley, 
Mendocino county. He represents his Grange 
as holding good to the faith. With the im- 
provement of that section of the State, they are 
hopeful of an increase of members and success. 

His visit brought vividly to mind our old and 
esteemed brother, A. O. Carpenter, formerly of 
Ukiah Grange. He fought side by side with 
John Brown in Kansas, is a good soldier in the 
battle for human rights, and a man of true 
Grange grit. Also comes fresh to mind his 
sainted mother, Mrs. I. C. H. Nichoh, who, as 
the first lady editor in Vermont, if not in the 
United States, made a strong fight for the in- 
alienable rights of her sex by her able writings. 

The Constitution of Kansas we believe is ad- 
mitted to give the most fair and full protection 
to women in their property, political and edu- 
cational rights, of any St ite. Mrs. Nichols was 
the leading champion and representative of the 
women of Kansas in their endeavors to secure 
the good and just privileges finally conceded to 
them in that Constitution, and it was largely, if 
we may not say mainly, through Mrs. Nichols' 
long and faithful labors, keen foresight, unim- 
peachable intentions and worthy character that 
the particular features were embodied In the 
Kansas Constitution which are to-day so satis- 
factory and beneficial to woman and her cause. 

Bro. Wm. Kilbourne, who is the Past Master 
and the long-time faithful Secretary of Potter 
Valley Grange, was well known to us as a miner 
at La Porte, Plumas county, over 25 years ago. 
We admire his zeal in the cause, and rejoice in 
the maintenance of the Grange, located in one 
of our healthiest and prospectively (to say the 
least) prosperous counties. 

Sister Chatterton, residing with Sister Bib- 
cock, who recently returned from a long visit to 
her native home, in Maine, was present, and 
gave some interesting remarks, saying that the 
Patrons in Maine are wide awake, zealous and 
cautious in the work. They enjoy the social 
features of the Order there, have a good opinion 
of California, and were anxious to know how it 
is that our isolated Granges succeed in keep- 
ing up so much life and interest as they infer we 
enjoy through reports that they have received 
of our transactions. 

The question of the Australian system of vot- 
ing was mentioned in Temescal Grange as one 
of importance to be discussed early, in con- 
nection with the present session of the Legis- 
lature. We hope thia subject will be well con- 
sidered by all Granges in the State, and every 
effort possible made to secure legislation at this 
present session for such election laws as will 
prevent election frauds and abuses which all 
tax-payers so sensibly feel and all good citizens 

The next meeting of Temescal Grange occurs 
on Saturday afternoon at 2 o'clock, Jan. 19th, 
to which all sojourning Patrons are invited. 

The Value of a Farmer. 

Messrs. Editors:— The Salinas Index lately 
published a list of the Government offices that 
will probably be vacated at the next change of 
national administration. Among them were ] 
places suitable for mechanics at pay ranging 
from $3 50 to $7 a day, clerkships at $1500 
to $2000 or upward per annum, and for the In- 
dian reservations a few " farmers " at $720 to 
$000 per annum. 

What a long-suffering animal this " farmer " 
is ! Why is he to be regarded century after 
century as the drudge of the community, with 
double the hours of work and half the pay ? 

Hear how it was in Sir Thomas More'a 
time (by the by, I wonder the bluff King 
Hal left that man's head bo long on his shoul- 
ders) ! 

" I would gladly hear any man compare the 
justice that is among the Utopians with that of 
all other nations, among whom, may I perish 
if I see anything that looks either like justice 
or equity; for what justice is there in this, that 
a nobleman, a goldsmith, a banker, or any 
other man, that either does nothing at all, 
or at best is employed in things that 
are of no use to the public, should 
live in great luxury and splendor upon what is 
bo ill-acquired, and a mean man, a carter, a 
smith or a plowman, that works harder even 
than the beasts themselves, and is employed in 
labors so necessary that no commonwealth could 
hold out a year without them, can only earn so 
poor a livelihood, and must lead so miserable a 
life that the condition of the beasts is much 
better than theirs ? " etc. " Is not that govern- 
ment both unjust and ungrateful that is so 
prodigal of its favors to those that are called 
gentlemen, etc., and on the other hand takes 
no care of those of a meaner sort, such as plow- 
men, colliers and smiths, without whom it 
could not subsist ?" 

Thia, three centuries ago, under an imperious 
monarch, is what history has taught us to ex- 
pect. Bnt on what principle, in a government 
of the people, by the people and for the peo- 
ple, is a clerk paid twice as much as a farmer ? 
It takes more brains to make an average farmer 
than an average clerk; it takes more grit, more 
mechanical skill and more general business ca- 
pacity. Having had 6h years' experience aa a 
clerk prior to almoat a quarter century's farm- 
ing, and leaving my clerkship with the written 
regrets of the chairman of the London bankers, 
I know what I'm talking about. Not being an 
cilice-seeker, I have no personal interest in the 
matter, bnt I think it high time farmers sought 
and obtained due consideration at the hands of 
society and government, and no longer permit- 
ted themselves to be regarded and paid as the 
drudgers of their fellows. Perhaps some brother 
farmer can explain, in your columns, the justice 
of paying a " farmer " one half of the salary 
paid to a clerk. It seems to me that if only out 
of respect to our first and best President, 
farmer Washington, a higher esteem is due our 
agriculturists. Edward Berwick. 

Carmel Valley, Jan. 6, 1889. 

Resolutions of Respect. 

The Patrons of Tulare Grange desire to ex- 
press their sincere sorrow in common with 
other Granges in the loss which the Order has 
sustained in the death of our very much es- 
teemed brother, Hon. A. L. Chandler, but feel 
the poverty of language in adequately express- 
ing their feelings in the following resolutions: 

Resolved, That Tulare Grange recognized in 
Bro. A. L. Chandler a moral Granger, citizen, 
and counselor in every walk of life, being al- 
ways ready to defend the weak, to maintain 
the rights of the wronged, and serve at all 
times the cause of justice and charity. 

Resolved, That we sympathize most sincere- 
ly with his afflicted wife and family in the loss 
which they must feel more keenly than us all. 

Rtsolved, That his example will be constant- 
ly before us in emulating his generous and res- 
olute conduct; that we will keep fresh the mem- 
ory of the honest intelligence of hie kindly coun- 
tenance while with us here, in attendance at 
the State Grange. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be entered 
on the minutes of the Grange; that a copy be 
forwarded to Sister Chandler, and to the Patron 
and Rural Press for publication. 

Adopted by Tulare Grange, No. 198, Jan. 5, 

DURING the year ending .Sept. 30, 1888, 
there were 197 new Granges organized in 
the United States, as follows : New York 
27; Pennsylvania, 26; Ma>sachusetts, 25 ; 
Oregon, 1(>; Connecticut, 15; Rhode Island, 
13; New Hampshire, 11: Alabama, 10; 
Colorado, '.i ; North Carolina, 8 ; Maine and 
Michigan, 7 each; Nebraska. G; Illinois, 4; 
South Carolina, 3 ; Maryland and Ohio, 2 
each; Arkansas, Dakota, Delaware, Indi- 
ana, Missouri and Wisconsin, 1 each. 

The National Grange still insists and 
claims that the head of the Agricultural 
Department at Washington should be a 
member of the President's Cabinet. 

Grange Elections. 

Florin. — Wm. Johnston. M.; M. A. 
Casey, O.; Lillie Jones, L ; John Reese, 8 ; 
Jesse Casey, A. S.; Ella Dresser, C; L. H. 
Fassett, Sec; C. Towle, T.j D. Reese, G K.; 
Mary Donnovon, P.; Lillie Casey, F.; Mamie 
Brown, Ceres ; C.irrie Neehie, L. A. S. 

Franklin. — Wm. Johnston, M.; J. B. 
Bradford, O.; Mrs. J. W. Moore, L. ; W. A. 
Johnston, S.; Mrs. I. F. Freeman, O; Lake 
Freeman, A. S.; I. F. Freeman, T.; C. P. 
Freeman, Sec; P. R. Beckley, G. K ; Mrs. 
S. G. Bradford, P.; Mrs. C. P. Freeman, F.; 
W. M. Johnston, Ceres; Belle Johnston, L. 
A. S.; M. W. Johnston, Organist. 

Newcastle. — J. L. Robertson, M.; A. P. 
Hall, O ; S. A. Wood, L ; R. M. Nixon, S ; 

F. B. Fitch, A. S ; Sister H. A. Blanchard, 
C; Wm. Barter, T.; Sister A. P. Hall, Sec; 
J. B. Evans, G. K. ; Sister A. S. Robertson, 
Ceres ; Sister Lena Jorey, P.; Sister Kate 
King, F.; Sister Belle Boggs, L. A. S.; A. P. 
Hall, Trustee. 

Sacramento County Pomona — Morris 
Toomy, M.; H. W. Johnson, O ; Sister 
A. M. Jackman, L.j C. E. Mack, S ; D. 
Reese, A. S ; Geo. Wilson, O.j A. M Plum- 
mer, T.j Sister D. D. Hull, Sec; Geo. W. 
Hack, G. K.; Sister Belle Johnston, P.; Sis- 
ter Etta Plummer, F.J Sister Morris Toomy, 
Ceres; Sister Hill, L. A. S. 

Tulare —J. M.Moore, M.; J. W. Mackie, 
O.; J. N. Balch, S.; Jessie Talbot, A. S.; 
L. B. Hawkins, L.; Sister M. Premo, O.J 
Bro. M. Premo, T.; D. O. Harrelson, Sec; 
A. P. Merritt, G. K.; Sister M. A. Truscott, 
Ceres; Elizabeth Maples. P.; Bertha Ing- 
ham, F.; Edith Maples, L. A. S. 

Walnut Creek. — C. Sharp, M; J. 
Foster, O.; N. Jones. L ; J. W. Jones, S ; 
T. Jenkins, A. S.; J. Larkey, T.; Mi*fl M. 
Baker, Sec ; C. S. Whitcomb, O.j J Baker, 

G. K.; Miss E Weedles, P.; Miss L.Sharp, 
F; Miss E. Kusch, Ceres; Mrs. T. Jenkins, 
L. A. S. 

Watsonvii.le. — Mrs. E. Z. Roache, M.; 
Mrs. N. A. Uren, O.; A. Cox, S.; N. A. 
Uren. A. S ; D. Tuttle, C; G. W. Kidder, 
T.; Mrs. S. J. Kidder, Sec; Mrs. M. E. 
Tuttle, G. K.; Mrs. P. Cox, P.; Mrs. M. 
Tuttle, F.; Mrs. A. Cox, Ceres; Mrs. P. 
Haver, L. A. S ; Miss Josie Roache, Organ- 
ist; N. A. Uren, Trustee. 


Eden and Temescal January 1'-! 

Elliott January 12 

Magnolia January 12 

Newcastle January 19 

North Butte January U 

Sacramento and Sacramento Pomona January U 

San Joaquin ( ounty Pomona February' 28 

Watsonville February lfi 

Note —The Secretaries ot Granges are requested to 
forward reports of all election and other matters of 
interest relating to their (Jiauges and the Order. 

Newcastle Grange will install its 
officers on the l'.Uh inst. All Patrons are 
invited to be present. A class of four will 
be instructed in the Fourth Degree. 

Sacramento County Pomona Grange. 

Messrs. Editors : — The Pomona Grange 
meeting of the 2Dth ult. had rather a slim 
attendance, owing to the condition of the 
roads. It was called to order about 2 v. m. 
The election of officers was a prominent 
matter for the day, and occupied nearly all 
the time, so that many retired before 
Grange closed. But little other business 
was reached. Bro. McConnell, however, 
announced the meeting of the Fire Insur- 
ance Committee; also made some very ap- 
propriate remarks explanatory of the con- 
dition of the Patron, and in regard to the 
disposition of it. 

We intended to bring the matter of elec- 
tion reform before the Grange, but time did 
not admit of anything further. There is 
likely to be agitation in that direction during 
the coming session of our Legislature, as 
well as toward reform and improvement in 
every department of business, science, art 
and manufacture. G. W. 

San Jose Grange. 

Messrs. Editors: — Nature has put on 
her spring clothes to day, and our venerable 
friend, "Old Sol," is unbending himself. 
If it wasn't for the almanac one would 
hardly realize that it is the midwinter 
month. We are impressed with the thought 
that our first meeting in the new year 
opened under favorable auspices and bright 
omens, for it was installation day and every 
officer-elect had iuterest enough to be pres- 
ent and be installed. Bro. Wingate offici- 
ated, assisted by Bro. Gilmore. 

After installation, Bro. Pomeroy, the re- 
tiring Master, made some farewell remarks, 
and then the new officers severally re- 
sponded to calls. 

So now the good old Grange bark has 
started out on the sea ot progression, the 
broad pennant at the main with " Excelsior" 
inscribed thereon. Fraternally yours, 

San Jose, Jan. 5. Ofa. 

Jan. 12, 1889.] 

f ACIFI6 l^URAb f RESS. 


A Flourishing Bank. 

The annual meeting of the stockholders of 
the Grangers' Bank of California was held on 
last Tuesday, at which 8865 shares out of 10,- 
000 were represented. The usual annual divi- 
dend of $4 per share, making the fourteenth 
since its organization, was declared, amounting 
to $42,000, besides k which the sum of $10,000 
was carried to the surplus fund. Owing to the 
steady growth of the business of the bank, the 
directors by vote reeolved to levy another in- 
stallment, being the seventh, of $10 per share, 
so as to increase its working capital. This 
last levy will make, when paid up, 70 per cent 
on the authorized capital of $1,000,000. Since 
its organization nearly 15 years ago, only six 
installments, the last being in 1884, have been 
levied, aggregating the sum of $600,000, while 
during the same time there has been disbursed 
to stockholders in dividends $588,000. This is 
a capital showing and speaks volumes for the 
superior manner in which the affairs of the in- 
stitution are conducted. This is the more con- 
clusively shown in the usual annual dividend 
being declared this year in the face of unfavor- 
able crop weather in several sections of the 

That the stockholders repose the utmost 
confidence huthe management of the bank was 
manifested by their unanimously re-electing 
the same Board of Directors, manager and offi- 
cers, as follows : 

Directors— I. C. Steele. San Mateo county; 
T. E. Tynan, Stanislaus county; Daniel Meyer, 
San Francisco; H. M. LiRue, Yolo county ; C. 
J. Cressey, Merced county; Seneca Ewer, Napa 
county; ThoB. McConnell, Sacramento county; 
John H. Gardiner, Solano county; Uriah 
Wood, Santa Clara county; A. D. Logan, 
Colusa county; H. J. Lewelling, Napa county. 

Officers — A. D. Logan, president; I. C. Steele, 
vice-president; Albert Montpellier, cashier and 
manager; Prank McMullen, secretary ; Pillsbury 
& Bland ng, attorneys. 

Talent Recognized. — Sister E. Z. 
Roache, who served the State Grange so 
ably and gracefully as Pomona, will be in- 
stalled Master of Watsonville Grange Feb- 
ruary 16. She ought to be grandly sup- 
ported in her duties. We shall look con- 
fidently for an excellent report from Wat- 
sonville at Sacramento. 

Roseville Grange officers were in- 
stalled on the 5th inst. by Worthy Master 
Wm. L. Overhiser, assisted by Worthy 
Lecturer Daniel Flint. The Grange meets 
the first and third Saturdays of each month, 
and starts out with renewed vigor after the 
visit of the above-mentioned State officers. 

A resolution adopted by the National 
Grange declared that body as utterly opposed 
to allowing aliens to acquire title to the soli 
of the United States, and urged upon Con- 
gress the enactment of stringent legislation 
of a prohibitory character. 

Tulare Grange is in good working 
order and every member is taking hold with 
a will, writes Bro. D. O. Harrelson. He 
thinks before the summer is over the Grange 
will force the merchants of Tulare to accept 
reasonable profits on their goods. 

Watsonville Grange will install its 
officers February 16th. All members are 
requested to be present. A literary program 
will be prepared for the occasion. 

Sacramento County Pomona Grange 
will install its officers to-day, in conjunction 
with the installation of Sacramento Grange. 

The Legislature of 1889 

Convened at Sacramento on Monday, 7th in- 
stant. The Senate was called to order by the 
president pro tem., S. M. White, of Los An- 
geles, who delivered an address eulogizing the 
late Gov. Bartlett and Senator Chandler. Mr. 
White was subsequently elected permanent 
President of the Senate, and Robert Howe of 
Sonoma Speaker of the Assembly, both being 
Democrats. Following are the Senatorial and 
Assembly districts and the counties constituting 
them, with the P. O. addresses of the members : 


Dist.— Ni.MB. Counties. Post Office. 

1- Frank McGowan, R ... Humboldt, Del Norte . . Eureka 

2- J. M Briceland, D Trinity, Siski u, Shasta, Shasta 

3- M. H. Meade, D Modoc, Plumas, Lassen, Sierra 


4- A. F. Jones, D Butte Oroville 

6-E. M. Prestou, R Nevada Nevada City 

6- A. Yell, D Mendocino, Lake Ukiah 

7- Thomas Fraser, It Placer, El Dora lo Placerville 

8- John Boggs, D Tehama, Colusa Colusa 

9- F. S. Sprague, R Yolo, Napa Woodland 

10- E. C. Hinshaw, D Sonoma Bloomlield 

11- G. J. Campbell, R Solano Vallejo 

12- F. H Greely, R Yuba, Sutter Marysville 

13- F. R. Dray, K Sacramento Sacramento 

14- A. Caminelti, 2) Amador, Calaveras.. ..Jackson 

15- F. c. DeLong, R Marin, Contra Costa Novato 

16- F. J. Moftit, D Alameda Oakland 

17- W. K. Dargie, R Alameda Oakland 

18- M. W. nix' n, D Alam-da H rri-.burg 

19- J. W. Welch, D San Francisco 670 Harrison 

20- T. J. Pinder, D Sm Francisco 321 Broadway 

21- W. O. Banks. R S. Francisco, 1419J Washington 

22- J. N. E Wilson, /?...San Francisco 1812 Pacific 

23- W. H. William , D. San Francisco 115 Fifth 

24- P. J. Murpbv, D Sin Francisco 29 Russ 

25- J. K. Britt D San Francisco 4 i3 Eighth 

26- T. H. McDonald, /). ..San Francisco. .State P'g office 

27- .lohn E. Hamill A).. San Francisco, Stevens m B'id'g 

28- J. R. Spellacy, D San Francisco 2529 Brvant 

29- B. F. Langford D SanJoiquin Lodi 

30- A. J. Memy, O Merced, Stanislaus, Tuolumne 


31- A. W. Cnndall. R .... Santa Clara San Jose 

32- E. B Conklln, i! Santa Clara Santa Claia 

33- Jos^ph D. B) rnes, R San Mateo, S'nta Cruz, S Mateo 

34- Geo. C. Goucher, D. . .Miriposa, Fresno, Alpine. Mono 


35- Thomas Flint, Jr., 7?. San Benito, Monterey, Hollister 

30-John Roth, J) Tulare. Inyo Kern . . Woodville 

37-K. H. Htacock, R S.L Obispo, S Barbara, Ventura 

Sinta Barbara 

3S-S. M. White, D Los Angeles Los Angele* 

39- J. E. M C)ma", R Los Angeles Pomona 

40- W. W. Bjwers, R S. Diego, S. Bernardino, S Diego 


1- John McVay, D Del Norte, Siski'u, Crescent City 

2- J. O. Murray, R Humb ldt Eureka 

3- G. Williams /.' Humboldt Ferndale 

4- T. W.H.Shanahan, D. .Shasta, Trinity Anrterson 

5- James J. R^avis, D . . .Modoc, Lassen Bieber 

California State Veterinary Association. 

The first annual meeting of the association 
was held in the office of the Breeder and 
Sportsman on Thursday, the 13th December. 

The president, Dr. Thos. Bowhill of San 
Francisco, was in the chair. There were pres- 
ent Drs. Thos. Maclay of Petaluma, A. M. 
McCollum of Sacramento, C. B. Orris of Stock- 
ton, C. Masoero of San Francisco, H. A. 
Spencer of San Jose, F. A. Nief of Sin Fran- 
cisco, W. H. Woodruff of San Francisco, I. P. 
Kleach of Santa Rosa, P. P. Parent of Fresno, 
and W. C. D. Morrison of Los Angeles. 

The president then called upon Dr. Kleach 
to read his paper on " General Lymphangitis." 

A very animated discussion followed in which 
most of the members present took part. 

The following members were then elected 
cfficers for the ensuing year: Dr. Thos. Maolay 
of Petaluma, president; Dr. W. C. D. Morri- 
Bon of Los Angeles, vice-president; Dr. A. M. 
McCollum of Sacramento, secretary; and Dr. 
W. H. Woodruff of San Francisco, treasurer. 

Dr. H. A. Spencer of San Jose then exhibited 
to the association a model of a new operating 
table. The table in question can be placed in 
a vertical position so that the animal to be op- 
erated upon, while standing erect, can be se- 
cured so firmly to the table that it is impossible 
for the animal to free itself. A crank is now 
lowered which brings the table and, of course, 
the animal, to a horizontal position. 

The advantages of such a table are obvious. 
They may be summed up as follows: Avoidance 
of the dangers attending the ordinary system of 
throwing horses down; allowing the horse to get 
upon its feet again, easily and without danger; 
perfect safety of the operator, who can operate 
easily and comfortably; assistants are dispensed 
with; saving of time for the operator; economy 
in space and no expense for litter; greater cleanli- 

A vote of thanks \vas accorded Dr. Spencer 
for exhibiting the model. 

A motion was then made that the association 
meet only three times per year instead of quar- 
terly. The motion was lost. 

Drs. Bowhill, McCollum and Kleach were ap- 
pointed a committee to arrange for the incorpora- 
tion of the association, and also to draft a bill, to 
be presented to the Legislature, providing 
against the practice of veterinary medicine and 

Drs. Maclay, 

Rurgery by incompetent quacks 

H. K Turner, R Plumas, Sierra Sattley | Bowhill and Masoero were appointed a Board of 

l'n Ma « ne ™ 8 - i>... Tehama Tehama Examiners for the coming year. Proposals for 

8-C. H. Porter, R Butte B ggs . . 5; T , £ 

membership were received from Dr. Egan, San 

Francisco; Dr. F. Cowper, Los Angeles; Dr. I. 

Oliver, Los Angeles; and Dr. Wm. Rowland, 


Dr. Bowhill promised to prepare a paper, 
which he would read at the next meeting. 

The association then adjourned to meet again 
in San Francisco, on the second Wednesday in 
March, 1889. 

Placer's Own Display. 

Messrs. Jones and Parker, lately commis- 
sioned by the Placer Board of Trade to make a 
showing in this city of that county's products, 
are just opening a " free citrus exhibit" in the 
new Starr King building. 

The great show-window at No. 12.3 Geary 
street has been turned into a pillared citrus 
temple, within which are displayed on inclined 
planes a thousand of Penryn's and Newcastle's 
choicest oranges, while the foreground is filled 
with terra cotta urns and vases (from Gladding 
& McBean's pottery at Lincoln) heaped high 
with splendid apples and Japanese persimmons. 
Strewed between are boxes of their finest figs, 
nuts and raisins, and the whole output is taste- 
fully bedecked with sprays of greenery and 
bunches of crimson berries. Even in its in- 
completeness, the show is charming and must 
do much toward enhancing the fame of the al- 
ready famous foothills of the Sierras. 

Exorbitant Wood Freights. — Boulder 
Creek people complain that the S. P. Coast R. 
R. has, since its purchase by the Southern Pa- 
cific, raised freight rates on wood so high that 
it is impossible to ship it to San Jose with 
profit, and they say they will have to abandon 
the business. 

A Fair Next Month.— The Horticultural 
Hall Association at San Jose has decided to 
hold a midwinter fair, beginning February 11th 
and ending on the 16th. 

L. L. P.urwell, D Butte Oroville 

10- JL. C. Campbell, /{ Colusa Colusa 

11- J. H. Seawell, D Mendocino Ukiah 

12- C. M. Crawford D Lake Upper Lake 

13- D. A. Ostrom, D Sutter, Yuba Wheatland 

14- Josiah Sims, R Nevada Nevada City 

15- J. I. Sjkes.Tl Nevada Grass Valley 

16- John Davis, R Placer Auburn 

17- Henry Mahler, D El Dor. do Colonia 

18- W. M. Petrle, R Sacramento Sacramento 

19- E. C. Hart, R Sacramento Sacramento 

20- L. H. Fassett, R Sacramento Florin 

21- L. B. Adams, D Yolo Woodland 

22- F. L. Coombs, R Naoa.... Napa 

23- F. B. Mulg ew, D Sonoma IIeald>-biirg 

24- J. W. Ragsdale, R Sonoma Santa Ro-a 

25- Robert Howe, D Sonoma Sonoma 

26- J. A. Mullaney, D Solano Beni ia 

2/ -J. F. Brown, R Solano Binghamoton 

28- J. W. Atberton, R Marin Novato 

29- Thomaa Mulvey, D...Sau Francisco 320 Beale 

30- J I). Long, D San Francisco 16 Hubbard 

31- T. J. Brannan, D San Fran. .. International Hotel 

32- John Staude, D San Francis -o 815 Pacific 

M-W. E. Dinan, I) San Franci-co 5 Jane Place 

34- E J Reynolds, D San Francisco 1315 Jackson 

35- H H. Dobbin, D San Francisco 125 Silver 

36- C. H. Kiernan, D San Franc sco 836 Mission 

37- Thos. Seary, D San Francisco. .432 Clementina 

38- D. S. Re^an, D San Francisco 215 Seventh 

39- John McCarthy, D . . San Francisco, 329 Goldec Gate 

40- E. Murray, D San Francisco. . .10 Col. Square 

41- H. C. Dibble, R San Franciso. . .Nevada B'ock 

42- E. S. Salomon, R San Francisco, Stevenson B'id'g 

43- L. L. Ewing R San Fran. .. Fourth & 'ownsend 

44- H. M. Black, D San FranciBco :598 Mission 

45- H. M. Brickwedel, R. .Sin Fran. . Fourth & Townsend 

46- Jimes Reavy, D, San Francisco 18} Freelon 

47- G. W. Burnett, D San Francisco ei6 Shotwell 

48- T. C. Maher, R S. Francisco, 637 Twenty-third 

49- L. J. Franks, U Sm Mateo Redwood City 

60-James A. Hall, D Santa Cruz Watsonville 

51- Joseph McKeown, R. .Alameda Alvando 

52- Wm Simpson, R Alameda Alameda 

53 -If. D Hyde, R Alameda Oakland 

64-E. S. Culver, if Alameda Oakland 

55-M. C. Chapman, R. .. .Alameda Oakland 

66-C. O. Alexander, R . ..Alameda Oakland 

57-Henry Hook, R Contra Costa Pacheco 

68-K. S. Johns™, R San Joaquin Stockton 

59- John McMullin, 1) San Joaquin La*hrop 

60- C. T. LiUrave, D Amador lone 

61- John Gardner, R Calaveras Angels Camp 

62- L. R. Tullock, D Tuolumne Sonora 

63- Philo Hersey, R Sinta Clara San Jose 

64- James R. Lowe, /( Santa Clara San Jose 

65- L. A. Wbitehurst, D . Santa Clara Gilroy 

66- V. E. Bangs, 1) Stanislaus Modesto 

67- W. M. Rundell, D Merced, Mariposa Hornitos 

68- E. C. Tullv. D San B.-nito Bitterwater 

69- Thos. Renison, D Monterey Gonzales 

70- E. H. Tucker, D Fresno Selma 

71- G. Stockton Berry, I) . Tulare Visalia 

72- Oyrus Coltman, R. .. Inyo, Alpine, Mono, Warkleeville 

73- D. W. James, D San Luis Obispo. . .Paso Rubles 

74- .'. A. Storke, D Santa Barbara. . .Santa Barbara 

75- Geo. VV. Weir, D Kern, Ventura Bakersfield 

76- J. R. Brierly, R Los Angeles San Pedro 

77- J. M. Damron, /( Los Angeles Los Angeles 

78- E. E. Edwards, R Los Angeles Santa Ana 

79- E. W. Holmes, /{ San Bernardino Riverside 

80- N. A. Young, /( San Die^o San Diego 


Democrats 22 

Republicans 18 

Democratic majority 4 


Democrats 42 

Republicans 38 

Democratic majority 4 

Democ ats 64 

Republicans 56 

Democratic majority on joint ballot 8 

A Cordial Response. 

In our statement concerning the close of the 
last volume of the Rural we appealed to our 
•readers for their kind help in extending the cir- 
culation and influence of our journal. The fol- 
lowing cordial response comes from a man 
widely known and universally esteemed whose 
indorsement any one might well be proud of: 

" Give us your kind words, kind friends, and we 
shall strive each year to better deserve them." 
— Pacific Rural Press. The first time I saw the 
Pacific Rural Press, I subscribed for it, and from 
that t'me to the present it has been a weekly visitor in 
my family, welcomed by every member as an able, 
clean production, containing valuable information in 
agriculture and all that is best in farm life. Such has 
been our appreciation of it, that my wife and myself 
have often selected it as a present for some dear friend, 
thinking it a fit expression of sincere regard; and 
when I read the above quotation in the closing num- 
ber of 1888, pleasant recollections arose with a new 
meaning. Sympathy always exists in the hearts of 
true friends, but why not express it in words, when 
it is such a comfort to the weary worker in the cause 
of human progress ? 

Well do I remember the pleasure and profit de- 
rived from the Rural Press when its editors and 
publishers were strangers to me and our first meet- 
ing in the Grange, and the fraternal relations there 
established with increasing confidence all along the 
intervening years. Not that we always see from the 
same standpoint (that would destroy individuality), 
but from evident integrity and the recognition of the 
right of individual judgment. The Rural Press 
has ever cultivated the best qualities in human nat- 
ure, and its freedom from egotism is a perfect illus- 
tration of the modesty of its editors. 

Ilrests its facts and principles on intrinsic merit and 
invites candid criticism. In a word, it is a farmers' 
paper, and deserves a hearty welcome in every farm- 
er's family in the lnnd. Go on, worthy brothers; 
the Pacific Rural Press is appreciated, whether 
the outward expression reaches you or not. 

The reward of merit is always in store for noble, 
generous effort. I. C. Steele. 

An Orchard Company Incorporates. — The 
Tehama Fruit & Orchard Co. has purchased a 
tract of land in Tehama county and filed arti- 
cles of incorporation in Oakland. The capital 
stock is $50,000, and the directors are Newton 
Benedict, D. J. Quimby, J. B. Richardson and 
W. F. Randolph of Oakland and W. C. Evants 
of Alameda. The purposes are declared to be 
for planting, growing, preserving, buying and 
selling of fruits and other farm products; buy- 
ing and selling real estate, building houses, 
barns, fences, fruit evaporators and canneries; 
buying and selling and preserving nursery 
stock as well as borrowing and loaning money. 

The Vegetable Garden. 

In the first issue of the Rural Press for 
taking a hint from our old friend, J. W. Mack 
we called on readers, who have had experience 
in vegetable-growing in California, to tell that 
experience for the benefit of the tyro and 
"tenderfoot." The first response comes from 
our faithful Vacaville contributor. We hope 
others will send us notes on the subject, as 
terse and practical as his, from different sec- 
tions of the State. Here is " G.'s " communi- 

Editors Press: — In the last number of the 
Press, Bro. Mackie wishes a few hints on 
gardening. I will try to tell what little I know. 

As to the time to plant garden seeds, that 
varies in different parts of the State. Here at 
Vacaville, peas, button onions, lettuce and 
radishes should be sown as soon as the ground 
is wet enough, or Booner if a person is particular 
about having them early and is not afraid of 
doing a little extra hoeing. Peas should be 
sown once or twice later in the season, so as to 
have green peas all summer. These vegetables 
the frost does not hurt. 

The rule of the farmers in some of the States 
is to plant corn when the oak leaves are as big 
as a squirrel's foot, but here we plant corn, 
beans, potatoes, melons, cucumbers and 
squashes just as soon as we think the danger of 
frost is past. 

Beets, carrots, turnips and parsnips can be 
sown as soon as the ground is warm enough for 
them to grow without stopping on acoount of 
the cold. If beets are sown very early, they 
are apt to go to seed the first year. Parsnips 
and carrots want a rich, deep soil, and if the 
parsnip seed is over one year old, it is not apt 
to grow. 

Cabbage seed should be sown as early as the 
1st of January in a bed, and when the plants 
are from three to six inches high they should 
be transplanted. Set the plants two by three 
feet apart, and just before a shower or in cloudy 
weather if possible. Cabbage plants should be 
hoed when the dew is on them, but beans 
should not. 

Very often a cabbage or tomato plant will be 
found eaten off close to the ground, and it is 
always done in the night. Dig down to the 
root of the plant bitten off and you will find a 
brown grub-worm about half an inch long that 
has done the mischief. There are various ways 
of curing the worm of eating the plants after 
you catch him. 

Tomato plants can be planted in a bed like 
cabbage, only later, as they are tender and a 
little frost kills them. The best way for a 
small garden would be to make 
A Hot-Bed. 
The cost would be but little if made as fol- 
lows : Dig a hole 4 by 6 feet and 2 feet deep. 
Curb it up with any old boards handy, one foot 
above the ground on the south side and 2£ on 
the north, stopping the ends to matoh the sides. 
Now fill in two feet deep with fresh stable ma- 
nure — dry, if it can be had, but at any rate not 
so old as to have lost the heat. Wet it thor- 
oughly and put on six inches of dirt. Sow the 
tomato seed about one inch deep. If glass is 
not handy for a oover, a piece of canvas, paint- 
ed so as to turn water, will answer. The 
plants must be kept watered and the canvas 
rolled up to give them air and sun on warm 
days. The plants here are generally set [out 
when the first blossoms are on the vines, but 
they are first transplanted into what are called 
cold frames, which are similar to hot-beds, only 
not so tight. Ashes sprinkled on melon-vines 
will sometimes drive off the spotted bugs which 
are quite numerous here, but if the bugs make 
up tbeir minds to have the vines, they (like a 
woman) generally have their way. G. 

Shorthorn-Breeders' Conference. 

Editors Press:— Your valued paper of tie 5th 
inst. contained a suggestion from Mr. Peterson of 
Sites, that the Shorthorn breeders of the Pacific 
Coast form an association for the purpose of having 
meetings to further the interests of that noble breed 
of cattle. I have talked with several breeders on 
the subject and all seem to favor the idea, and it 
seems all that is wanted is some one to lead and 
make a call for such a meeting. I believe the Press 
will also help the matter along by giving it a notice. 
Such meetings would bring out in discussion many 
things of great interest and value to those who are 
young in the business of breeding pure-bloode d cat- 
tle. I would here suggest a meeting for the purpose 
of organizition be held at the rooms of the Secretary 
of State Agricultural Society, Sacramento, at an 
early date, hoping other breeders may consult and 
make a call through your valued paper, and fix the 
date for the first meeting. P. H. Murphy. 

Perkins, Jan. 8, i8S<). 

[This indicates progress — what say other 
breeders?— Eds. Press ] 

Fruit Shipments from Santa Clara Co. — 
We are indebted to I. A. Wilcox of Santa 
Clara for a copy of an account of fruit ship- 
ments from Santa Clara during 1888, furnished 
him by Mr. Stubbs of the Rai road Company as 


Dried fruit 8.974,430 

Green fruit 28,443,140 

Canned goods 18,675,470 

Bio Pears — One of our agents saw, on a re- 
cent trip to Contra Costa county, large Pound 
pears gathered from a limb over 60 feet high — 
pears that weighed from 2 to 2£ pounds. These 
pears were grown in the orchard of Dorr Sharp, 
in San Ramon valley, three miles up the valley 
from Walnut Creek. 



[Jan. 12, 1889 

Little Feet. 

Two little feet, so small that both may nestle 

In one caressing hand — 
Two tender feet upon the untried border 

Of Life's mysterious land. 

Dimpled and soft, and pink as peach-tree blossoms 

In April's iragrant days — 
How can they walk among the briery tangles 

Edging the world's rough ways ? 

These white-rose feet along the doubtful future 

Must bear a woman's load; 
Alas ! since woman has the heaviest burden, 

And walks the hardest road. 

Love for awhile will make the path before them 

All dainty, smooth and fair — 
Will cull away the brambles, letting only 

The roses blossom there; 

But when the mother's watchful eyes are shrouded 

Away from sight of men, 
And these dear feet are left without her guiding, 

Who shall direct them then ? 

How will they be, allured, betrayed, deluded — 

Poor little untaught feet ! 
Into what weary mazes will they wander, 

What dangers will they meet ? 

Will they go stumbling blindly in the darkness 

Of sorrow's tearful shades? 
Or find the upland slopes of Peace and Beauty, 

Whose sunlight never fades ? 

Will they go toiling up Ambition's summit, 

The common world above ? 
Or in some nameless vale securely sheltered, 

Walk side by side with Love? 

Some feet there be that walk Life's track unwound^d. 

Which find but pleasant ways. 
Some hearts there be to which this lile is only 

A round of happy days. 

But they are few. l-'ar more there are who wander 

Without a hope or friend — 
Who find their journey full of pain and losses. 

And long to reach the end. 

How shall it be with her, the tender stranger, 

Fair-faced and gentle eyed, 
Befcre whose unstained feet the world's rude high- 

Stretches so strange and wide? 

Ah ! who may read the future? For our darling 

We crave all blessings sweet — 
And pray that He who feeds the crying ravens 

Will guide the baby's feet. 

— Florence Percy. 

Joaquin Miller on the Storming of 

Not long ago I wrote an Open Letter to 
the War Department on behalf of an old 
soldier here. This brought so many letters 
to me from this class that I am almost com- 
pelled to say to one and all that I have but 
little respect for any man who is and has 
been nothing but a soldier. So don't write 
to me for either money or sympathy simply 
because you went to war. You were paid 
for it, and paid well. Why, nearly every 
man in California in the old days went out 
to fight Indians time and again and never 
got a cent. And General Fremont says in 
his new book that there is no fighting so 
terrible as these fights with savages. Yet I 
know a man who took part in six Indian 
wars, was three times wounded, and never 
asked or had a cent for his work or his 

But here comes a man who claims to have 
been wounded at the storming of Chapulte- 
pec, and he wants an increase of pension. 

Now as I have broken bread on the highls 
of Chapultepec, the Mexican West Point, 
and know all about the Mexican side of that 
most dastardly piece of work called " The 
Storming of Chapultepec," I am going to tell 
the country what the Mexicans told me 
about it. I think the less we brag about 
" the storming of Chapultepec " the better. 
Like all battles, this has two sides to it. 

Not long ago I mounted my horse in 
Mexico City and rode on out toward, and 
past, Chapultepec by way of the gate by 
which the American Army entered toward 
the close of the Mexican War. The great 
stone gate-posts, and walls, and the grand 
aqueduct by which the city is supplied with 
waier, all these are still badly torn and shat- 
tered by cannon-balls. The poor disheart- 
ened Mexicans have never, from that day, 
attempted to restore either the gates or the 
walls of their city. In one place I saw a 
cannon-ball still sticking in the high stone 

aqueduct. For you must remember that 
his long and costly water-way is on lofty 
arches. It is many miles in length and is 
not much inferior to the once famous aque- 
duct of Rome, the broken arches of which 
may still be seen stretching from " the city 
of seven hills" far out toward the olive hills 
of Froscata and Tivoli. 

I must not forget to tell you that it is the 
fashion here to spend much of the day on 
horseback, although many rich people drive, 
especially the ladies. They have street cars 
here now in great numbers passing in and 
out at nearly every gate of the city. They 
are drawn by very small mules and always 
go on a run from one town to the other. 
They go in long strings, like the steam cars, 
and never stop to take in passengers by the 
way. The guidebooks tell you that this is 
done as a prevention against brigands ! 
Once for all, let me say that Mexico is as 
safe from brigands as is Texas, or any other 
broad and sparsely settled country. The 
streets of the City of Mexico are much safer 
from all sorts of bad people later night and 
day than are those of the lower part of New 
York City. On ihe occasion of my ride be- 
fore referred to, I passed by the old baths 
of Montezuma, on the southern base of 
Chapultepec. And here on the warm rocks 
this pleasant winter day I saw, basking in 
the sun, an enormous rattlesnake. 

Ten minutes' gallop farther on up the 
most excellent roads — for this is the fashion- 
able drive — and I entered ihe wonderful cy- 
press woods. The trees here are of most 
stately dimensions. They are hung with 
long gray moss, much like those of the 
Southern States, and are indescribably grand 
and solemn. Many of them are thirty leet 
in diameter, and lofty in proportion. 

The Spanish conquerors found those two 
here. A little to the north of Chapultepec 
stands the cypress tree under which Cortez 
sat and wept after he had been driven from 
the city by the Aztecs. 

A gallop of ten minutes more took me en- 
tirely through this noble grove of mournful 
and majestic cypress trees, and brought me 
to the battle-field of El Molino del Key: 
The Mill of the King. 

An old mill stands here, still grinding. A 
dozen dismal mud huts make a sad and ugly 
border for the beautiful forest of Montezuma. 
On each of these huts sat at least a dozen 
hideous bald-headed vuliures, stretching 
their long necks now and then out toward 
where I had thrown myself on the shoit 
brown grass to muse and meditate; while 
my horse nibbled daintily at the blossoms of 
a cactus hedge. The vultures continually 
bowed their bald old heads, continually 
stretched their long, ugly necks toward me, 
and seemed in their lazy fashion to be ask- 
ing me, as I lay there, if I were really dead 
and ready to be eaten ! 

A naked Mexican, nearly black, trotted by 
with a pigskin full of their native drink on 
his back. They are alwa> s naked when at 
work or bearing burdens. They carry their 
clothes under their left arm till they come to 
the gates of the city. And this poor fellow 
with the pigskin, a woman and child pulling 
grass which ;hey put in a bag, the dozens of 
bald-headed vultures — were the only living 
things to be seen on the famous battle-field 
of Molino del Rey. 

But pretty soon I heard singing — such 
soft and old-fashioned and far-away singing 
as I had not heard since 1 sat cracking nuts 
at my father's hearthstone forty years before. 
I listened as I lay there, scarcely daring to 
breathe for fear of breakmgthe tender thread 
of melody and the holy memories of home 
and chi'dhood that were interwoven with it. 
But it kept on, swept on, like an a:olian 
harp, now low, now louder, but always in 
such sweet hai mony; so tender, so soft, so 
far away, so full of childhood, of home. ... I 
could not see the blue sky above me at last, 
here on the brave old battle field. Maybe 
the wind began to blow, and maybe some 
dust of the battle-field blew into my tired 
old eyes. Surely I was a child again. 

Rising up on my elbow to dig out a hand- 
kerchief from my pocket, I looked down and 
saw that my legs were almost black with 
crickets— pretty little flat-backed, black, 
hearthstone crickets ! And these were my 
little charmers, "charming never so wisely." 

Ah, mournful little cricket clad in black, 
sing on; sing on forever above the brave 
Mexican defenders, and the valiant invaders 
too, who fell on the battle-field of Molino del 
Rey behind the hights of beautiful Chapul- 
tepec ! I know of nothing more tender, 
more touching to the heart of an American, 
than this pretty and pathetic fact. And in 
this fact you read the real meaning of the 
name "Chapultepec." It is these pretty 
little black mourners who mourn and sing 
their sad melodies here forever over the 
battle-field. It is these crickets that have 
given the sweet name Che-pul ta-pec — the 
singing of the grasshopper — to these glorious 
and battle-torn hights; translate it as you 

please. But these little black crickets have 
been saying and singing continually, and for 
thousands of years, I reckon, Chi-pul ta-pec ! 
Chi-pul-ta pec ! Chi-pul-ta-pec 1 

There is a great big hideous battle-picture 
hanging in the Capitol of our Nation called 
"The Storming of Chapultepec," which must 
be taken down; and not entirely because it 
is so badly painted, either. Listen to the 
true story of the storming of Chapultepec: 
This hight overlooking the City of Mexico 
is, as said before, and was at the time of the 
Mexican War, the Military Academy of 
Mexico — the Mexican West Point. 

Well, nearly all the boys here had gone 
down to battle, hadfallen in thevariousbattles 
that had already been fought under the walls 
of the city and within sight of the Academy. 
But there still remained nearly one hundred 
too small to bear arms, all being under the 
age of fourteen — some being no more than 
nine years of age. 

When the summons came to surrender, 
the only surviving man there was the old 
white-headed schoolmaster of the very small 
boys. Now bear in mind this is the Mexican 
side of the story I am telling. But I believe 
it to be entirely true, or I certainly should 
not write it down for my own country to 
read. The old man hesitated, not knowing 
what to do, as the leaders had all been 
killed or captured. And so the storming 
party of Americans came pouring on through 
the cypress trees and up the hill. The old 
man meantime kept urging his little boys 
to go down the hill on theoiher side, still open 
to escape, and get out of the way. He even 
pushed some of the party down the hill, 
notably one little boy of nine years who had 
a widowed mother depending on his future, 
and who afterward became famous. But 
some of the little fellows, forty-one in all, 
were too full of fight to go. They turned 
about, drew their little swords, and, with the 
old man at their head, fell and died all in a 
heap there at the door of the Academy ! 

Down at the foot of this hight stands a 
modest little monument with an inscription 
to this effect: " In Mkmoryof a School- 
master and Forty-one of his Pupils." 
That is all. But on the little mound there 
every day of the year, rain or shine, peace 
or war, is laid a wreath of flowers. 

And so I say that the insolent and false 
and absurd battle-piece which looks down 
over one of our great maible stairways in 
the Capitol of our great Nation has got to 
come down. It has been there too long 
already. It should never have been put up 
there. For it is as fa'se to art as it is to 
history. Besides all that, the less we say 
about some of these battles the better for 
American honor and patriotism. ' Twas a 
sad war at best. The little crickets seem 
to know it, too. For over and over their 
sad song runs: " Cha-pul-ta-pec ! Cha-pul- 
ta-pec 1 Cha-pul-ta-pec!" 

And this is about all I have to say to you 
or any other " veteran of the Mexican War." 
If you were wounded at the ''storming of 
Chapultepec, 1 ' you were most likely wounded 
by one of your own comrades or by a beard- 
less little boy fighting for the home of his 
fathers; and as you already have a pension 
according to your own account, and were 
certainly well paid at the time of our ignoble 
invasion of the sister Republic, I think your 
present mournful letter to me a miserable 
and most unsoldierlike piece of imperti- 
nence. At the same time I ought to add 
that I am only one of our sixty millions and 
speak only for myself. But I have been in 
too many battles to hold any man in great 
respect who can do nothing but fight and 
brag about his wounds. Why, the dogs of 
the street can fight. A dog can fight better 
than a man any day, and he doesn't brag 
about it, either. Give me a man who, like 
Coriolanus, refused to show his scars or sell 
them to the country for coin or place, and 

I will wear him in my heart of hearts." 

Joaquin Miller. 

The Hights, Oakland, Cal. 

What She Did with a Tramp —A dispatch 
from Tacoma says: At about 4 o'clock thia 
afternoon the servant girl employed at the 
residence of Mr. and Mrs. David Lester, on 
Pacific avenue and Fifteenth street, noticed a 
burly young tramp enter the basement 
of the house from the back door. The 
girl was some distance from the house, and 
immediately notified Mrs. Cotes, who lives 
next door. This plucky woman took her 
husband's Winchester rifle, loaded it, and, 
going to Mr. Lester's house, found the intrud 
ing tramp, and covering him with the rifle 
forced him to come out of the house quietly. 
Mr. and Mrs. Lester, returning home, were 
just in time to see Mrs. Cotes raining blows 
upon the head and shoulders of the tramp, 
using the gun as a club. A large crowd had 
collected at the corner, and witnessed the 
proceedings with great hilarity. When he had 
been beaten for sometime the would have-been 
thief slunk off in abject fear of being shot. 
Mrs. Cotes weighs not much over 100 pounds, 
but has pluck in abundance. 

Another Image Broken 

[Written for the Rural Pkkhs by Dauhar Mariaokr.] 
Mr. S. and wife didn't have any turkey for 
Christmas, and neither did I; and the strange 
thing connected with these facts was this, that 
we didn't want any. Indeed, we had, baby and 
all, gotten a wave of that Christian charity 
which we are told is scarce, and the consequence 
was that the two turkeys our neighbor ex- 
pected us to buy actually had their Christmas, 
too, on their legs, subject to voluntary motion, 
and with their gobbling organs in working order. 
1 don't know but our two families may be ac- 
cused of putting our heads together and plot- 
ting against our neighbor's time-honored cus- 
tom, the demand- and supply enthusiast, the 
world at large, and even sacred laws. If so, 
then, of course, we propose to plead innocence 
with all the barefacedness possible. And if 
that doesn't annihilate the anticipated storm 
of blame, we expect to ask " I. H.," author of 
" Hints for a Christmas Dinner," in the Dee. 
2'2d issue, to help us bear the burden of it. We 
know something about nervous headaches and 
their causes, and so could afford to shed a tear 
of sympathy for Aunt Sarah and her numerous 
duplicates, followed by a " bravo " for the true 
gentleman, Uncle John. 

True, we did put our heads together, repeat- 
ing significantly Ethel's words: "Holidays! 
What are they for but to add new burdens to 
those we women have to bear already ? If 
there could be a holiday without eating and 
drinking I could enjoy it." Yea, we whispered 
to each other, if only holidays were worshipful 
in some more humane and less sensual way than 
the wholesale " stuffing " and "swilling "so 
widely practiced, we might feel more conscien- 
tious in persecuting the infidel who ignores 

We then slept and dreamed over the germ of 
rebellion that had entered our souls, and we 
saw turkeys, happy turkeys, gossiping among 
themselves, and enjoying the air and sunshine 
nature gave alike to turkey and man; and we 
awoke with the germ brisk as the Hindoo ma- 
gician's mango seed, grown to a fruit-bearing 

Yes, we put our heads together, and our 
labors, too, though they were not very 
fatiguing. We doubled up our families, so to 
speak, and bustled about for a little while in 
getting up the dinner, which is to pass into his- 
tory, by way of our diaries, as an exceptionally 
pleasant affair. The table was spread with 
things warm, good to the taste and wholesome, 
and we all helped ourselves to what best suited 
us. Those who preferred their pudding first and 
soup last bad it so, and vice versa. We had 
no animal flesh on the table, yet I doubt if any 
Christmas dinner in the State, with its accom- 
panying chat, was more merry and generally 
satisfactory than was ours. 

Mrs. S. and I spared ourselves the bruises of 
the Juggernaut wheels, and we feel rather 
proud than guilty in having done so, as we are 
not partial to blood atonement nor to the mak- 
ing of burnt human sacrifices over the kitchen 

Santa Tiarhara. 

Chautauquan Program. 

The annual meeting of the Paoific Coast 
branch of the Chautauqua Cirole took place at 
San Jose on the 31 instant. 

It was resolved to hold the summer meeting 
at Pacific Grove, Monterey, during two weeks, 
beginning July Sth. Rsv. Dr. Sinex was 
authorized to procure a tent and have it erect- 
ed near the seashore for the purpose of vesper 
services and round-table discussions. Dr. A. 
C. Hirst, president of the University of the 
Pacific, was appointed to preach the morning 
sermon on the first Sunday and Rev. Dr. 
Wheeler of Sacramento the evening sermon. 

It was decided to add an art department to 
the course of study, and Miss Kennedy, of the 
University of the Pacific, was selected to 
conduct it. 

It was decided to invite the following gentle- 
men to speak at the summer meeting: Rsv. 
H. C. Minton of San Jose, Rev. Dr. McKenzie 
of 8. F., Rev. Dr. Dille of Oakland, Prof. E. S. 
Holden of the Lick Observatory, President 
Davis of the State University, Prof. Le Conte 
and Prof. Keep of Mills Seminary, Prof. Meade 
of Oakland and Prof. Tboburn of the Univer- 
sity of the Pacific. 

" Chestm't," as a slang phrase, is done with, 
and an equally meaningless word has been sub- 
stituted. It is "dusty." Do you admire any- 
thing from a stylish toilet to a dainty dish, jou 
are privileged to sav: "There is nothing 
' dusty ' about that." On the whole, when one 
takes time to consider, there is more sense in 
"dusty" than in most fashionable Blang. A 
dusty object euggetts one whose freshness is 
despoiled. Just how the " chestnut" was ever 
significant, no one has yet clearly defined. — 
Table Talk. 

Lank Lectures. — The seventh conrse of free 
popular lectures at the Cooper Medical College 
in this city opened on Friday evening, Jan. 4th, 
with an address by Prof. L C. Lane on "Sor- 
cery." The leotures are to be continued on al- 
t°rnate Friday evenings up to and including 
May 10th by Profs. Barkan, Wythe, Gibbons, 
and others distinguished in the profession. 

Jan. 12, 1889.J 

fACIFie l^U 



The Ethics of Marriage. 

Every now and then a book is written be- 
cause the author has to do it; because he feels 
that a word must be said, and, since no one 
else will say it now, he must try to utter it. 
Such an one is " The Ethics of Marriage," by 
Dr. H. L. Pomeroy of Boston, lately published 
by Funk & Wagnalls of New York. 

The scope of the work may be seen in these 
chapter headings : The Family and the State; 
Marriage; The Perversion of Marriage the Amer- 
ican Sin; The Mission of the Child; Heredity; 
Woman's Work; Over-Population; Other Bars 
to Parenthood; Suggestions. And the spirit in 
which the doctor has written shows forth in 
the title-page motto : " A little child shall 
lead them," and the inscription: "To my 
mother this little book is affectionately and rev- 
erently dedicated." 

A few brief extracts, taken here and there, 
may give some notion of the wise and noble 
way in which the author treats his momen- 
tous theme : 

In a republic all civil reform must have its roots in 
reform of the individual and the family. * * 
The voter's will is usually the expression of his birth 
and home training. And so we may trace reform 
back to the nursery. 

We pride ourselves on our zeal for the sanctity of 
the family relation; and yet we entertain false and 
dangerous ideas respecting marriage; and these ideas 
are leading to practices which will, if unchecked, 
soon corrupt and destroy our national life. A 
healthy marriage begets a healthy family, and a suffi- 
cient number of healthy families beget a healthy 
State. So the ideal State may be traced back 
to true views and treatment of the marriage rela- 

We can never have satisfactory laws which shall 
be vigorously executed until each home in the land 
becomes an institution for rearing and educating in- 
telligent, conscientious voters who will be ashamed 
not to vote when it is possible to do so. 

When men and women understand and appre- 
ciate the mission of the little child, they will have re- 
gard for the welfare of that which may by and by be 
born to them. The child even before birth is able 
to lead the parent out of selfish thought into loving 
care for another. 

A young woman should not forget that her lover 
virtually proposes himself as the future father of her 
children; only from this standpoint can she make an 
intel igent and safe estimate of him. 

An honorable spinsterhood is a hundred times 
better than a dishonorable wifehood. No woman 
should marry unless she loves; marriage which is 
not a union of hearts as well as hands must always 
b' a virtual failure. 

A good time to learn to be a prudent, temperate 
and virtuous husband and father is during the 20 
years b- fore one begins. 

Children who are given pre-natal love and care, so 
that Ihey have a clean and noble birthright, and 
who are afierward thoroughly and reverently in- 
structed in regard to the nature and functions of the 
bodies God has given them, may be expected to 
possess characters which, by strength from within, 
will hold out against almost any attack on their 

It would be well for the world if the theologian, 
the scientist, the philosopher, the political econo- 
mist, the philanthropist, and all the others who are 
w irking lor the good of humanity, have the little 
child set in their midst, and learn from it that their 
interests are not many, but one, and that each is a 
co-worker with all who are at work on the various 
problems of life, which are, after all, but one prob- 
lem — in what manner and by what means to form 
character and bring it into harmony with the Cre- 
ator and His creation. 

We are informed that Dr. Pomeroy is a phy- 
sician and surgeon of large experience in con- 
stant and varied practice; and the fact that a 
minister of so high standing as Rev. J. T. 
Duryea, D D., has written an introduction to 
the volume, and given it his hearty indorse- 
ment, is very gratifying and encouraging to 
those who have at heart the cause of moral ed- 
ucation. We hope that this modest, earned 
little work will find a million of attentive and 
reverent readers. 

Temperate, Self-Denying, Honest. 

Remarkable for their temperance and gentle- 
ness in expression, as well as uncompromising 
protests against tippling and gambling of all 
sorts, are these resolutions adopted by the 
recent Unitarian Conference at Sin Diego: 

"Resolved, That our conference expresses 
its profound sympathy with the National 
Unitarian Temperance Society, the Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union and all other or- 
ganizations that are battling the giant evils of 
intemperance in our land: and that we will, dur- 
ing the coming year, use renewed endeavors to 
bring to the attention of our parishioners the 
aims and obj j cts of these organizations. 

" Resolved, That since it is agreed on all 
sides that such beverages form no part of a 
necessary diet for men and women in health, 
we affectionately call on those who may regard 
their moderate use as innocent to give up such 
use out of compassion for their weaker brethren. 

" Resolved, Seeing that the common weal re- 
quires each to do his share of the common 
work as well as enjoy his share of the common 
product, and that to get value from others 
without rendering an equivalent is demoraliz- 
ing, we reoord our protest against gambling of 
all descriptions, whether home or foreign lot- 
teries, faro games, betting upon races, rallies 
and gift enterprises, as well as speculating 
schemes in merchandise, mines or lands, whose 
success to the few means the impoverishment 
and demoralizition of great numbers." 


A Tale of Long Ago. 

[Written for the Rural Press by Maude S. Peaslee.] 

There was great rejoicing in a land across 
the sea when the king came home from a vic- 
torious battle. The city was hung with bright 
garlands of flowers, and the children strewed 
blossoms under the feet of the returning war- 
riors. Even the horses seemed to partake of 
the general rejoicing, for, although weary and 
footsore, they carried their heads proudly and 
stepped lightly. 

Behind the escort of the king came a little 
band of worn and haggard prisoners. One 
among them was a boy in years, but manly in 
his undaunted spirit. 

" Away with them !" cried Alfric the king, 
as they reached the castle gate. "Cast them 
into the strongest dungeon beneath the castle 
walls I" 

He then passed into the castle to carry the 
good news of victory to his queen. His little 
daughter Gerda had been wakened by the clash 
of arms in the courtyard below, and was sob- 
bing piteously in her cradle. Her mother could 
not quiet her, and the king took her in his 
mailed arms and carried her to and fro while he 
told the queen of the success he had had in 

The child looked up through her tears, and 
smiled in the father's face. 

"God keep thee safe from harm, my babe," 
he said, and laid her down in her cradle. 

The gentle mother sighed, for she felt that 
none were safe while bloodshed ruled the land. 

The years had passed in peace and quiet, and 
the little Gerda's flaxen hair now reached below 
her waist. She had often heard of the terrible 
war that shook the land seven years before, but 
most she liked the tales her old nurse Hedwig 
told her of the fairies and gnomes who lived 
under ground. 

One day she was playing about the castle, 
and in an old room she found hid under the 
tapestry a picture of two men fighting. The 
victorious one had his foot on the chest of the 
other, and his battle-ax was lifted to kill him. 

"Thou hateful, hateful fellow!" cried the 
tender-hearted little princess; and clenching her 
little fist, she struck the victor. 

At the blow, the picture swung back on 
binges like a door, and disclosed a flight of steps 
leading down into darkness. 

" Ah ! now I shall find the fairies 1" cried 
Gerda joyfully, and she started fearlessly down 
the steps. 

1) >wn, down she went until, through winding 
passages, she lost her way and wandered to and 
fro, crying softly and calling to her good nurse 
Hedwig to come and show her the way. 

S uddenly she heard a voice, and listening, it 

" Who weeps ?" 

" 'Tis I, 'tis Princess Gerda," ehe cried. "I 
cannot find the way." 
Then the voice said: 

" Fear not, O Princess Gerda 1 
If thou wilt turn the key. 
How gladly will I offer 
To be a guide to thee." 

She felt about in the darkness and found the 
rusty key, but she could not turn it in the lock. 

*' Oh ! try once more," the voice cried. 

She tried again and again, and at last turned 
it round, and the door swung open. 

Some one came out and bent over her. She 
could not see him, but his voice was kind, and 
she was not afraid, but put her hand in his. 

"Now, little maiden, will you promise me to 
never tell how you came down here, nor of 
what you found ? If so, I will lead you up to 
the glad sunlight again." 

She promised eagerly, and they began going 
up the stairs. Before long they reached the 
door in the wall made by the picture of the 
two men fighting. When she turned to thank 
her companion, he was gone, and she could see 
only the picture against the wall. She won- 
dered much, but, remembering her promise, she 
told no one nor asked any questions. 

Ten years more passed away, and Gerda 
stood in the old room once more. Outside was 
the clash of arms again, and she was sick at 
heart at the thought of the danger her father 
was in. 

The cruel Alaric, King in the North, had 
swept down upon the land, and driving all be- 
fore him, was now storming the castle itself. 

Just as a shriek from within was followed by 
a shout from the besiegers, " The drawbridge 
is down I" a crash of arms was heard on tha 
right side. 

The superstitious army stood a second in dis- 
may, and then a murmur ran through its ranks. 

" The gods ! the gods ! they are against us 1" 
and with one accord the whole army turned 
and fled. They were followed and many slain 
by the king's hosts. 

Poor Gerda stood within the old room, trem- 
bling still for the fate of her father. 

When the king's men returned, he himself 
sought the stranger who had so aided him. 

"Who art thou?" he asked, "and what 
brings thee here ? " 

" I am Eric, son of Eric," he answered. 

At this the king paled. 

" 1 have heard of thee, and how well thou 

rulest thy kingdom by the sea. But thy 
father sleeps on yonder plain slain by my hand; 
why comest thou to help me ? " 

" I come for thy daughter's hand," said brave 
Eric. "Have I thy permission to ask her 

The king bowed his head, for he could not 
well refuse; and going first to his daughter, he 
told her the news. 

" It would please me well," he said, and she 
bowed her head in meek submission to her 
father's will. 

Great was her surprise when Eric entered to 
hear softly whispered in her ear, as he took 
her willing hand: 

" Fear not, O Princess Gerda ! 
If thou wilt turn the key, 
How gladly will I offer 
To be a guide to thee." 


Savory Fragments. 

The table is the place where most waste can 
oocur; so guard it well and pay striot attention 
to the second serving of food. The people who 
prefer an economical table, which in their own 
mind means broiled steak and roast beef, are 
the most difficult to cater for. Study to make 
the warmed-over dishes decidedly more than 
ordinary hashes. Employ judicious combina- 
tions and pleasant seasonings — for instance, use 
sage with warmed-over pork, parsley with poul- 
try, sprig of mint with your mutton or lamb, 
and a little onion to stimulate the beef. Cucum- 
ber catsup, inexpensive if you make it your- 
self, hightens the flavor of fish. An acid jelly 
with tame duck, and tomato sauce with 
warmed-over veal. For warming over dark 
meats use brown sauces, made frmai browned 
butter and flour; for'white meats, cream sauces, 
which, of course, can be made of milk. One or 
two potatoes, left from dinner, will make a 
comfortable dish of Lyonnaise potatoes for 
breakfast. The two tablespoonfuls of green 
peasjleft may be turned into an omelet for an- 
other meal. Boiled rice may be made into cro- 
quettes. Fish into scallops, cutlets or cream 
fish. Ham into croquettes. B ief into hash, 
meat balls, ragouts, rissoles, or warmed up in 
its own gravy. Soup meat may be pressed or 
potted. Game and duck made over into salmis. 
Chicken and turkey into salads, croquettes, ris- 
soles, boudins and timbale. Pieces of bread 
left at the table may be used for toast, croutons, 
bread puddings, or crumbs for breading. Veal 
rewarmed makes delicious blanquette or crom- 

Many vegetables suffer bat little from a 
second warming, and even if only in small quan- 
tity, may be served as a garnish for a little meat 
dish, thereby rendering it palatable and sightly. 

In all these little points we must be on the 
alert, or the garbage bucket will devour our 
substance. Those who have the responsibility 
of the household management must not forget 
the necessity of practical work in the kitchen. 
The power of giving directions so clearly that 
the maid will from them produce the desired 
results, is, perhaps, all that is required in some 
cases; but to teach others thoroughly, bo that 
no waste will occur, one must be able to do the 
thing one's self. It is well to give at least one 
hour a day to the study of cooking as an ex- 
perimental science; also, to study the chemistry 
and physiology of food, and I have no hesita- 
tion in saying that in three months you will be 
well repaid for the time thus spent. Look, for 
instance, at a combinatiou like this: Roast 
pork and mashed potatoes; such occurs fre- 
quently in families of some intelligence, but 
nothing shows one's ignorance so Quickly as 
such menus. Pork and beans or peas show some 
sense, but pork and potatoes none. No do- 
mettx art shows so much thought, care, judg- 
ment, intelligence, inventiveness and taste as 
good cooking. — Mrs. Rortr in January Table 

Making Wine Vinegar. 

In answer to a request for information how to 
make vinegar from wine, we reprint the fol- 
lowing, written by D. R. for the Rural some 
years since: 

Our California white wines contain from 14 
to 18 per cent alcohol according to where they 
have been raised, the wines from the foothills 
being much heavier than those from the lower 
lands, especially if they have been irrigated. 
For vinegar, you do not want more than eight 
or uine per cent alcohol, so you have to add 
from three-fourths to one part of water; the 
best is rain- water, or else take spring-water and 
boil it for awhile; pour the mixture into a bar- 
rel or pipe, but don't quite fill it up; bore a 
hole in each head near the bungstave to 
give a good circulation of air, and close the 
bunghole with a bottle, neck down; keep as 
near as you can at a temperature of from 80° 
to 86°, and if your vinegar gets sufficiently 
sour, draw off and refill, and it will sour much 
quicker the next time. To create a quicker 
fermentation you can add some yeast of any 
kind, sour dough, or, if you can get it, mother 
of vinegar, in filling the barrel the first time — 
afterward it is not necessary. 

Snow Cake. — Two cups sugar pulverized, 
one cup butter, one cup sweet milk, one cup 
cornsttrch, two cups flour, two heaping tea- 
spoonfuls baking powder, lemon. 

G[oOG> J^E/rLTH. 

Points About Pneumonia. 

According to a medical contemporary, Dr 
Gouverneur L. Smith of New York has jus 
given some interesting and startling factd n re- 
gard to pneumonia. Dr. Smith points our that 
the disease is becoming worse every year, in- 
creasing rather than decreasing, both in the 
number of cases and the percentage of mortal- 
ity. The statistics of the Pennsylvania hospital 
show that the mortality from pneumonia theie 
advanced from 154; per cent in 1847 to 31 p<^ 
cent in 1886. Similarly, in the New York hos- 
pital the ratio of mortality from this disease is 
more than double what it was in 1878. Thirty 
or forty years ago it was regarded as serious, 
but it did not excite anything like the alarm it 
does to day. Dr. Smith is rather inclined to 
believe that the medical art, instead of progress- 
ing in its treatment of pneumonia, has actually 
gone back, and holds that the old methods of 
treating the disease at the time it was less 
deadly have been abandoned for methods more 
finical, but less efficacious. 

Symptoms of Approaching Pneumonia. 

Dr. J. B. Johnson writes in the Medical Sum- 
mary as follows : 

The approach of pneumonia is not always 
without warning. There are usually certain 
feelings or sensations of the body which tell, 
with greater or less certainty, that an attack 
is beginning. An individual, for a day or two 
prior to the actual invasion of the disease, feels 
badly in a general way. These bad feelings 
consist of a chilliness of the whole body, and if 
his clothes be at all damp with perspiration he 
feels cold and uncomfortable. He is feverish, 
and yet it seems impossible for him to get 
warm. This feverishness is attended with great 
chilliness, which increases when he is exposed 
to a draft of coli air. 

As evening approaches all these bad feelings 
are inoreased, and when night comes on he has 
pains in his back and limbs, accompanied by a 
slight cough and unnatural frequency of breath- 
ing, with unusual quickness of the pulse and 
a feeling of uneasiness or oppression about 
the chest. His sleep is disturbed by chilliness, 
restlessness and unpleasant dreams. The 
warmth of his bed and bed-chamber may cause 
a slight cessation of his bad feelings, and in the 
morning, feeling better, he goes out attending 
to his business, only to have all his bad feel* 
ings return with increased force at the approach 
of the coming night. 

Should he heed the warning implied by the 
return of his bad feelings and confine himself to 
an equal temperature of about 65 degrees, and 
partake of copious drinks of hot tea, coffee or 
milk, he may possibly avert an attack of the 

Different Phases of "Mind Cure." — Now 
that all forms of mental healing are much talked 
of and largely adopted, it might be well for the 
public to know that the disciples of the differ- 
ent schools resent the common practice of out- 
siders bulking them all under the head of 
"mind cure." Mind enters into each one, to 
be sure, but in different forms and through 
different doors. They who practice "Christian 
science "draw healing force from the Infinite 
Mind, and consider their own minds as at 
most a mere telegraph line through which the 
vivifying power reaches the patient's mind. 
Plain " mind cure " works by the operation of 
the healer's individual mind on the subject, 
and partakes of what is known as mesmerism or 
hypnotism. "Faith cure " and " prayer cure " 
are one and the same, both relying upon faith to 
override disease. If any one doubts that the 
healing of disease by mental methods is going 
on briskly in this city, let him drop into the 
offices of some of the best-known practitioners 
and see the collection of patients waiting hour 
after hour in order that each may get a treat- 
ment. Nine o'clock is the hour for beginning 
the business of healing. An hour before that, 
six and eight patients are in readiness to get 
their slice of life and health as drawn from the 
infinite source of all life and wholeness. From 
that time on until the office closes at night it is 
never empty, and most of these reach a point 
when they declare themselves healed. — New 
York Press. 

Effect of Petroleum on the Human 
Body.- — A German physician has recently issued 
a report of his observations on the effects of 
petroleum on the human body. The facts on 
which his conclusions are based have been gath- 
ered during extensive travels in the American 
petroleum districts. He found that a skin dis- 
ease was very prevalent among the workmen 
who were employed at the wells, and on closer 
examination he concluded that the disease es- 
pecially attacked those who were engaged with 
the heavier and more inflammable oil. Numer- 
ous cases were discovered of large quantities 
of petroleum having been swallowed, with the 
result of violent affections of the stomach, kid- 
neys, and nervous system. In one case where 
a glassful of petroleum had been drunk, the 
greatest difficulty was experienced in prevent- 
ing the patient from falling asleep, an eventu- 
ality which is especially fatal in such in- 
stances. Symptoms of poisoning could also be 
traced after a lengthened period of inhalation 
of the vapor, but the symptoms were only no- 
ticeable when the subject was in a bad state of 



RAlo p>RESS. 

[Jan. 12, 1889 

A. T. DKWKY. w - B. EWER. 

Published by DEWEY 4; CO. 

Office, 220 Market St., -V. E. cor. Front St.,S.F. 
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Advertising: Rates. 

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Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
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In extraordinary type, or in particular parts of the paper, 
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Our latent form* go to press Wednesday evening. 

Registered at S. F. Post Office as second-class mail matter. 


Saturday, January 12, 1889. 


EDITORIALS.— The Cleveland Bay, 25. The Week; 
The Bight Time; California Fruit 1'nion; The Legisla- 
ture, 32. Agricultural Review, 33- 

HjL.U8TRATION8.-Cleveli»iid Bay Stallion, Royal 
Studley, 25, Cleveland Biy Stallion Napoleon, 37. 
Ladies Costumes, 38. 

tions; Tulare Grange; Resolutions of Respect; Eden 
and Temescal Grange Meetings; The Value of a Farmer; 
San Jose Grange, 28. 

FLORICULTURE — Spring Flowering Bulbs, 26. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL.— A New Foe of the Peach, 26. 

THE FIELD. — Wheat Facts and Figures. 27. 

THE DAIRY.— Cheese ami Butter from the Same 
Milk, 27. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— Little Feet; Joaquin Miller 
on the Storming of Chapultepec; What She Did with a 
Tramp; Another linage Broken; Chautauquan Program; 
The Ethics of Marriage; Temperate, Self- Denying, 
Honest, 31- 

Ago, 31- 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. — Savory Kragments; 
Making Wine Vinegar; Snow Cake, 31. 

GOOD HEALTH.— Points About Pneumonia; Differ- 
ent Phases of " Mind Cure;" Effect of Petroleum on 
the Human Body, 31. 

POULTRY YARD. — F.xpcrience in Incubation; 
Poultry in the Orchard, 35. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES.— From the various 
counties of California, 36. 

THE PUBLIC LANDS.— Revision of the Land 

Laws, 38. 

Business Announcements. 


Carbon Bisulphide— J. H. Wheeler. 

Cherry Trees— A. Bouton, llealdsburg. 

Whale Oil Soap— Allyne & White. 

Surplus Stock— Gill's Nurseries, Oakland. 

Carbon Bisulphide— James Linforth. 

Almond Trees— Treat & Lennox, Davisville. 

Horses— G. J. Vandeivoot, Sunol, 0*1. 

Roses— The Dinger & Conard Co , West Grove, Pa. 

The Housekeeper— Minneapolis, Minn. 

Roses— Hill & Co., Richmond, Ind. 

Sewing Machines— The Singer Mfg. Co. 

Apiarian Supplies — Mrs. J. D- Eoas, Napa, Cal. 

Polled Angus Cattle— Killip & Co. 

Installment Notice— Grangers' Bank of Cat. 

Horses — Holbert, Stimson & Co., Los Angeles. 

Butter Color— Wells, Richardson & Co. 

Seeds— F. Ford k Sons, Ravenna, Ohio. 

Oranges— Ja|»nese Tree Importing Co. 

t9"See Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

We give much space this week to the review 
of California agricultural production for the 
year 1SS8. Statistics are often looked upon as 
dry reading, and yet there is no way at all 
comparable to carefully arranged figures for 
presenting facts and tendencies of industrial 
moment. The review, aside from showing the 
achievements in various individual lines of pro- 
ductive effort, gives the impression on the 
whole that our State is growing, and that it is 
proceeding upon the safe basis of diversified 
agriculture. Though people generally hear 
most of two or three branches in which there is 
much life and action, still there is commend- 
able growth and progress in other lines whioh 
are perhaps quieter, but none the less honor- 
able and important. 

The weather has been, as a rule, clear, and 
some nights frosty, though intervening days 
were warm. We need a season of working 
weather for winter plowing and sowing and 
planting. The frosts are valuable, too, for the 
trees would soon be in full bloom were they in- 

fluenced only by day temperatures. As it is, 
some trees on dry, shallow soil which became 
dormant early were in bloom on New Year's, 
but it is not well even for tree or human kind 
to be too forward. The modest man escapes 
many snubs and the backward tree saves its 

The Right Time. 

It has become an adage, "strike when the 
iron is hot." Men often fail in their purposes 
of good because they do not act at the right 
time. The success of every good movement 
largely depends upon its being vigorously prose- 
cuted at the proper time. History is full of 
examples. Take inventions for instance: Dis- 
coveries usually come when the times are ripe 
for them. When the progress of humanity cul- 
minates in some want or demand, an inventive 
genius is always ready to furnish what the pub- 
lic needs. The cotton<gin, the sewing ma- 
chine, the reapers and mowers, the steam en- 
gine, the telegraph, the telephone, and hundreds 
of other useful inventions that we have no space 
to catalogue, came at the moment when society 
was ripe for them. 

Take another illustration more fitting to the 
case now in view. Fifty years ago slavery in 
the United States was pretty generally re- 
garded as a fixed and permanent institution. 
The only prevalent idea in the North was to 
prevent its spread over new territory. Perhaps 
ninett en-twentieths of the people in the North, 
while regarding slavery as a great evil, were 
willing to let it remain, provided it did not ask 
for new territory. They saw no hope of its abo- 
lition. But slavery was aggressive — it de- 
manded the right to spread itself over the land. 
This in a few swift years brought on the event- 
ful moment for wiping out the curse from the 
soil and Constitution of the American people; 
and the proclamation struck the fetters from 
4.000,000 of bondmen. It could not have 
been accomplished at an earlier date. The con- 
victions of the people were ripe for the event 
when it occurred, and the idea of liberty was 
placed as a star in the firmament of the Consti 
tution at the most auspicious moment. It cer- 
tainly could not have been so well done earlier 
or later. It came in the right moment, and 
the members of all political parties are satisfied 
with the result. Kven the South to day would 
not vote itself back to slavery. 

Let us heed the lesson. It is certain that the 
legislation in this country for a number of years 
has been strongly in the direction of creating 
and upholding monopolies and special privileges 
in the shape of railway companies, water com- 
panies, gas companies, and other forms of 
monopoly. But this despotic power was 
not content to stop here, but has songht 
within a few years, like slavery, to ex- 
tend its scepter over new territory. There is 
now scarcely an article of necessity and utility 
in the American household which has not fallen 
into the hands of monopolizing corporations or 
" trusts," from the sugar that sweetens our tea 
to the steel rails over which the commodities 
and products of the land are transported. 
This state of things has bred 500 millionaires 
where there were five before, and the working- 
man is just about as poor as he was in the be- 
ginning. But he is '25 years older in experience, 
and indications are not wanting that the work- 
ingmen of the United Sbates are becoming thor- 
oughly aroused to the abuses and mischiefs of a 
legislative system which has so long been sus- 
tained by their votes. The numerous guilds, 
labor organizations and anti poverty move- 
ments all show that new ideas are fermenting 
n the minds of the masses, in regard to legisla- 
tive policy, that may portend great events. 

"Strike when the iron is hot," if you ex- 
pect the metal to be readily shaped by the 
hammer. Changes in the moral or the political 
world are most successfully made when the ele- 
ments are right for the ohange; and surely 
there is no better time to stop, suppress, or 
manacle this new form of slavery, that levies a 
tax on every article of the household, than just 
now while it is seeking wider dominion, and 
there is everywhere a feeling of uneasiness and 
irritation. There is a time for everything and 
the field is ripe. 

ArrLEs Wasted. — According to the Nevada 
City Tranccripl, thousands of tons of apples 
rotted on the ground this season in the Birtlett 
pear belt. 

California Fruit Union. 

The annual meeting of stockholders of the 
California Fruit Union will be held at the of- 
fice of the State Board of Horticulture at '220 
Sutter street, San Francisco, on Wednesday, 
January lbth, beginning at 1 o'clock p. m. 

The approaching meeting will be of exceed- 
ing great importance, and every man or woman 
owning a share of the stock should be present. 
The Union has been of great direct and 
indirect value to the fruit interest of the 
State. It has done as much and as well, 
probably, as conld be expected of an organiza- 
tion working amid conflicting interests in an 
unknown field. It was an experiment at first; 
it is an experiment still so far as answering pro- 
ducers' needs is concerned. Its policy has been 
molded according to various interests which 
have been apparently merged in its manage- 
ment, bnt individuals have never forgotten or 
failed to strive for the paramount advantage of 
these interests. This is possibly only what 
might be expected, and we do not write in con- 
demnation. If there is condemnation deserved 
it will no donbt be freely expressed at the meet- 
ing. What we desire as one of the earliest ad- 
vocates of the organization and as a firm friend 
of it throughout, is that this year there may be 
a full and free review of its methods and poli- 
cies, and that this review be followed by ap- 
proval of the good and unhesitating elimination 
of the evil. There is an open fight being made 
against the methods and policies which have 
prevailed during the last year. We do not es- 
pouse that cause because we cannot claim suf- 
ficient acquaintance with the subject, but we 
know that the meeting will bring out claims 
and statements which should be calmly consid- 
ered and passed upon by the whole body of the 
stockholders. For this reason we urge personal 
attendance wherever possible, and where 
proxies are unavoidable, let them be given to 
those in whose judgment to act in your best in- 
terest as occasion may require, you have con- 
fidence. As we have said, there is an open fight 
under way and efforts being made to mass 
proxies for the support of certain aims and poli- 
cies; for this reason be careful in whose 
hands proxies are placed. Unless yon are sure 
where your interest lies, withhold your proxy 
from all solicitants and place it as we have said 
— with some one who will act judicially on the 
presentation of facts at the meeting. 

Besides the issue as to internal policies there 
is exceedingly important work to be done. The 
proportion of gross receipts which is paid for 
freights and commissions is altogether too great 
and can be reduced by proper action. 

The auction plan of selling, which has proved 
of Buch incalculable value, ended its teason in 
Chicago with a most disgraceful row between 
rival concerns which should be thoroughly inves- 
tigated and prompt and effective remedies ap- 

The distribution of fruit at the Eut is still 
altogether imperfect and narrow and apparent 
ly hedged about by private interests. It must 
be given free field or we can never dispose of 
the mass of fruit which our rapidly growing 
orchards and vineyards promise. 

There is much complaint too that all members 
of the Union here were not accorded shipping 
privileges to which they are entitled, and that 
some were favored and others disfavored. How 
fir this was avoidable or otherwise we do not 
know, but such being the complaint it should be 
fairly considered by all stockholders, and the 
future guarded against the chance of such trouble 
whether it be from accident or interest. 

For these reasons, and many more like them, 
we desire to give the greatest prominence to the 
coming meeting. It is far more than an annual 
meeting of an incorporation; it is the pursuit of 
a general movement which may hold in its prog- 
ress vast benefits or ills to the great producing 
interest of the State. It does not concern alone 
the prosperity of those who grow shipping fruits. 
The work of the Union so far has possibly been 
of more value indirectly than it has directly, by 
the vast increase of shipment which it has ac- 
complished. The value of every pound of fruit 
whioh has been marketed in the State has been 
more or less favorably affected by the oper- 
ations of the Fruit Union. The organization 
may almost be said to hold the keys to the 
future of our fruit interest. Looking at the 
matter thus broadly, the importance of wise 
and comprehensive action at the coming meet- 
ing of stockholders appears in its true light. 

Thertfore let no slight excuse prevent the par- 
ticipation in its deliberations by all who have 
the right to speak and vote. Such action may 
not be for individual advantage alone, it may 
color the whole outlook of our fruit interest. 

Opening of the Legislature. 

The Legislature of California is now in ses- 
sion in Sacramento, the Senate under the presi- 
dency of Hon. Stephen M. White of Los An- 
geles, and the Assembly nnder the speakership 
of Hon. Robert Howe of Sonoma. Both Houses 
are Democratic, in each case by a majority of 
four. In another column of this issue may be 
found a full list of the members of both 
Houses and the districts they represent. This 
list should be kept for reference daring the ses- 

The real work of the session began on Wed- 
nesday with the reading of Gov. Waterman's 
message, a straightforward and business-like 
document, necessarily long, because of the evi- 
dent desire of tho Governor to acquaint the 
Legislature and the public with the status of 
all the varied interests intrusted to his super- 
vision. The telegraph brings an outline of the 
document just as the Rtkal is going to preis, 
and we have, therefore, no time to properly 
consider or comment upon it, or deduce those 
facts which seem to us of most importance. We 
shall present such a summary of the message in 
our next issue. 

We bespeak for the session of the Legislature 
which will continue during the coming 60 days 
the careful attention of the people. There will 
no donbt be many measures which will need 
watching, some to promote, some to crash out. 
If the constituents of the respective members 
do their duty, they will communicate freely to 
them their earnest wishes and the reasons for 
urging them. Fair-minded members welcome 
such help, and to those prone to err, if such 
there be, a little wholesome advice will be use- 
ful, if not always welcome. The legislators are 
the servants of the public; the public has a 
duty not only in choice of its servants, but in 
seeing to it that the work is well done. If the 
people watch the legislators as closely as the 
bosses do, the latter will accomplish little. 

In Furtherance of Forestry. 

The State Board of Forestry has lately issued 
a bulletin (No. 5) calling the attention of oar 
citizens, especially farmers and irrigators, to 
the usefulness of mountain forests, not only aa 
sources of timber and fuel supplies, bat also in 
hindering the fl)w of surface-water, retaining 
the rainfall in Nature's reservoirs, tempering 
the violence of winds and regulating tem- 
perature. In view of the value of the wood- 
lands in these regards, the reckless denuding of 
Californian watersheds by ax and fire is de- 
plored, and the aid of all good citizens is asked 
in preserving the forests from timber thieves 
and conflagrations, and securing State support 
for the work of the board in experimental sta- 
tions and otherwise. 

To this appeal the Merced Board of Trade 
has responded in the following timely preamble 
and resolutions: 

Whereas, The preservation of our mountain 
water .supply is of supreme importance lo the agri- 
culturists and irrigators of the interior of this State; 
and, whereas, the integrily of this water supply is 
mainly dependent on the preservation of brush and 
timber lands of our mountain water-sheds; and, 
whereas, the native timber and fuel supply of the 
San Joaquin valley is wholly inadequate to supply 
the demand; therefore, be it 

Resolved. By the Merced Boird of Trade, that 
the attention of the Governor and legislature of 
this State be respectfully called to the efficient and 
conscientious work of the State Board of Forestry in 
the preservation of our mountain water-souices; and 

Resolved, That this Board particularly asks for a 
generous support for our forest experimental stations 
as tending to encourage and promote general forest 
planting, and adding beautiful places of resort to the 
attractions of this State. 

We hope that other organizations having at 
heart the welfare of our State will follow Mer- 
ced's worthy lead in this important matter. 

The Viticcltcral Headquarters.— It ia 
announced that on Tuesday, January 15th, in 
the afternoon, the new establishment of the 
Viticultural Commission in Piatt's hall, on 
Montgomery street, will be opened with fitting 
ceremonial. We have already given sketches 
of the plans and purposes of the commission in 
this connection, and no donbt their house- 
warming will be interesting. 

Jan. 12, 1889.] 

fACIFie F^U 



Agricultural Review. 

Leading Articles of California Pro- 
duction in 1888. 

Notwithstanding 188S was a dry year, the 
State eD joyed more than an average prosperous 
season. The land booms of 1887 gave way to 
more legitimate prices, which created better 
buying for investment by those in search of 
-homes. Many large tracts of land were sub. 
divided and sold out in small farming tracts, 
with the railroad selling the larger proportion 
in this way. The influx of immigration, al- 
though not on as an extended scale as in 1886 
and 1887, was, nevertheless, quite large and of 
a very desirable class. Railroad construction 
was unexampled, the number of miles added to 
the system being over 400 — larger than any 
one State in the Union. The planting of vines 
and fruit and olive trees was very large, with 
many orchards Bet out on the foothills in local- 
ities where only experimental growing had been 
made to prove their adaptability to cultivation 
of fruits. The irrigation system of the State 
received a decided impetus during the year, 
causing the friends of irrigation to look for- 
ward to the reclaiming of many sections which 
now only give good crops semi occasionally. 
This certainty of crops by irrigation will assure 
the settling up of all parts of the State with 
thriving, industrious farmers. The railroads 
last year gave better facilities to the transpor- 
tation of fruits, etc., to the East, with a 
promise of a still further improvement in 
that direction in this year, which, if carried 
out, will do much in promoting the 
State's fruit industry. The high reputation 
being won by California fruit in the face of all 
opposition will, if sustained by growers, pack- 
ers and others, cause it to be sought by dis- 
tributors at a higher range of values than rule 
for fruits cultivated either at the East or 
abroad. The mild character of the past few 
winters has promoted the live-stock industry, 
causing a steady increase in their numbers, not- 
withstanding a large increased consumption of 
neat cattle and sheep in the State. There are 
several other industries that can be noted to 
advantage, but space forbids an enlargement in 
the introductory, especially as more general 
particulars are given in the subjoined review of 
each leading article of farm produce, to which 
the reader is referred. 

Produce Receipts. 

The receipts of California produce at this 
port in 1888 and 1887, not elsewhers specified, 
included the following: 

1887. 1888. 

Flour, bbls 932,385 1,099,391 

Wheat, ctls 10,450,383 12,780 691 

Barley, ctl» 2,076 402 2,785.790 

oats, ctls 398,620 621,364 

Wool, bales 109,738 105 422 

Hops, bales.... 15,624 18,007 

Wine, gals 8,494,348 8,866.636 

Brandy, gals 251,204 252 696 

Potatoes, sks I,0'i6.n»3 1091,170 

Onions, sks 134 3^8 134,959 

Corn, ctls 188,891 174.117 

Rye, ctls 27,631 20 835 

Beans, sks 320,769 272 599 

Bran, Sks 434 486 431,907 

Middlings, sks 112,429 152,832 

Hay, tons 117,565 126 659 

Straw, tons 7,349 6.888 

Hides, No 114.435 131 373 

R«isins,bxs 101,355 138,926 

Buckwheat, ctls 2, 1*99 4,668 

Musta-d S*ed, sks 38 071 26,"11> 

Dried Peas, sks 4,899 6,354 


January 1888 opened weak at $1.37£ to $1.40 
per cental, with the sales made reported to be 
principally the " syndicate " wheat. With free 
rains in January and harvest prospects of the 
moi-t flattering character, prices shaded off -! 
cents, with a still further decline under a strong 
selling pressure, closing February at $1.30 to 
$1 32J per cental. In March prior s set back 
still more, No. 1 white shipping selling as low 
as $1.27J to $1 'A-2L These low prices ruled in 
April, but with reports of Hry weather values 
began to appreciate until $1 40 was reached 
In May prices dropped to $1.37£. but soon re- 
covered to SI 42! and $1 45 In June the rul 
ing prioe was $1.30 to $1 32i. Prions recovered 
in July, closing that month at $1 37i to $1 40. 
In August there was a stead v appreciation from 
the 15th until $1.55 to $1574 was reached on 
the 24th; from this range it advanced slightly, 
nnti), on the 29th. quotations were given at 
$1,574 to $1.60. September opened at $1 57 £ 
to $1.60, but pricei gradually settled until 
they touched $1.45 to $1,474 ° n the 26th, 
when they began to advance, the month closing 
at $1,584 to $1.60. October onened at the 
latter prices and advanced to $1,624 and $1.65 
nn the 3d. From this figure it settled to 
$1,574 and 60 . at which figures it held until 
the 25th, after which it gained ptrength, clos- 
ing the month at $1.60 to $1.63$. November 
opened at $1,624 to $1.65, but prices settled, 

siolong the month at $1 524 to $1.55, at which 
price December opened, and settled until SI 41 [ 
to $1,424 was touched, after which values re- 
covered from 1 J to 24 cents per cental. Ship- 
ments from July 1, 1888, to January 1, 1889, 
were the largest in the history of the State for 
the like time, as will be seen by reference to the 
table of exports. 

A leading wheat operator says in confirmation 
of what has appeared, statistical and otherwise, 
from time to time the past year in the commer- 
cial department of the Rural Press: "We 
started the year 1888 with light stocks through- 
out the world; this, combined with unfavorable 
harvest weather on the continent and in En- 
gland, caused European operators, particularly 
in France, to enter the market as heavy buyers. 
The American speculators jumped in, and, as 
usual, ran away ahead of even the naturally 
consequent high prices. They ran them so high 
that dealers stopped buying any more than they 
could help, and exportations fell off. High 
prices always bring out wheat, and the Liver- 
pool market was all of a sudden flooded by 
wheat which had been held back there. The 
inevitable consequence, a crash in prices, fol- 
lowed, for wheat prices are like a sand-bank 
which can be built quite high, but comes down 
all at once. The American system of speculat- 
ing so largely in futures is bound to cause this 
sort of a disaster every now and then. The evil 
is not confined to those who deal in wheat. It 
affects trade generally." In our State, Califor- 
nia, the market was not only affected by the 
movements abroad but also moved up, owing to 
the dry weather during the crop growing 
period. The unfavorable weather ruined many 
fields of grain, and also caused many farmers to 
cut their fields of wheat for hay. The cool, 
spraying weather in the month of June pro- 
duced a radical change for the better and brought 
out a much larger crop and of better quality 
than was harvested in 1887. 

The following table gives the highest and 
lowest prices per quarter in the English 
markets for cargoes of California No. 1 white 
shipping wheat: 

s- Off coast ->, 
High. Low. 

Jan 34s 6d 33i 6d 

F>b 33 9 33 3 

March . . . .34 33 

April 33 9 32 6 

May 34 6 33 6 

June 33 9 32 6 


Sept 41 6 

Oct 42 9 

^-J'st ship'd^ 
High. Low 
35s 6d 33s 9d 
33 9 33 6 

-Nearly due- 
High. Low 

35 32 9 
41 6 36 



.43 3 41 
.40 9 39 3 

33 6 

33 9 

34 9 
33 9 
36 3 

41 9 


43 3 
40 9 

32 6 

32 6 
32 6 
36 6 
39 6 

34s 6d 

33 6 

33 9 

33 9 

34 6 
33 6 


40 9 

41 6 

42 9 

43 3 
40 9 

33s Od 
;-3 3 

32 6 

33 9 
32 6 
32 6 


40 3 
40 6 
39 3 

The following table gives the Department of 
Agriculture estimate by States of the acreage 
and outturn of the wheat crop in comparison 
with 1887: 




Michigan. . . 


1 linois 



Kentucky . . . 


Connecticut. . 
New York ... 
New Jersey . . 


N. Carolina. . , 
S Carolina... 



Mississippi . . , 



West Virginia 
California . . . 


Acreage. Yield, bu. 

2 356,474 1 

22.386 000 
23,266 000 

1,037,000 15,451,000 
1,035,018 9,377,01)0 

1,199 400 

8,217 000 

1,406,940 18,290,000 
94.790 l,03:i,iHiii 


6 495,000 
3,723 000 
1 797,000 
6 762,000 
29,129 000 

1 622,467 
2,802 083 
143 083 

Yield, hu. 

Totals 22,744,560 245,667,000 24,223,201 292,867,000 


Minnesota.. . . 2,990,000 34,850,000 3,129,208 36,999,000 

Wisconsin 1,240,000 14,880,000 1,267,208 13,063 000 

Iowa 2,4*0,000 33,480,000 2,683.676 26,837 ,0"0 

Nebraska 1,640,000 20,919,000 1,642,127 16,685,000 

Dakota 3,700 000 55,500,000 3,664,737 62,406,000 

Colorado 190,000 4,085,000 119 709 2,514,000 

Washington.. 6611,000 9,800.000 463,610 8,345,000 

Idaho 76,000 1,425,000 64 615 1 120,000 

Montana.. . 100,000 1,750 000 97,786 1,760 000 

New Mexico.. 81,000 1,215,000 87,372 1.221,000 

Utah 125,000 2,437,000 103 7 38 1,971,000 

Other States. . 100,000 1,300,000 ion, 396 1,341,000 

Totals 13,281,000 181,632 000 13,418,582 163,462,000 

Grand totals. 36,026,000 427,299,000 37,641,783 456,329,000 
Note— Acreage of spring wheat estimated. 

The exports of wheat and flour from this port 
for the calendar year 1888 were as follows : 

Wheat. Flour. 

Months. Centals. Barrels. 

Jmuary 714 057 71,108 

February 975,354 71,629 

March 900.061 98,406 

April 633,404 52,034 

May 399,467 36,893 

June 246,097 119,4^3 

July 787.640 4*793 

August 1,631,697 76,606 

Scptembor ... 1.671,266 26,343 

October 1,462,676 60,234 

November 1,088,300 97,043 

December 1,353,528 78,299 

Total i 11,763 438 

1887 9,065,162 

1886 15,832,155 

1885 11,727,895 


Reducing the flour to wheat, there was ex- 
ported 14,237,401 centals. Of thi» quantity the 
United Kingdom took in wheat 9,532,568 cen- 
tals and flour 272, 7S1 barrels. France took 
1,858,175 centah of wheat. Belgium, 181.400, 
Pern 106 274, Brazil 44,361, Central America 
18,4!!!), and elsewhere 22 150. Of the flour 
shipment, China took 275,848 barrels, Japan 

21,919, Hawaiian islands 46,192, Central Amer- 
ioa 120 595, Panama 17,076, British Columbia 
1909, Mexico 5750, Society islands 14,448 Aus- 
tralia 12,392, Asiatic Russia 7160, South 
America 11,053, Manila 16,323, elsewhere 

Stocks in Liverpool compare as follows: 

Wheat, quirt* rs. Fl n ur, sacks. 

Jan. 1, 18=9 650.575,000 150,160,000 

Jan. 1, 1888 750,775 000 140 150,000 

Dec. 1, 1838 650,575,000 110,120,000 

Compared with the forepart of the vear the 
quantity of wheat at the olose of 1888 on the 
way to the continent decreased from 620,000 to 
458,000 quarters (a quarter is eight bushels), 
and on the way to the United Kingdom from 
2,439,000 quarters to 2,377,000. 

The wheat crop in this State last year is esti- 
mated as follows by county : 


220 000 
364,9 4 
78 415 
26 000 





Contra Costa 




Los Angeles 160,000 

Mariposa 1,600 

Mendocino 18 000 

Merced 254,100 

Monterey 116,700 

Napa 8,469 

Sacramento 85,000 

San Benito 45,515 

San Pernardino 6,000 

San Joaquin 966 562 

San Luis Obispo 100,000 

Santa Barbara. 
Santa Clara. . . . 

San Mateo 

Santa O'uz 












Other courtieB 

250,1 00 


210 000 
300 000 
300 000 
600 000 
210 000 
750 0O0 
1 ,200,000 

Totals 3,082,010 20,202,000 


Barley, which for several years was the chief 
center of speculation nn Call, has been relegated 
to second place, and although the consumption 
in this State, owing to the light production of 
corn, is quite heavy, reaching over 375,000 
tons a year, yet prices move in keeping with 
the supply and demand. The market for feed 
grades the past year was very satisfactory to 
the selling interest, but bright, plump brewing 
and Chevalier moved off quite freely under a 
good export movement. Europe took largely of 
choice bright Chevalier, owing to ooor crops in 
England, France and Germany. Australia took 
more than last year. The East drew quite 
freely the forepart of the season of choice brew- 
ing, due to exaggerated reports of damage to 
the crop in Canada and in the Central States. 

The crop in this State the past year was very 
heavy, aggregating fully 50,000 tons more than 
that of 1887. The low stage of water in the 
San Joaquin and Sacramento rivers in the 
spring months admitted of a very large acre- 
age being seeded on bottom lands — lands sub- 
jected to overflow. Besides this, there was an 
increased acreage seeded to barley in the coast 
counties. Owing to the damp, spraying weather 
during the last three weeks before harvest, 
there were more dark grades of b>rley, thus in- 
creasing the supply of feed. That the con- 
sumption of feed is increasing is witnessed in 
the large yearly additions to the work-horses in 
use on the vineyards, orchards, and in railroad 
construction and general teaming in all parts of 
the State. Besides the above, it is growing in 
favor as a feed for the dairy and other purposes 
when crushed or ground. The consumption 
last year was very heavy, larger proportionate- 
ly than in 1887, owing to the dry weather 
and poor pasture for several months preceding 
the month of December. 

Prices opened the year 1888 fairly firm and 
changed very little, except during the dry 
spells, throughout the year. The year, with- 
out doubt, showed more stability, with less 
fluctuations, than ever before marked the mar- 
ket. These changes have been so few and of 
such insignificance as not to demand any par- 
ticular review. The year closed fairly steady 
for both feed and brewing. 

The exports of barley from this port last year 
were as follows: 

Months. Centals. 

January 146,006 

February 200,960 

March 187,147 

April 89.686 

May 21.746 

June 16.3*1 

July 11.584 

August 101,724 

September. 87,365 

October 504,977 

November 269,165 

December 121,404 

Totals 1,690,056 

1887 493,457 

1886 969,313 

1885 278,057 

The above are the heaviest shipments within 
the history of the S^ate. The destinations were 
as follows: New York, by pea, 316,592 ctls.; 
overland, 665,989; United Kingdom, 425,41 1 ; 
Australia, 145,699; N°>w Zealand, 3183; Ha- 
waiian islands, 120,175; elsewhere, 13,906. 


The crop last year in Oregon and Washing 
ton was very heavy, largely in excess of their 

wants, necessitating heavy shipments to 
city. These shipments, combined with the 
price of feed barley, caused values to shrink fi 
the high prices that ruled the first half of the 
year. With continued free receipts and buyers 
only taking in a hand-to-mouth way, set values 
on the down grade until the year closed on a 
lower range than has ruled for several seasons 
past. It is claimed that the very low prices, 
with the market largely overstocked, will cause 
a lessened acreage to be seeded in both Oregon 
and Washington Territory. 


Under light supplies and a good steady de- 
mand, the market, the forepart of 1888, held to 
firm prices. The high prices restricted to some 
extent the consumption. The high range of 
values caused more attention to be paid in the 
favored corn-growing sections to planting corn, 
and as a result the crop of Californian last year 
was among the largest on record. With a very 
large crop in the corn belt of the Central States, 
prices declined there the last quarter of the 
year, causing sellers to offer Nebraska corn for 
early delivery at a decided shading in values. 
This action necessitated concessions by Cali- 
fornia growers, which was taken advantage 
of by dealers and consumers to hammer prices 
to lower levels. This was done by confining their 
purchases and bidding low prices for every par- 
cel offered on the market, only paying full ask- 
ing prices when pressed by actual and immedi- 
ate requirements. The year closed at such a 
low range of values as to preclude the possibil- 
ity of heavy shipments from the central mar- 
kets unless our market recovers somewhat, or 
the former markets shade off some. 


The year opened at high prices, $2.50 to 
$2 75 being the range of values. The market 
held up fairly well, only settling as harvest ap- 
proached. The high prices lessened the con- 
sumption and caused, in some localities, more to 
be seeded to rye. The new crop came on an 
unsteady market with buyers offish. Under a 
stronger selling pressure and some Eastern 
coming on the market, prices settled only to re- 
cover again, closing the year fairly firm under 
stronger holding. 


The market throughout 1888 ruled very 
strong, with the year closing on high prices, 
$2 90 to $3 25 per cental. The consumption is 
steadily increasing, which calls for more atten- 
tion to its cultivation. 

Stocks of Grain, Etc, in the State. 

The San Francisco Produce Exchange has issued the 
following report of grain, etc., remaining in this State 
December 1, 1888. 

1 Mn H P H P MO 

3 «3 Q 
V P 
I 3 D 

P P P O P 

w - 

p p 

sp » s 

00* 00- 00 ■ 

D -I c 
5«-P S 

j c: *i2 

*"* ° E 
r co p c 

03 c 

• IE* 

P H- 

-2 <c • 


c • 

3 : 

p ! 

l-t — h-> ,-1 1-1 

-1 0t -J©0 0'U.C-t~JSO 

To cj oo'bo.-' w os'-o"© oto 








3,881 ,960 

5,382 900 




1,618 600 


to t-. to a* to 
V m : jft'oHoi-i cji "o "o 

U ^ UO U — COOtOCiX 
— : . < - 

7— "w"; "—"mae'to ~y>"t© V o 

tO W - CJJO >- *■ 71 
Oi *4--l*-lOCl 
Cn t -'-■+- -J I ~ . ; 

© a t,' o ot c o m 
c © © c c © 


65 380 


►-< ■ rC — 1 

•— ; «*>• cx> co 
Cn "vt ■ "is? © rf- 
1-5 O • " U- C5 o- 'O 
zr © • o © O © © 


. 1— • tO I-* tO 
Ui * O 1C ■ 0*-lOUM 
COtf-Cl*-*; COW*-<OCOO' 

a"*— — to- ^p'oi*ii.b*os*w 

CJ. — I "-■ OO • C U O M -1 M 

oatoo © © o-. cp o. o 

1.275 1 


™ w 

» n 

P s 




| 91,220 



© "as *_. p CJ, M "co to 
© w o o t" c y» gs 
c: c a © -o o . 








a w 

Ground Feed. 
By reference to the reoeipts of produce in 
1888, in comparison with 1887, it will be seen 
that bran fell off while middlings increased. 
The consumption last year was very heavy, 
largely in excess of any former year, due to the 
short pasturage and more required by dairy- 
men and others for feeding live stock. The 
sugar beet-root pulp was taken by large owners 
of cattle for stall feeding; thiB of course took the 
place of ground feed. Oregon sent to this mar- 
ket very heavy supplies throughout the year, 
while many mills in this State sent liberal sup- 


fACIFie f^URAb fRESS. 

[Jan. 12, 1889 

plies to large oonsuraing centers direct, which, 
of course, do not figure in the receipts at this 
port. The production in this State was not as 
large of bran and middlings as it was in 1887, 
but that of ground and rolled barley was more. 
With many the latter is growing in favor, 
being preferred when mixed with cut feed. 
With heavy rains and improving pasture in 
December the demand for ground feed fell cff, 
but prices were fairly well maintained under 
lessened receipts. 


By reference to the receipts of produce, it 
will be noticed that there was a marked in- 
crease at this port in last year compared with 
1887. This, no doubt, was due to the extreme 
dry weather in the latter part of the summer 
months following a poor natural pasture season 
in the spring months. The unfavorable weather 
in the spring caused producers to advance their 
views, and made feeders more anxious to con- 
tract for liberal supplies. Several dairymen, it 
is olaimed, contracted for from 500 tons up to 
1000 tons at from §10 to $12 a ton. according 
to quality and cost of delivery. These high 
prices naturally induced a larger acreage of 
grain to be cut for hay than otherwise wonld. 
With cool, spraying weather in part of May 
and June causing an improvement in pasture, 
Urge feeders reduced their bids on hay under 
free-selling offers, and fully $2 a ton less was 
paid than ruled previous to the better-growing 
weather. The consumption in this State was 
considerably larger last year than in 1887, due 
to poor pasture and the high prices of butter in- 
ducing more feeding to dairy cows. There 
were also more horses fed, estimated at fullv 25 
per cent over 1887. The crop of hav in 1888 
is claimed to have been fully one-third greater 
than that of 1S87. bat notwithstanding which 
the supply in the State at the close of the year 
is quite light. The light obtainable supplies 
was an important factor in keeping up prices in 
December in the face of improving pastures un- 
der favorable growing weather. 


The following table gives the importation 
into this port of Calcutta bigs, the consump- 
tion and the lowest and highest prices since 1870: 

Imnorts. Highest Lowest 

Tear. No. Con«'pt.*n. Frb-es. Prices. 

1870 5.711 000 0,500,000 131 H 

1871 7,ni4,coo 5.4110,1100 13 11* 

1872 13 512.000 12 500 000 18 14J 

1878 8.028 000 ln.328,000 18 12 

1874 16,052,883 16.052,883 13} 11J 

1875 12,650,000 13.250,000 1 2 9| 

1879 15,940.967 20.SSS.407 13* 8 

1877 10 637,!<01l 21.n40.00l 13 7} 

1878 13,608.900 24.104,009 In 8 

1879 17,536,000 38,11 1. '50 11 7 

l-80j 32 342,000 30 023.023 11J 8* 

1881 39,615 000 27,000 000 9J 7J 

1882 .18 036,6-0 25 000,000 in 8 

1883 25,9«6,000 37.82',n00 8| 7J 

1884 31,>-21.000 29 500.010 7 J 5 

1886 26 580,000 35,000 000 5j 4J 

1886 25.800,000 32,953,00!) 10* 4g 

1887 2 '.,7 23 O00 33,000,000 8* f.J 

1883 24,150,000 8j 6* 

The market opened in 1SS8 at 8 cents spot. 
Sales were very brisk in January and February 
for future delivery, ranging from 7 to 8 cents. 
The latter figure ruled the forepart of February, 
but toward the close of that month values 
shaded off under a dry-weather scire. In 
March values moved up to 8.J and S3 cents 
buyer June. Id April the price set back one- 
quarter cent. Toward the close of that month 
sales were made at 7A cents, with a still farther 
reduction in May, or as low on Call as 6J cents, 
under continued dry weather. With better 
orop reports the market advanced in June to as 
high as 7? cents for spot parcels and 8 to 8J 
cents on Call. At the olose of June values set 
off one-half cent under heavy receipts and Call 
Board contract) maturing causing large quan- 
tities to be thrown on th« market. Prices ad 
vanced again, reaching 8tf cents in July. After 
that month values gradually settled up to 
December, when an improved tone set in and a 
slight advance was obtained. For June Julv 
delivery sales were made as low as 7 to 7J 
oents, but afterward advanced to 7A and 7a 
cents. The primary market is reported to be 
very strong, causing importers to be firm in 
their advanced views. 


High prices which ruled from November, 1886, 
to March. 1887, and from November, 1887, to 
March, 1S8S, stimulated gardeners to put in 
larger crops, and consequently supplies have 
been so far in excess of toe demand, causing a 
low range of valnes. In December, 1887, prices 
were as high as $1.25 to $1.35 per 100 pounds, 
under a strong Eistern demand, but at 
no time in Djcember, 1888, bave prices 
advanced to over 00 cents per 100 pounds. 
The demand from the markets in the Central 
States has so far this year been disappointing, 
owing to better orops there and high over- 
land freights being against shipments. 

For root vegetables the past year was Btrong 
the first few months under light supplies, but 
with the new crop values weakened off and 
have remained at the lower levels the remainder 
of the year under large supplies and only a fair 
consumption demand. 


The market opened strong and held firm un- 
til well into March, when with increasing sup- 
plies and more new coming in, values began to 
shade off and by July quite a low range of 
values ruled, followed by further shading in 
August and September under very large receipts 
from all producing centers in thin State, Ore- 
gon and Washington. Many points that drew 
direct from here in 1887 obtained their sup- 

plies from other places, which, of course, 
caused our market to feel the unfavorable ef- 
feot of a lessened outlet. The crop on this 
coast last year was the largest on record, with 
the quality being uniformly good. The fore 
part of the season heavy shipments of new were 
made to the large distribution markets in the 
Central States, principally to Chicago. This 
trade for new potatoes is growing, and there- 
fore it is expected that the coming season the 
shipments of new overland will be largely in 
excess of the like time in 1887. 


The market opened in 188S strong under a 
good demand and light supplies. Under the 
stimulus of high prices and favorable planting 
weather, there was a large increased acreage set 
to onions, not only in this State, but also in 
Oregon. Like potatoes, onions held well up 
until the new season opened, when prices fell 
off quite rapidly, from which they did not re- 
cover the remainder of the year. The heavy 
production created stronger selling pressure, 
which sent many points that have drawn their 
supplies from hence to the large producing sec- 
tions, from whence shipment* were made direct 
to the demand markets. 


It is to be regretted that data cannot be ob- 
tained so as to correctly give the number of the 
different kinds of bearing fruit trees, the num 
ber that will come into bearing this year, also 
the number set out in 1SSS. There can bfl no 
doubt but the increase in bearing trees will be 
quite large this year, and that, too, of the best 
known variety of each kind of fruit. The num- 
ber of hearing trees last year is placed at about 
12,000,000. That this is none too large is at- 
tested in the heavy shipments of green fruits to 
the East, the large quantity dried and also the 
large quantity canned. An exchange says that 
the Fruit Union largely increased the quantity 
of green deciduous fruits chipped out of the 
State and the outside fruit shippers had a 
splendid year. The Southern Pacific Co. han- 
dled altogether 2184 carloads, or 1,616 160 
packages of Iruit, aggregating a total of 43 081,- 
180 pounds, on which were paid freight charges 
ot $840,840. If a total of 50 carloads be esti- 
mated as the amount handled by the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fa out of the State and as 
many more by steamer — the actual figures in 
either case not being obtainable — there would 
be altogether fully 45,000,000 pounds as repre- 
senting the total green decidnous fruit export 
from California, or at least 10 000,000 pounds 
more than last year. The California Fruit 
Union began its shipments of green fruit to the 
East for the season of 1888 in the early part of 
May. All the fruit shipments up to June 20th 
went forward in single cars attached to the reg- 
ular overland passenger trains, which was for- 
merly the chief means of shipping. About 00 
carloads were forwarded in this manner, con- 
sisting of cherries, early apricots and peaches. 
Of these aboat 50 cars went to Chicago and 
wer« soH at private sale, and the o'hers went 
to New York. From June 21st to October 1st 
the movement of ereen fruits to the East was 
very brisk, and 416 carloads were disposed of 
at auction in Chicago and over 50 carloads in 
New York. The sales made at Boston amount- 
ed to 77 cars, while in Minneapolis there were 
sold 72 cars and in St. Paul 23. These are all 
Fruit Union figures and bave nothing to do with 
•mtside shipments. In all, the California Fruit 
Union handled 850 carloads of fruit, or about 
100 more than in 1887. The average carload 
sent E tot lastseason was 850 boxes of 20 pounds 
of fruit net. The average cost of fruit packages 
for Eastern shipment was as follows: Pear 
boxes, 10 cent?; peach boxes, 5$, 6, 0j and 7 
cents, according to size; plum boxes, 5k to 
cents; cherry boxes, average 5 cents; grape 
crates, single or half, including four baskets, 
17 cents; double or whole, including eight bas 
kets, 21 cents. Last season the expense of 
packing grapes was heavy, equal to about one 
cent a pound, owing to the poor condition of 
ranch of the fruit, each bunch having to be 
handled and the poor and sunburned fruit trim- 
med out. With a good crop in the coming sea- 
son it is confidently hoped by the shippers that 
fully 60,000,000 pounds of green fruits can be 
sent to the East this year. The New York 
shipments will be much heavier, as good returns 
are realized there and there is a very active de- 
mand at all times for California fruits. The 
orange orop of last season reached very nearly 
1,000,000 boxes. It is estimated that the total 
orange crop of the present season will be 1,200,- 
000 boxes, of which about one-third will go for 
home consumption. 

The following remarks by a member of a promi- 
nent firm dealing in fruits give a fair, succinct 
report of the dried fruit market: " As com- 
pared with last year, 1888 has been a poor one 
taking it altogether, but then last year was re- 
markable for the extraordinary prioes obtained, 
especially in dried fruits. Large stocks of dried 
fruits were carried over to this year on the 
Eastern market, and the still larger crops pro- 
duced this year of everything except apricots, 
one would have thought, would have ruined 
dried fruit men. Still, prices remained toler- 
ably good till about 60 days ago. Now the mar- 
ket is badly demoralized in dried fruit of all 
kinds. A good deal of this surplus will now 
come into consumption to the relief of the mar- 
ket, and next year's business will depend en- 
tirely upon the crop. Certainly mora than 
three-fourths of the California dried fruit is 
consumed outside the State. Most of it goes 
East, though Oregon and Washington Territory 

consume a good deal. The extremely low 
prices at which dried fruit is now being offered 
to housekeepers, all over the oountry, will make 
new markets for our product, and will do much 
to offset the undoubted frequent large losses of 
this year. Our export trade in dried fruits has 
been pretty well limited to Australia. Freights 
are cheaper to Liverpool than to Chicago or 
New York, and I have great faith in the effort 
being made to create a market in London. The 
dealers have done well in green fruit this year 
as a rule, and have every reason for being hope- 
ful of the future." 

The past year witnessed a most decided im- 
provement in the dried-fruit pack of our princi- 
pal driers, and therefore it is safe to state that 
their name on future packs will have great 
weight with buyers, and if the fruit sustains 
the reputation earned will command higher 
prices than unknown packs. But then much 
can be done in sustaining and promoting the 
different packs of California dried fruits by the 
recently formed Dried Fruit Association, John 
T. Cutting, general manager. Although at the 
start the association has had no influence on the 
market, it is believed that it will have an effect 
in coming seasons. It was organized last year, 
after three-fourths of the crop had been shipped, 
so that there was really no chance to demon- 
strate its utility. That the producers have faith 
in it is amply proved by the numberless sub- 
scriptions that have been flowing in daily of 
late from various sources. 

The Eastern dried-fruit market has shown 
great dullness as compared with the preceding 
season, owing to the big fruit crops eatt of the 
MiBsissinoi. Prices were by no means as high 
as in 1887, which, owing to the failure of crops 
in the East, were almost fabulous. The pre- 
vailing rates have been: Evaporated peaches, 
8J to 9 cents a pound; prunes, 6 to 10 cents, ac- 
cording to size; peel>-d peaches, 14 to 16 cents; 
pitted plums, 11 to 13 cents. One lot of 1500 
tons of Ualifornia evaporated silver prunes sold 
in New York at 15 cents a pound. The New 
York market for French pruues has been dull 
and neglected. The crop in France last year 
was not excessive, but the fruit ran very low in 
size. A peculiar feature of the French prunes 
was their poor keeping quality, while the Cali- 
fornia prunes of the season were bandied with- 
out irjjury. 

The canned-fruit industry continues to make 
rapid strides. The pack in 188S is placed by 
the beat-known authority at the following fig- 
ures: Two and a half pound table fruits, 1,225 
000 cases, 2 dozen each; gallon table fruits, 12,- 
000 cases, 1 dozen each; 2J pound pie fruits, 
32 000 cases, 2 dozen each; gallon pie fruit, 47,- 
0d0 cases, 1 dozen each; 2 pound vegetables, 
35 000 cases, 2 dozen each; 2i pound vegetables, 
135,000 oases, 2 dozen each; gallon vegetables, 
8000 cases, 1 dozen each; 2 pound jama and jel- 
lies, 32,000 cases, 2 dozen each. California 
canned fruits are making inroads at a rapid 
rate into the trade of all competitors, with the 
best-known packs fetching good round prices 
over all others. The demand continues to grow 
and the distribution points at home and abroad 
increase in numbers. The stock in the State at 
the close of the year is quite light. 

The raisin industry of this State continues to 
grow in importance and bids fair in the near fut- 
ure not only to drive the foreign raisin outof the 
American market, but also make large inroads 
into the markets abroad, now controlled by the 
Spanish production. To this end onr packers 
must exercise the ntmost vigilance in putting 
up uniform graces and branding or marking 
each package so that no mistake can be made as 
to the quality. In thi« connection the follow 
ing remarks by G W. Meade &. Co. are deserv- 
ing of careful attention by all packers: "Now 
that all first class packed raisins in California 
are well established in the Eastern markets, it 
is to be hoped that our packers the coming year 
will not pursue the senseUss policy which seems 
to have guided them to a large extent in the 
past, but will hold their goods, which equal the 
Malaga, at a price that is equal to the Malaga, 
and not anywhere from 10 to 40 per cent under 
the figures obtained from the Spanish prodnct. 
There is no reason now whatever for doing this. 
There might have been some reason when Cali- 
fornia raisins were first introduced, but that 
time has now gone by. A first-class California 
raisin is equal or superior to anything that 
now comes from Spain; and when our packers 
realize this, and demand for their goods an 
equal price for an equal quality, they will get 
it; but just as long as they throw their goods 
away, and climb over the backs of one another 
to see who can sell the cbeapeit, just so long 
"•ill the Eastern wholesale jobber go into New 
York and pay a fancy price for a Malaga Lon- 
don La>er, and then offer a ridiculously low 
price for a California London Layer, which, in 
every respect, is as good or better. The imi- 
tation of foreign wrappers is being generally dis- 
carded, and something more distinctively Cali- 
fornian is being used year by year, which is a 
very pleasing fact to note. We wish, however, 
that our packers would agree, which we think 
could easily be done at a meeting, to drop en- 
tirely the terms Three Crown Loose or Three 
Crown London Layer, and to adopt something 
more distinctively Califoroian or American. 
The bulk of the pack of California raisins this 
year has principally gone East, and at the pres- 
ent time the San Francisco market is almost en- 
tirely bare of stock. Especially does this apply 
to London Layers, and of really choice Loose 
the supply is also inadequate." 

Shipments were made the past year of Cali- 
fornia raisins to Australia and also to England, 
and so far as can be ascertained tbe venture 

will lead to freer shipments in 18S9 to tbe same 

The year oloaed with a light stock in this 
State, smaller, if anything, than on Deo. 31, 
1887, and this, too, in the face of a largely in- 
creased paok. The prices at which the bulk of 
the pack was placed are said to have been quite 

The overland shipments from Jan. 1, 1888, 
to Nov. 30, 1888, were as follows: 

Months. Green Drii 

January «03 280 261 

February 3.l««,is0 343 

March 5,081,160 221 

April 4,544,670 96 

May 960,300 110 

June 4.594 040 73 

Jul* 9,730,410 612 

August 11987,620 2.208 

September 6.700.520 5.010 

October 4 800 250 5,801 

November 400,900 3,551 

December (1887) 71,080 711 





, 1 'u 

Totals 6'», 640,800 18,968,400 

1887 50.749 950 15.865,080 

1*80 4»,542,U29 5,076,030 

The shipments of raisins for the year ending 
Nov. 30, 18SS, and the two previous calendar 
years, were as follows: 

From— I' himIs. 

San Francisco 628,200 

loterior 15,648,880 

Total 16,277,080 

Year 1887 15,484,550 

YearlS$6 12,607, .30 

Following is a comparison of tbe shipments 
for the 12 months ending Nov. 30, 1888 and 

Green Fruit 
Dried Fruit. . 

51,0 0.450 
15,094 280 
12 796,100 

18 908,4>>0 
15,640, *80 

Last year's product of dried fruits is esti- 
mated as follows: 

Raisins, 20-lh boxes 1.025,000 

Hooey, extaactod, n>< 3,000,000 

Honey, comb, lbs 32s onn 

Beeswax, lbs 20,000 

French prunes, lbs 2,250.000 

German prunes, lbs 125.C0O 

Apple-, sundrbd, lbs 100,000 

Peaches, sun-dried, lbs 2,500,000 

Plums, sun- dried, lbs 250.000 

Pears, suu-drie<l, lbs 25 000 

Grapes, sun-dri.d, lbs 2,250 000 

Nectarines, suu diied, lb« UtfOOO 

Apricots, sun-ilr'ed, tt>8 250,000 

Figs, sun-dried, lbs 75 000 

Apples, evaporated, lbs 250 000 

Apricts, bleached, lbs 2,5<>O,000 

Peaches, bleached, peeled, lbs 4iH),000 

The raisin pack last year is estimated by dis- 
tricts as follows: 

District Boxes Pom ,(«. 

Fresno 425 000 8,500 000 

Tulare 21,000 4 20,111 

Ri\er»idc 290,000 B.MMM0 

Oran re, Santa Ana and Tustin 40,UOO «O0,IHjO 

Sin Rernardino. nnttiide of Riverside 

district 52,000 1,o40.<m n 

San Diego a, 35,000 700 0(0 

Solano and Yo'o 125,100 2,. r .uo,iHiu 

Other localities, Sacraiuen'o, Yuba, 

Placer, Butte, etc 37,000 740,000 

Totals 1 025,000 20,50O,CO0 


California nuts are fast gaining recognition at 
the E >8t as possessing merit tuperior to the 
imported, and consequently the trade is begin- 
ning to give them preference at the price rul- 
ing for the imported. This fact, combined with 
a more general desire to bave as diversified a 
crop as possible, has caused orcbardists in sec- 
tions where they thrive well to set out the va- 
rious kinds of nut trees. The past two years 
witnessed a large increase in tbe number of 
almond and walnut trees set out. In sending 
the nuts to market, more attention is b» ginning 
to be paid to their grading and bleaching, which, 
of course, tells greatly in their favor. With 
continued attention in this direction, it is as- 
serted with a degree of confidence that does not 
brook a denial that the California product will 
supplant the foreign in all the leading centers 
of trade on this continent. 

Olive OIL 

Oar native olive-oil industry is in a fair 
way to cut an important figure among the vari- 
ous industries in this State. Like all of Cali- 
fornia's products, it should be sold on its own 
merits and not bv an assumed French or other 
foreign name. Pure goods will always com- 
mand attention, and when once tried make 
friends and gain ground on merit. It is as- 
serted with some degree of confidence that one 
or two parties claiming to put up the oil 
adulterate it with cotton-seed oil, the same as is 
now being extensively done at the East and 
also abroad. If such is the case, their names 
and methods should be made poblio, for the in- 
dustry is too important to be stabbed in tbe 
bouse of its friends. The planting of olive 
trees is spreading in this S'.ate, and before 
many years the exporting of California olive oil 
bids fair to ba on a large soale. 


Alternate warm with oold freezing weather in 
the winter of 1887-88 was against the bees, 
whioh was not improved by the dry weather in 
the spring months of 1888. The crop in this 
State last year is placed at from 2,750 000 to 
3,250,000 pounds of extracted and 300,000 
pounds of comb. The market ruled satisfac- 
torily throughout tbe year to the selling inter- 
est, owing to the light crop at tbe East, 
although the wholesale adulteration practiced 
in some o' the markets at the Eait is against 
the pure product. Toe shipment* to Europe 
direct from this port do not show any materia 

Jan. 12, 1889.] 



change from 1887. The product is being put 
up in better shape for handling by the trade, 
and therefore it is taken the more readily. In 
referring to the market, G. W. Meade & Co., 
in their annual circular, say : The output of 
comb honey, like extracted, has been compara- 
tively light this year, and good prices for 
choice goods have been pretty readily obtained. 
We repeat our suggestion of last year, that the 
sale of California honey, if packed in one-pound 
frames, could be very largely increased. East- 
ern and Western dealers are accustomed almost 
entirely to one-pound frames, and if our honey- 
producers here would change their style of 
packing and put up their honey in one-pound 
frames, we think they would find almost im- 
mediately the demand increase two or three 
times what they are now selling. On some 
parts of this coast where dealers generally do 
not pay much attention to small items, the two- 
pound frame is all right; but when we come 
in competition with the Eastern honey men, we 
ought to have our goods in one-pound frames. 
The stock of both comb and extracted honey 
here for this season of the year is compara- 
tively light. Large shipments of extracted 
have been made to Europe on direct orders and 
the comb has been principally placed here and 
in Eastern cities. We think we shall go into 
the new crop with a bare market. 

Dairy Products. 

The receipts of dairy products in 1888, com- 
pared with previous years, were as follows: 


Cal'fornia. Eastern. Totals. 

Pounds. Pounds. Pounds. 

1888 8,370,700 3,597,500 n,974.200 

1*87 9 547,100 783,800 10,33o,70U 

1810 9,979 210 6-7,800 10,607.000 

1885 8,019,600 4 94, 100 9,604,000 


1888 3,321,700 1.614,300 4 936,000 

18S7.. 3,989,400 968,400 4,957,800 

1880 * 070,900 548,100 4,6I9,IKJ0 

1886 3,657,500 471,01)0 4,128,500 


Dzens Doz ns. Dozens. 

1888 4.210il5 3,168,741 5,378,756 

1887 1,391,745 1,735,335 3,127,080 

18*6 1,063,200 2,192,900 3,850,100 

1885 2,778,280 1,154,090 3,932,370 

Dairy Product. 

Butter. — The market opened on January 1, 
1888, with the following stock on hand: 315 
kegs and 800 cases in rolls, and closed on De- 
cember 31, 1888, with the following on hand: 
709 boxes in rolls; 1240 barrels pickled; 
2976 kegs, and of Eastern 2871 packages; 
so that the stock on hand at the close 
of the year was very largely in excess of 
that held at the beginning. The market 
held to good prices throughout the year. 
While they did not go into fancy figures 
they did not touch the low prices they 
did in 1887, so that on the whole the market 
was quite satisf actory. The production of but- 
ter in this State does not keep pace with the in- 
creasing consumption, but then the deficit is 
met by heavy importations from the Central 
States. For the first time in the history of the 
trade, butter in rolls was brought from the Cen 
tral markets, but the venture did not prove a 
success, consequently it is not at all likely the 
shipments will be repeated. The importation 
of creamery in tubs was largely in excess of any 
preceding year. As the quality was good the 
trade took more kindly to it and disposed of 
large quantities. The market closed the year 
weak under heavy stocks and large production 
of California, owing to improved pasture. 

Cheese. — The stock on hand at the close of 
the year was 75,240 lbs. Throughout the year, 
the market held to good prices — higher on an 
average than in 1S87. This was due to a larg- 
er consumption, a lessened production, and 
only moderate importations from the East — 
the market there being above the parity of ours. 

Eggs. — The market throughout the year was 
poorly supplied with choice to fancy California 
eggs, and consequently these were in good de- 
mand and ranged from 10 to 30 per cent above 
the imported. The importation from the cen- 
tral markets last year showed an increase of 
fully 33J per cent overthat of 1887. Of the re- 
ceipts, tuis city did not get quite 50 per cent, 
the balance going direct to other distributive 
centers. With an improvement in the feed the 
last two months of the year, receipts of Cali- 
fornian have increased, causing a lower range of 
values. The stock on hand in this city on 
Die. 31st was 4800 dozen California and 54,140 
dozen of Eastern. 


The year 1888 was entered with quite a 
stock of 1887 hops on this coast, but as the year 
shortened there were rumors of a probable 
light crop at the East and an almost certainty 
ot a light yield abroad, owing to unfavorable 
weather. As these rumors gained confirma- 
tion, buyers entered the market and secured 
all the old hops, and contracted for this year's 
at from 12J to 15 cents per pound. As the sea- 
son advanced they raised the prices to 18 and 
20 cents, at which prices large numbers of hop- 
growers sold. The markets at the East and 
abroad, still appreciating, brought about a still 
higher range of values, and as much as 25 cents 
was paid for something extra for shipment di- 
rect to England. This market never was so 
well cleared up at the close of any year as it 
was on December 31, 1888. The orop of the 
coast last year was 90 085 bales, against 76,500 
bales in 1887. Of the 90 085 bales, California 
raised 34,085, Oregon 18 000 and Washington 
Territory 38,000 Last year Australia drew 
from hence, 155,568 pounds; Calcutta, 29,083 

pounds; Japan, 23,278 pounds; New Zealand, 
13,529 pounds; Central America, 10,897 pounds; 
and other foreign ports on the Pacific, 19.164 
pounds. There was sent overland 7,008,270 
pounds and 108,505 pounds by sea to New 


The past year was a disappointment to stock- 
men, owing to prices averaging lower for cattle 
and sheep than for many years past. This was 
due to better railroad connections with distant 
sections that have a large surplus of live-stock, 
which enabled them to market in this city, and 
also to the reported cattle ring at the East be- 
ing broken up. The poor pascurage in this 
State induced free selling so as to avoid the ex- 
pense of feeding. Prices under free selling 
went off from the year's opening from one to 
two cents a pound for bullocks and also mutton 
sheep. Toward November the market began to 
recover, and by the middle of December prices 
were from 1 to 1£ cents per pound higher than 
ruled in August. Owing to the low prices un- 
der strong selling, with supplies apparently in- 
creasing, many cattlemen have been induced to 
spay their heifers. This has not only been 
done in parts of this State, but also in Arizona. 
The packing of beef in barrels and half-barrels 
was on a larger scale in 1888 than ever before. 
This was due to the low price of bullocks and a. 
better export and ship demand. More attention 
was also given to the canning of beef. Fresh 
milch cows commanded good prices throughout 
the year for the dairy, but for the family the 
inquiry was light up to December, when there 
was quite an improvement in the green feed. 
Prices ranged for fresh cows from $25 to $50, 
with at times a slight advance paid on the lat 
ter price for something above the best average. 
The market for hogs has ruled strong through- 
out the year, with very slight change in values. 
The demand was chiefly for the block, although 
packers in the season took quite freely. The 
consumption of fresh pork is very large and 
increasing. The supply of hogs in the State 
is quite light, but the high range of values is 
attracting more attention to the industry. 
Horses the past year met with a good demand 
for sing e-fotjttra at from $200 to $350 each, 
matched teams from $500 to $1000 a span, gen- 
eral utility horses at trom $125 to $300. Large 
workhorses met with ready sales at from $500 
to $1000 a span. Common workhorses were in 
oversupply, consequently buyers had the whip- 
handle and kept prices down to from $75 to 
$125 each. The above prices were the general 
average paid. 


The demand last year for grass seed was dis- 
appointing, but prices kept up owing to a gen- 
eral scarcity, particularly alfalfa. With gen- 
eral rains in November and December, a 
call from all points of the coast sprang up, and 
a large distribution trade followed. Alfalfa ad- 
vanced in price, but other seeds were un 
changed. It is claimed that there is a decided 
increase in the acreage seeded to alfalfa. For 
flixseed there has been a steady demand, with 
the market showing few changes in prices. The 
consumption on this coast is increasing, but the 
production is also larger. The crop ot mustard 
seed was large of yellow but light of brown. 
The quality, as a rule, was only fair, causing 
good prices to obtain for the more choice. The 
year closed on a firm market. 


The shipments of wool from Sin Francisco 
by sea during the past year were as follows: 

To— Pounds 

New York 4,897,566 

Massachusetts 2,011,2 3 

Connecticut 104,757 

New Hampshire 382,070 

British Columbia 2,342 

Total 7,397,988 

1887 7,384,252 

Increase 13,736 

The total by sea in 1886 was 3 510,330 
pounds. Since the completion of the Canadian 
Pacific Railroad, a large part of the wool 
shipped from this port by sea for the Eistern 
States has been sent out by the Victoria 
steamers and reshipped via Port Moody and the 
extreme northern route. 

The shipments by the Southern Pacific Com- 
pany's lines during the 12 months ending No- 
vember 30, 1888. aggregated 22,480.110 lhi„ 
and by sea, 7.397 988; total, 29 878,098, 
against 28,523 882 lbs. in 1887. The descrip 
tionB which made up the overland shipments in 
1888 were as follows: 


Grease 16,831,560 

Pulled 1,648,040 

Scoured 4,000,610 

Total 22,480,110 

A local dealer furnishes the following to the 
press, which is about as correct as can be 
learned from others in the trade: "In volume 
the spring clip fell short about 2,000,000 
pounds from that of 1887, but with the better 
feeling in the fall, shearing was very general, 
and the amount was fully up to that of the pre 
ceding season. We estimate the production of 
the State as follows: Spring and tall shearing, 
31,500,000 pounds; pulled wool, 2,000,000 
pounds; total, 33 500,000 pounds. In addition 
to this, 10,000,000 pounds were received from 
Oregon, which is an increase over last year 
from that quarter. From Nevada, Utah and 
Arizona we received 2,000 000 pounds addi- 
tional, this being a slight falling off from each 
section in comparison with the receipts last 
year. The condition of the spring olip was a 

fair average as to shrinkage and freedom from 
defects, but it was not so well grown or so 
bright in color as in seasons where the rain was 
more plentiful. The fall clip was good, being 
clearer of seed and fully as good in color and 
shrinkage as in average years. The Oregon 
clip was not up to its usual average condition, 
the Eistern Oregon wool especially being very 
heavy, dusty and unsightly, and a large pro- 
portion weak in staple, showiDg the effects of a 
jack of rain during the preceding winter, and 
this also was the case with nearly all the Terri- 
tory wool received this year. Our scouring- 
miils have again been a large factor in moving 
the clip, fully one-third of the entire amount 
having been sorted and scoured before being 
sent Eist, and for the bulk of the Oregon and 
Territory wool and the dusty clip from this 
State this is the only way to handle the arti- 
cle in order to realize anything for the grow- 
ers like a fair value for their clips. The early 
experiences of all the scouring companies were 
not very satisfactory, and it required years of 
patient toil to convince Eastern manufactur- 
ers that the work was properly done and the 
scoured product waB ready for their cards 
without further labor. But this is now be- 
yond being an experiment, and all are now 
meeting with the success their long experi- 
ence entitles them to, and with a more lib- 
eral policy from the overland transportation 
company the business could be largely ex- 
tended and be a benefit to every wool-grower 
on the coast. The present freight rates on 
scoured wool being double that of grease 
wool, seems to be an excessive discrimination 
against this industry, as the mills are required 
at an extra expense to press the scoured prod- 
uct so compact as to enable them to put full 
weight into a car. The stock on hand January 
1, 1889, does not exceed 2,000,000 pounds, as 
againbt 6,500,000 pounds a year ago. The con- 
sumption by the local mills during 1888 was 
about 4,500,000 pounds." 

The average prices of California spring wool 
were as follows from April to September 1st: 
Choice northern, I6@18ju per lb.; Sacramento 
valley and foothill cups, 14@16£c; San Joaquin, 
ll@13c; Southern Coast, 10@12£c. The ship- 
ments of each class were in about equal propor- 
tions. Scoured wool, free, 45@48c; defective 
do, 35@37£c; pulled, 16@20c; Eistern Oregon, 
ll@17u; Valley Oregon, 18@20c; Nevada and 
Arizona, i.3@16c; Utah, 15@18e; scoured Ore- 
gon and Territory, tine, 47@55c; medium, 42@ 
50c; coarse, 38®48e. 

After Sept. 1st there was an advance on all 
spring wools held over of 2®3c per lb. in the 

Fall wools — The average prices of fall wools 
were as follows: Humholdt and Mendocino 
(400,000 pounds), 16@18Jc per lb.; free mount- 
ain, 12@15n; Sicramento valley, 12®,14c; San 
Joaquin, 9@12c; Southern CoaBt, 8@10o. The 
only wools of this class shipped in the grease 
were the Humboldt and Mendocino, and a por- 
tion of the free mountain, all the balance be- 
ing scoured here or used by the local mills. 
Scoured stocks have ruled at 45@50c per lb. 
for free and 35® 40c for defective. 

The year 1888 closed on a strong market 
with a very light stock of wool in this city. 
The strength of the market was in sympathy 
with higher prices at the East brought about by 
very small supplies of wool — about one-half of 
the quantity on December 31, 1887 — and also a 
higher and advancing market in Europe, due to 
light supplies of wool and a large demand from 
continental and English manufacturers. Even 
at the advance the English market is above the 
parity of the New York, Boston and ftiiladel- 
phia markets. 

- Experience in Incubation. 

W. M. Barris of the Los Angeles Poultry 
Ranch writes as follows for the Cackler con- 
cerning his use of incubators: 

I am running at present two machines of 650- 
egg capacity each (Petaluma). In August, out 
ol the eggs put in, about 70 per cent were fer- 
tile. In September about 50 per cent were fer 
tile. Of the August hatch, now six weeks old, 
I only lost about one per cent of those hatched, 
and of the S;ptember batch, now one week old, 
I have not lost more than one-half of one per 
cent. The eggs in both inttances were gath- 
ered from farmers promiscuously. 

I have made some study of the causes of so 
many infertile eggs, because the loss is no small 
one where we have to pay 35 and 40 cents per 
dozen for eggs, as I did for my September 

If parties interested would take the pains to 
inquire into the conditions of the fowls from 
which eggs were obtained, they could easily find 
the cause. One party using an incubator, who 
had good succesB, found upon inquiry that the 
fowls from which his eggs were obtained were 
healthy, had plenty of exercise, and cockerels 
of about one year of age were mated with two- 
year-old hens. 

Another party, who made almost an entire 
failure, states that though about 65 per cent of 
his eggs were fertile, nearly every chiok per- 
ished in the shell, being too weak to break out. 
Investigation showed that the hens from which 
his eggs were obtained were mated with broth- 
ers and had been inbred for three years. The 
consequence was, that while there was life in 
eaoh egg, there was nrl sufficient vitality in 

the chick to enable it to break out. I tin 
that causes such as the above affect the fertil- 
ity of the eggs and vitality of the chicks more 
than any others. 

But there are other reasons for not obtaining 
full hatches. E»gs from very young pullets 
scarcely ever turn out well; neither do eggs 
from very fat hens; yet they may be fertile. 
Frequent handling, chilling, a slight fall or jar, 
and delay in placing them in the incubators, 
affect the result. I aim to place eggs which 
are not over a week old, although others claim 
that an egg not over three weeks old is all 

Messrs. Ray & Warren, in the article above 
mentioned, speak about the chicks standing 
about the fountains drinking till they die. Per- 
haps the difficulty is that they give them water 
too soon after hatching. 

I am well satisfied with the results from my 
manner of feeding which I now give. In the 
first place I call attention to the difference of 
opinion in regard to feeding eggs. Some say 
that nothing is equal to it and that it should 
be kept up for ten days; others condemn it 
altogether. I have adopted a medium. From 
the very first I take the whole egg boiled, not 
too hard, and chop it up (white, yolk and shell) 
very fine, and then add bread-crumbs sufficient 
to make the mass crumbly. I feed nothing 
else for two days. After that I put with the 
bread-orumba oatmeal or cracked wheat, alter- 
nately, working out the eggs gradually, so 
that at the end of a week no more egg is used. 
I do not let them have any water at all for 
four or five days. Should they be attacked with 
diarrhea before this, commence giving them 
water with unslacked lime in it. Lime in the 
water is the best remedy for diarrhea at any 
time. During the second week I feed them 
rice, oatmeal, boiled cracked wheat and mashed 
potatoes. I do not mix them, but feed one of 
them at a time. I think the changes make 
them relish their food better. First meal dur- 
ing the third week I give bran scalded with 
hot milk or hot water (milk is preferable) 
mixed with oatmeal or cracked wheat. At one 
of the daily meals during this week, I chop up 
cooked meat mixed with oatmeal or cracked 
wheat. At another meal I give mashed pota- 
toes mixed with cabbage chopped fine, and 
about twice during the week change to onions. 
I find they eat the green food better mixed 
with something else. I feed every two hours 
during the first week, every three hours dur- 
ing the second and third weeks. After this I 
feed every four hours until three months old, as 
follows: First, warm mash of bran or of bran 
and vegetables mixed; second, feed at ten 
o'clock, whole wheat; third, feed at two o'clock, 
green feed; fourth, five o'clock, whole wheat. 
Rice, oatmeal and cracked wheat may appear 
to be too expensive, but if you try it you will 
find it will pay, and pay big. 

In conclusion I would say to our friends, do 
not give up on account of difficulties. These 
ought to make us more thoughtful and teach 
us more than if we were successful. I do not 
expect satisfactory results with my incubators 
until 1 have hens enough of my own, properly 
mated, to supply me with eggs. Until that time 
I intend to seek out a few farmers who have 
healthy fowls, properly mated, and engage 
eggs from them, even if I have to pay more for 

Poultry in the Orchard. — While it is un- 
disputed that an orchard is one of the best 
places in the world in which to establish a 
pouUry-yard, we have also found that poultry 
is good for trees. We have 16 Shockley apple 
trees, seven years old, standing in and around 
the poultry-yard. Some of them standing direct- 
ly in the runs of the fowls have as many apples 
on them as any five on the outside. This is 
conclusive evidence that the one is beneficial to 
the other. The chickens destroy all bugs and 
insects that prey upon the trees and fruit; at 
the same time they keep down all grass and 
weeds and keep the surface of the ground well 
scratched up and in a mellow condition, thus 
promoting the health and vigor of the trees, 
causing them to bear larger and better frnit. 
Some of the trees in our yard are literally hang- 
ing with nice apples, and so heavily laden that 
we are compelled to keep the trees well prop- 
ped to keep them from breaking down. Shade 
is one of the indispensables about a poultry- 
yard in the summer months, and it is certainly 
better and more profitable to have some good 
variety of fruit. We at the same time get the 
needed shade and a bountiful supply of delicious 
fruit, if of the same kind. We should certainly 
advise all to have orchards for poultry and 
poultry for orchards, for the one will be greatly 
benefited by the other. — Poultry Guide. 

Steel-Wire Mats, a new article in metal- 
lurgical industry, are fast coming into use. 
They are made from steel wire, with steel 
frame and steel braces, all perfeotly galvanized, 
and are wear and weather proof, are self-clean- 
ing, require no shaking, and by the slightest 
scrape, snow, ice, mud, clay and water are 
wiped out of sight. 

Castor-Oil Leaves, fresh from the plant, 
bruised or rubbed in the hands, and then 
stuffed tightly into a stiff boot or shoe and left 
to remain for 12 or 24 hours, according to the 
character of the leather, will render the same 
quite supple — so it is said. 

The largest carpet in the world has been on 
exhibition at the Cincinnati exposition. It con- 
tains 2700 square yards. 



[Jan. 12, 1889 

jJgf^icultu^al JJotes. 


Much Grain Sower.— Oakland Enquirer, 
Dec. 29: The acreage tflat will be plowed up 
and seeded to grain this year in this county 
promises to be greater tban any year hereto- 
fore. If the weather continues warm for some 
weeks and there is not too great a rainfall, 
farmers will be able to get in the balance of 
their lands and the prospects are that all land 
heretofore cultivated will be plowed and 
planted this year and also a large amount of 
hill land that had never been before broken. 
Good crops of a very fine quality are always 
produced on hillside farms, during a year when 
there has been an average rainfall, and during a 
heavy downpour these lands produce as heavy 
a yield as the average low lands, and the 
quality is far superior. When there is too 
•much rain the crops planted on the low lands 
are apt to be injured if not completely ruined. 
It is said the acreage of grain sown in the 
vicinity of Mt. Eden will be larger this year 
than has been known for six years past. All 
along the bay from the lower end of the county 
to Melrose the low lands are being plowed, 
and In Contra Costa county from North Oak- 
land to northward the lands lying between the 
bay and the foothills are being cultivated and 
farmers are already beginning to complain that 
the price of hay and grain will be so low that 
they will not make anything. 


Raisin Output. — Fresno Erpotitor, Jan. 2: 
We desire to call attention to the glaring mis- 
takes of some parties who have made estimates 
of the output of raisins from this county. We 
have only been credited with an exportation 
of some 400 carloads or 8,000.000 lbs. The 
actual and official figures are as follows: From 
Fresno, 6,850,000 lbs.; from other stations in 
the county. 3,803,270 lbs.; a total of 10,653.- 
270 lbs. Allowing 20 lbs. to a box and 1000 
boxes to the carload, the accepted estimate, we 
have 532 carloads and a trifle over. This is an 
increase over last year of 4,388,770 lbs., or over 
220 carloads. 

Sheep Outlook. — W. W. Shipp, one of the 
oldest eheep-raiaera in the county, was to-day 
asked the prospects of a sheep crop for the com- 
ing season. " Never better; never better, sir. 
This is my 21st year in the business in this 
county. I came here in 1867, and have ex- 
perienced many good and many bad years in 
my business, as you may judge. I have 4600 
sheep this season. They commence to lamb 
between the 25th of January and the 1st of 
February. The feed is at least a month ahead 
of last season, and is at its very best when we 
want it. Everything is favorable for a good 
lambing season all over the country." 


In Owens Valley. — Independent, Dec. 29: 
So tar, stockmen in Owens valley have not fed 
any hay to their cattle this season. There is 
plenty of good feed on the pastures and grass is 
still making good growth. During the past 
few weeks alfalfa has made good growth; the 
recent warm rain has been very favorable.... 
At his place at George's Creek, James K. 
Moffat planted some young Monterey cypress 
trees two years ago. They have made fine 
growth and are now beautiful trees. It was 
doubted if Monterey cypress would grow in 
Owens valley, but Mr. Moffat has removed. the 
doubt; and last winter was the coldest known 
herein many years.... Mr. Mclver, sup't of 
the East-aide canal, has ordered 30,000 grape- 
cuttings for setting out on his own land in the 
spring. The cuttings will come from Wood- 
land and Davisville A good deal of work is 

being done improving the grade and straighten- 
iog and widening Stevens ditch. The ditch 
will be in good condition to supply water for 
several thousand acres of land early in the 
spring. The land and canal are now valuable 
property and their values will rapidly increase. 

Horse-Breedino. — W. S. Enos is rapidly 
growing up a fine stock of horses. He now has 
70 head of brood mares; among these are quite 
a number of the best strains of various breeds. 
He has a few very promising colts from the 
celebrated horse Fallis, reoently taken to 
Kentucky under a contract for breeding. Mr. 
Enos contemplates going East soon for an im- 
ported Percheron stallion. Should he do bo, 
he will bring here a first-class horse that will 
be of great value to the country. Ssveral 
horse-raisers have offered Mr. Enos to breed a 
large number of mares to the horse he may 


Seeking Pasture.— Bakersfield Echo, Jan. 3: 
Some gentlemen engaged in the butcher busi- 
ness in Fresno have recently been here looking 
for alfalta lands on which to fatten cattle and 
sheep for their markets. It has been known in 
all the adjoining counties for years that Kern 
was the Egypt of the State for feed in years of 
scarcity. Those wanting hay or temporary past- 
ure naturally turn this way. If now, as seems 
probable, butchers have awakened to the value 
of a Kern county alfalfa-field as a backing to 
their business— pastures where they may place 
thin cattle and sheep for fattening — anew value 
will be given to our lands for that purpose. 

Much Grain Sown. — Heretofore the wheat- 
fields of Kern have been dwarfed by the vast 
area of alfalfa; but from present appearances 
the acreage sown to wheat and barley this year 

will cut no unimportant figure. In the Delano 
and Poso Creek countries a very large amount 
of unirrigated land is being seeded, and should 
the rains continue through the spring months 
the yield of hay and thrashed grain will be an 
important factor in the county's export this 
year. Many of these grain farmers are living 
on homestead and pre-emption claims, and a lib- 
eral crop will be a welcome boon to them. There 
is little more than the usual amount being sown 
on irrigated lands, but in the mountain valleys 
the fields are being extended to their utmost. 

Los Angeles. 


Santa Ana, Jan. 3: The regular meeting of the 
Los Angeles Co. Pomological Society was held 
at Neill's hall this afternoon and evening. The 
address of welcome was delivered by Prof. Man- 
ley, sup't of the city schocl*. Interesting 
papers and discussions were had upon " Scale 
Pests and Their Remedies," " The Culture of 
Prunes in Southern California," " The Market- 
ing of Fruits in Southern California," " Cli- 
matic Phenomena and Deciduous Tree Culture," 
etc. The attendance from a distance was fair, 
but of citizens, small. A display of fruits and 
products of the valley, neatly arranged, at- 
tracted universal attention. 


Cattle Notes. — Alturas Independent, Dac. 
27: Stock- raisers and farmers in this vicinity 
are unanimous in the opinion that the winter 
so far is all that could be desired. We under- 
stand that only a small number of beef cattle 
are being fed this winter. In the vicinity of 
Fort Bidwell Peter Peterson is feeding a small 
lot to supply a contract. In the lower end of 
the valley H. L. Merrifield, R. W. Minto and 
one or two others are feeding small lots. . . .The 
South Fork cattle-men are busy riding over the 
range and getting the cattle into the valley. 
They will be turned into the fields and swamps, 
where there is excellent feed. C. W. Williams 
of South Fork was in town yesterday. He in- 
forms us that in his section a great many cattle 
have been gathered in, but the majority of 
them are still on the outside, and he thinks it 
will probably be the middle or last of January 
before the range is clear. 

Good Sized Hogs. — W. B. Wbittemore of 
Fort Bidwell butchered 17 hogs last week, 
and their average weight was 2S2 pounds 
dressed. The largest of the lot weighed 465 
pounds. • The amount of lard obtained was an 
average of 42 pounds to the hog. If any of 
our hog-raisers can beat this we would be glad 
to hear from them. 


Barren Hill Nurseries.— Nevada City 
Herald: Nevada City has one institution 
which is widely known in this and other States 
of the Union; it is also known in other coun- 
tries. The institution is Barren Hill Nursery, 
owned by Felix Gillet. It is known chiefly for 
the superior trees, plants and shrubs it sends 
forth. Mr. Gillet sends out only the choicest 
varieties, and the demand exceeds his means 
of supply four-fold. He has this season ac- 
cepted orders for 20,000 prune trees and 3000 
walnut trees, mostly for Southern California. 
He has had to decline orders aggregating 
five times that amount. His walnut and prnne 
trees he imports from France. The specimens 
of walnuts be has on hand speak for themselves. 
Mr. Gillet started in a few years since on a bar- 
ren hill, the soil from which had been washed 
for gold. He has persevered and made it a 
garden-spot unexcelled anywhere. The most 
of it is the result of the work of his own hands 
It is a living example of what knowledge and 
labor will accomplish in California. The place 
will well repay a visit. 

San Bernardino. 

Sold on the Trees — Ontario Record, Dec. 
26: A. Oakley has sold the oranges on his 10- 
acre lot, the Holt orchard, for $3.25 per box. 
The purchaser is J. Sterovich of Lob Angeles, 
who takes the crop on the trees and pays the 
figures named for the entire lot. That seems a 
good price, and we understand that it is as high 
as is being offered at Riverside; but then On- 
tario Navels and Mediterranean Sweets are 
equal to the best. 

San Diego. 

Sweet Potatoes. — F.^llbrook Cor. Union: 
At J. W. Cheatham's offbe there is on exhibi 
tion a hill of sweet potatoes adhering to a 
single root which weighed 50 pounds when first 
unearthed. One sweet potato weighing 16 
pounds was an object of curiosity at the same 
otlice some time ago. 

San Joaquin. 

The Mokelumne Dam. — Lodi Sentinel: The 
Mokelumne Ditch & Irrigation Co. 'a dam is sit- 
uated a few yards below Westmoreland's bridge, 
the banks of the river at that place being solid 
rock. The dam, a small portion of which was 
built a number of years ago, is 277 feet long, 40 
wide at the base, and 7 feet wide at the top, 
and is 32 feet high. It is built of rock and ce- 
ment, containing over 8000 oubio yards of 
material. At the east end of the dam is a solid 
stone pier, 30 feet long, 10 feet wide and 22 
feet high, between which and the stone bank is 
the headgate, 34 feet long, built of best and 
heaviest timber, firmly cemented and mortised 
into the rock at the bottom and sides. From 
here the canal, 32 feet wide on the bottom, is 
cut through solid rock for some distance. 
About 65 yards from the headgate is the waste- 
gate, 16 feet wide, which, like the headgate, is 
built of heavy timber, and is cemented and 
mortised between two massive stone pillars, 
and it there to stay. From this gate to the 

river is constructed a fish-ladder substantially 
built of redwood, the sides and bottom being 
of three-inch plank. It is 10S feet long, 5 feet 
wide and 22 inches deep, the pitch being one 
foot in fonr. At intervals of two feet on each 
side of the ladder are built aprons three feet 
long, slanting toward the waste-gate, thus 
breaking the force of the current so the fish can 
"go up the flume." 

Santa Clara. 
Agricultural Society. — Herald, Jan. 4: 
The Santa Clara Valley Agricultural Society 
held its annual meeting yesterday, 38 life mem- 
bers being present. The report of Sec'y G. H. 
Bragg showed total receipts for the society, 
$14,414.06; total disbursements, $13,889.53; 
balance on hand, $524.53. D. J. Murphy was 
elected September 10th to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of Director H. W. Seale. 
During the year three of the oldest members 
have died, viz. : H. W. Seale, L. R. Mills and 

A. S. Baaty. The report was accepted . . . . N. 

B. Edwards, T. S. Montgomery and Wm. 
Buckley were appointed a committee to exam- 
ine the report and the books of the secretary 
and report at the next meeting of the direct- 
ors. The following officers were elected: 
President, E. Topham (re-elected); directors, 
three-year-term, Wm. Boots and D. J. Murphy. 
. . . .Mr. Chase moved to strike from the con- 
stitution the clause requiring that the officers 
of the association be residents of the county. 
The motion, which required a two-thirds' 
vote to carry, was lost by a vote of 24 to 13. 
The meeting then adjourned. 

Santa Cruz. 

Model Slaughter house. — H. C. Peckham 
has just finished a new slaughter house, beyond 
the lower Salaipuedes bridge, and it is the most 
finely equipped we have seen. Everything 
connected with the bnilding is arranged in a 
systematic manner, so as to prevent as muoh 
hard work as possible. The meat is hanled up 
to be dressed and moved from one place to an- 
other by a system of pulleys; the various yarda 
are arranged so that the cattle can easily be 
driven into the house, and the place is a perfect 
network of doors, eaoh one being for some pur- 
pose. The building is so constructed that it 
has perfect drainage and can always be kept 
clean. A few yards from the slaughter-house 
is a large and convenient barn with a great num- 
ber of cattle-stalls. The Salsipuedes creek bor- 
ders his place, thereby allowing the stock to 
drink from the stream of flowing water. Above 
all, a person may go anywhere around the place 
in winter without soiling his shoes or being 
troubled by a stench of any kind. 

Excellent Flax. — Pajaronian, Deo. 27: 
Eirly this year Geo. A. Trafton distributed a 
lot of flaxseed among farmers of this valley for 
trial cultivation. The yield in each instance 
was good and the straw was long and of tough 
fiber. The seed was sent here by W. M. Hat- 
field, who has a flax-mill near Menlo Park, San 
Mateo connty, and samples of the flax grown 
here were sent him for trial. Mr. Hatfield has 
had long experience in scutching (flax) mills in 
Canada, is thoroughly posted in the business, 
and hence his opinion as to the result of the 
Pajaro valley flax experiments is worthy of 
much weight. On Monday, Mr. Trafton re- 
ceived a letter from Mr. Hatfield in reference 
to the flax sent him. He stated that the 
weather had been against proper rotting of the 
straw, that his force of employes was new to 
the business, bat that he had been able to give 
the straw a fair test and had produced a fiber 
which the owners of the Oakland Cotton-Mill 
and the Pacific Flax-Mills had pronounced the 
toughest, longett and best fiber they had ever 
seen. In this opinion Mr. Hatfield fully con- 
curs. He considers the fiber nnequaled. The 
result of this test has convinced him that Wat- 
sonville is the proper site for a scutching and 
twine mill, and that sufficient flax to keep it in 
operation the year round can be raised in 
Pajaro valley. He proposes that a joint stock 
company of farmers and business men of this 
valley be formed — say with a capital of §100,- 
000. He will subscribe 20 or 25 per cent of 
that amount. ... Here is another chance to se- 
cure a labor-employing fac ory for our town and 
a coin-on-delivery crop for our farmers. The 
leeson of the beet factory should not be lost. 
We trust that Mr. Trafton will call a public 
meeting in the near future. We want the tUx- 


An Appropriate Label. — Santa Rosa Dem- 
ocrat: Capt. Guy E. Grosse has had a photo- 
graph taken of an olive branch, containing a 
number of well-developed berries, from his 
olive orchard on the hights east of this city, 
copies of which he proposes to distribute among 
his friends here and patrons in the East. He 
will also have an engraving made of the picture 
and use it as a label on his pickled olives. 

Christmas at Santa Rosa. — Cor. Chronicle: 
Tomatoes growing in the open air were gath- 
ered fresh from gardens on Christmas Day, and 
served on tables in addition to the regulation 
turkey and cranberries. Roses and other 
flowers, blooming almost as luxuriantly as in 
springtime, decorated houses for the festive oc- 
casion. Frost has not yet visited this seotion, 
and we have passed from autumn to early spring 
without a total destruction of vegetation from 
olimatic changes. 


New Year's in Visalia. — Delta: Here on 
the first day of January, 1889, are violets and 
geraniums, nasturtiums and roses, growing and 
blooming in the gardens. A splendid growth 
of fresh green grass, 10 or 12 inches long in 

places, covers every pasture, field and roadside, 
and even decorates the unused parfs of our 
streets, dooryards and gardens. J. B. Smith 
had ripe grapes for Christmas, and (till has 
some on his vines. In a number of gardens in 
town ripe tomatoes are still gathered for use, 
while almost any kind of vegetable can be pro- 
cured from the Chinese peddlers. Perhaps 
some of our Eastern friends would like a sam- 
ple package of our January radishes or lettuoe ? 
If so, we can easily accommodate them. 

A Hanford Man Visits S. F. — Cor. Delta: 
Our raisin-makers have considerable complaint 
to make concerning the action of some S. F. 
commission men to whom they told their rai- 
sins this year. One well-known raisin grower 
sent a shipment " below," and got word back 
that they could not sell his fruit at the figures 
expected. He boarded the train and went to 
the city. Hunting up the house of his con- 
signee, he (being personally unknown to the 
merchant) wanted to buy the goods bearing 
his own brand. He was told what fine raisins 
they were, and that they would have to bring 
the top of the market. " Well," said the 
granger, " if they are so fine and worth so 
muoh, what's the matter of your paying me the 
price you agreed to? I am the grower of those 
raisins." The commissioner was struck amid- 
ships, as it were, and paid the price he had 
agreed to, and the old boy of Mussel Slough 
came home with a smile of satisfaction gleam- 
ing from his countenance. 


Varied Products. — Marysville Appeal. D?c. 
28: During the past two weeks tne Sutter 
Fruit Co. has shipped from this city to Fresno 
over 200 boxes of apples. The same ooncern has 
been shipping Marysville oranges for some lime 
past. There are few other spots on the face of 
the earth that can boast with Yuba county of 
producing both the apple and the orange to per- 
fection, along with strawberries, blackberries 
and raspberries, table and wine grapes, apri- 
cots, cherries, plums, prunes, pears, persim- 
mons, nectarines, peaches, figs, olives, almonds, 
raisins, walnuts; in addition to all sorts of veg- 
etables, alfalfa, wheat, barley and other grains. 

Marysville Items — Appeal, Jan. 4: The 
fine weather of the past two days has made 
mushrooms very plentiful upon the plains, and 
large quantities of them have been gathered. . . . 
A small wagon -load of hay, which took six 
horses to draw over the muddy roads, was one 
of the things which the pleasant weather caused 
to appear on the streets yesterday .... J udge J. 
H. Craddock had a box of oranges packed yes- 
terday and shipped to New York, where thr y 
will be put upon the banquet-table of the Elk 
club, which will be spread on the 9th inst. . . . 
Mayor Slattery, as a Christmas gift to some 
friends in Ireland, recently had a large cluster 
of oranges packed and shipped to them. 


Midwinter Muscats and " Garden Truck " 
Florence Enterprite, l> c 29: Last Sunday 
Mr. Peter Will plucked from his vines on Main 
street a fine bunch of Muscat grapes that were 
of flivor and quality equal to the best produc- 
tions of the summer season. On his vines there 
are still several bunches of grapes that will ma- 
ture within the next two weeks. These vines 
have been given no special care and they bore 
the usual crop of summer grapes. This circum- 
stance suggests the feasibility of producing 
grapes in quantities during the entire winter 
season, if the subject is properly studied and 
the necessary conditions supplied .... H. G. 
Ballou has a fine lot of green peas in bis garden 
ready for picking, and the vines are still cov- 
ered with blossoms and young pods. He also 
has a full assortment of tender summer vegeta- 
bles growing, that were planted in October. 
They will furnish a full supply until the early 
spring crop begins to take their place. 


Southern Josephine County.— Cor. Grant's 
Pass Courier: Commencing at Deer creek, a 
tributary of the Illinois river, there is some of 
the finest farming land found, known as the 
Deer Creek valley, which is about 12 miles long 
with creeks branching out from it every few 
miles, containing good farming land on all of 
them and several magnificent farms. There is 
also some vacant land on all the branches, but 
the main Deer Creek valley is about all cleared, 
and a great quantity of timothy hay, as well as 
wheat, oats, barley, rye, corn and vegetables, 
are produced. On the low rolling hills on 
either side of this valley is one of the finest 
belts of sugar-pine timber, accessible with 
wagons, to be found on the Pacific Coast, not 
mentioning the red and yellow fir, yellow pine, 
white and black oak, as well as ash, maple and 
other species of timber. To see the orchards 
here left to the care they get from horses, cat- 
tle and hogs being on them, and yet 
to behold the immense amonnt of fruit they 
bear, is astonishing, and conveys the impres- 
sion that with proper care and attention this 
can be made one of the largest producers of 
ohoice apples to be found in Southern Oregon. 
Plums, pears and prunes also grow here to per- 
fection, as well as a large variety of berries. 
On these low hills is good range for stock, but 
on the mountains, at the head of these streams, 
is as fine buncbgrass as the most fastidious 
stock-raiser conld reasonably expect to find, and 
the many large springs of pure oold water make 
this one of the most desirable locations for the 
production of choice grades of horses and oattle. 

Jan. 12, 1889.] 

pAClFie f^URAb f>RES& 


Cook Stock Farm. 

Green Valley, Contra Costa County. 

[Written for the Rural Press by J. C. II.] 
Although Contra Costa county is situated bo 
near to the metropolis, and con ains a large 
area of the most productive land in California, 
her great industrial enterprises, ber manu- 
factories and shipping, her orchards, vineyards, 
stock farms and palatial homes have had but 
meager notice from the press of our State. 

A Rural reporter made a trip through the 
county last week. From Martinez, the county 
seat, 35 miles from our city, southeasterly, 
there is a succession of small valleys and low 
hills divided into small farms with neat cot- 
tages and a few more imposing edifices, around 
which are large pear orchards in the valleyB, 
while the hills are set with vines. 

From Pacheco, near which are the county 
fair grounds, the road leads southward through 
a very productive valley (although fences and 
residences are in a somewhat dilapidated con- 
dition) to the thriving town of Walnut Creek, 
which takes its name from the many native 
walnut trees that line its banks. From Wal- 
nut Creek the route is south through San 
Ramon valley, a great broad area of rich al- 
luvial soil that rivals for varied productions 
and exuberant growth in tree and plant any 
portion of Calitornia. The attention of some 
of our leading frnitmen — for instance, A. T. 
Hatch and August Hemmt — has been attracted 

grove that flowers profusely every year. Mr. 
Jas. S. Henderson, an experienced horticultur- 
ist, has charge of this department. He is of 
opinion that this section is one of the best in 
the world for growing fruit and ornamental 

The home residence is a large, imposing edi- 
fice with broad porticos. The adjacent ravine 
is spauned by numerous quaint and rustic 
bridges, and beyond it are the clubhouse, laun- 
dry and dairy-house. The latter is most com- 
plete in its appointments, with cement floor, 
marble tables and a fountain of cold mountain 
water in the center. 

The family -carriage barn is 80x125 feet with 
one large and three small cupolas. The large 
farm stable for workhorses, carpenter shop, 
blacksmith shop, wagon and machine shop, 40x 
250 feet, are situated at convenient distances 
from each other, while to the right can be seen 
the great training >■ table, 80x125 feet, with a 
walking alley 25 feet wide in the center. The 
nursery, or colt stable, higher up the valley, is 
built in a semi-circle 20 feet wide and 500 feet 
long, in front of which is a large corral. It is 
constructed with box stalls, each of which is 
occupied by a pair of the weanlings at night. 
There were 40 colts in the inclosure, and they 
soon learn to take the positions assigned them. 
A neat cottage close by is occupied by the resi- 
dent trainer. 

The brood mares' barn is 60 feet wide by 200 
feet long, with a driveway in the center and 
corrals on each side. There were 30 standard 
bred trotting mares in the inclosure, 18 of 

Each laborer has good rooms with patent hos- 
pital beds, which are well provided with clean 
sheets and ample bed-clothes. It is a signifi- 
cant feature of this farm that a large number 
of the employes have been there continuously 
for 8 and 12 vears, and have now in savings 
banks from $1000 to $2000 each. 

The proprietor, Mr. Seth Cook, has adopted 
a liberal policy and employed the best talent in 
securing noted strains of blooded stock, and by 
such judicious management and reinforcing has 
gained for the Cook Stock Farm the reputation 
of having the purest blooded animals with pedi- 
grees and records true and reliable. He has 
taken pleasure in introducing the highest grades 
of stock with a view of improving our State, 
and during all these years his prices have been 
very low as compared with those of many 
breeding establishments. 

We append a succinct account of the live- 


Shorthorns. — Noble King (Vol. 34), at the 
head of the herd, is bv Imp. King of Aberdeen; 
four other bulls and 24 recorded cows. 

Devons. — At the head of the Devon herd is 
imported Charming Lad, 4231. Calved Jan. 31, 
1885. Bred by A. C. Skinner of Taunton, En- 
gland. Sire, Lord Currypool (1589). by Lord 
Stowey (1601). Dam, Charmer (5151), by 
Druid (1317). G. D. Chivey (3279), bred by W. 
Cook ot Cnevithome Tiverton. Charming Lid 
won first prize at the Illinois State Fair, 1887, 
in the two-year-old class. He was placed 
second in the three-year-old class at the same 


to this section, and miles and miles of trees 
have been planted, especially the pear and 

From Danville, a small village near the center 
of this valley, we go east 2J miles into Green 
Vallev, where is situated tbe celebrated " Cook 
Stock Farm." This picturesque and charming 
tract is about 'i\ miles long and from half a 
mile to three miles wide, stocked wit'u great 
baronial oaks, while on the rolling hills around 
are groups of evergreen trees common to our 
State, and Mt. Diablo stands sentinel at the 
head of the valley. 

The natnral advantages of this section for 
making an ideal home induced men of ample 
means to enlist all tbe ingenuity of the me- 
chanic and artisan in constructing and adorn- 
ing a magnificent country seat and family re- 
sort. In this connection the projectors have 
utilized the resources of this rich, productive 
land and established one of the most notable 
and extensive breeding farms for fine stock in 
this State. 

Tne Oook Stock Farm contains 5000 acres 
and is watered by numerous springs, the largest 
of which has been tapped by a tunnel 2000 feet 
long, one mile from the summit of Mt. Diablo, 
and give a supply sufficient to fill a reservoir 
containing 25.000,000 gallons of water. The 
road leading up to the residence is nicely grav- 
eled and has ornamental trees on each Bide; 
while about half a mile to the left can be seen 
a great cattle barn with a mile racetraok ad- 

There are 100 acres used for ornamental 
grounds, planted with the choicest varieties of 
shrubs and flowering plants; 70 acres in or- 
chard, principally pears; 15 acres in olives, of 
which there are 18 varieties; Japanese fruits, 
8 varieties; three acres of oranges with ten trees 
now in bearing, besides currants, gooseberries, 
strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, pome- 
granates, guavas, mulberries, walnuts, chest- 
nuts, almonds, quinces, and a large magnolia 

which were imported from Kentucky. 

The granary, 40x60 feet, and piggery, 80x50 
feet, with an ell 150 long, are to the left and in 
front of the great cattle barn, 80x200 feet, 
with a shed 25x400 feet long on the south side. 
In this building are stabled, in their several de- 
partments, the families of Shorthorns, Devons, 
Polled Angus and Galloways. 

Next to the county road is the winter stall- 
ion-paddock, where each animal can enjoy 
shelter or sunshine at its will. We noticed 
here one of Tiffany's operating tables, by which 
a horse can be thrown and secured without risk 
or injury. A short distance from the training 
stable are 20 acres fenced off in paddocks 200 
feet square. The Devon breeding barn, 200 
feet long, is placed at the upper end of the val- 
ley; the calf barn, 250 feet long, a half-mile 
lower down; while the Polled- Angus barn, 250 
feet long, is at the lower end of the ranch, 
about li miles from the home residence. This 
whole traot is suitably divided into fields with 
substantial board fences, no barbed wire being 
used on any portion of the farm, except the 
outside fence next to the mountain. All the 
home buildings are models in their architect- 
ural designs and proportions, with vanes, 
cupolas and spires, painted, from base-board to 
comb of roof, in different colors, and so disposed 
as to form a group that has the appearance of a 

Mr. Geo. A. Wiley, the manager, has been 
superintendent for 12 years, and with the as- 
sistance of his accomplished wife has done and 
is doing a great deal to make this farm an at- 
tractive and luxurious home, where a hearty 
and generous hospitality is given to rich and 
poor alike. In the management of this ranch 
he has adopted a system of mixed farming and 
rotation of orops. There are departments with 
a foreman at tbe head of each, and a large force 
of men, from 40 to 50 the year around, is moved 
with less friction than some farms of one- 
tenth the magnitude. 

show, 1888, and he was shown at the head of 
the herd, and won the Devon herd sweepstakes, 
withfour herds in competition. He also won 
sweepstakes at St. Louis fair, 1888, as best 
Devon bull in the show. He won first prize in 
class, and sweepstakes at the Moweaqua fair in 
1887, and was first in class and sweepstakes at 
the same show, 1888. Charming Lad was im- 
ported by John Hudson of Moweaqua, Shelby 
county, ill., July 6, 1886. 8old to Seth Cook, 
Danville. Cal., Nov. 30, 1888. 

Aberdeen Angus. — This herd consists of 
62 cows and 19 bulls with Imp. Marathon of 
Finkay. No. 2021, at the head. 

Galloway. — Imo. Scottish Champion, 1218, 
at the head, with 19 other bulls and 50 cows 
and heifers. 


Cleveland Bays — The stock of Cleveland 
Bay horses of the Cook Stook Farm was im- 
ported by Messrs. Stericker Brothers, Spring- 
field, III. 

We herewith give the names and pedigree 
of some of the most notable animals: 

Stallions — Besides Riyal Studl. y and Na- 
poleon, whioh are illustrated in this issue of 
the Rural, there are in the Cleveland Bay 
stud the following: 

B iron Hilton 584. Foaled tprinc 1883. Im- 
ported 1885. Sire, Lucks All (189); dam by 
Sportsman (291). 

Kingscote 154 Foaled spring, 1884. Im- 
ported Dec, 1886. Sire, Competitor (101). 
Dam, Smiler. 

Saxon Prince 83 Foaled spring, 1884. Im- 
ported July, 1886 Sire, Sportsman (299). 
Dam by Brilliant (42). 

General 249. Foaled spring, 1885. Import- 
ed May, 1887. Sire, Silesman (417). Dam by 
Barnaby (18). 

Bonanza 246. Foaled spring, 1885. Im- 
ported August, 1887. Sire, General (177). 
Dam by Field Marshal (161). 

Mares.— Sunbeam 71 Foaled spring, 1883. 

Imported August, 1887. Sire, Salesman (4 
Dam by Lucks All (187). 

Barrowby Lass. Foaled spring, 1883. Im- 
ported August, 1886. Sire, Sportsman (299). 
Dam by Chamnion ol England (55). 

Kaiserin. Foaled spring, 1883. Imported 
July, 1885. Sire, Emoeror (377). Dam by 
Champion of England (55). 

Queen of Trumps. Foaled spring, 1882. Im- 
porced July, 1886. Sire, The General. Dam, 

Lady Hilton. Foaled Feb. 10, 1887. Bred by 
Seth Cook, D inville, Cal. Sire, Baron Hilton 
(584). D im, Kaiserin. 

Bay Queen. Foaled May 23, 1887. Bred 
by Steriker Bros. Springfield, III. Sire, 
Herdsman (620). Dam, Q leen of Trumps. 

Trotting Stallions, 

Steinway. Bred by Col. R. G Stoner, Ky. 
Sire, Strathmore. Dam, Abbess. Now in train- 
ing at Bay District. Trial, 2:21; half mile, 1:08. 

Cresco. Bred by Col. R G. Stoner, Ky. 
Sire, Strathmore. Dam, Alia. Record, 2:21. 

Charles Derby. Bred by the late Daniel 
Cook. Sire, Steinway. Dam, Kitty G. Now 
in training at Biy District. 

Prince Red. Brown colt imported by Seth 
Cook in December, 18S8. Foaled May 13, 
1888. Sired by R'd Wilkes, the tire of Prince 
Wilkes. Record, 2:14;. First dam, Mollie 
Stout, sister to Lady Stout, three-year old. 
Record, 2:29 (Membiino time). Second dam, 
Pus Prall, by Bertrand. 

Standard Brood Mares. 

Katie G., by B. Electioneer. L^ah, by 
Woodford, Membrino." Princess, by Adminis- 
trator; dam, by Volunteer. Steinola, by Stein- 
way. Carry Stoner, by Steinway. Calypso, 
by Steinway. Bertha, by Alcantara. Maggie 
McGregor, by Robt. McGregor. Nehata, by 
Belmont. Iaex, by Sweepstakes. Lydia Bright, 
by Triumvir. Addie Ash, by Indianapolis. 
Clementine, by Yosemite. Etna G., by Guy 
Wilkes. Rimona, by Anteo. 

Mares In Training. 
None Better, by Allendorf. Dam, Bashaw's 

Nanny Smith, full sister to Phil. Thomp- 
son. Record, 2:16 By Red Wilkes. Dam, 
Nellie Grey. 

Algerdetta, by Allendorf. D.m, King Girl. 

Alhambra Valley. 

The Alhambra valley lies just south of Mar- 
tinez, and extends back ten miles to the Con- 
tra Costa range of hills, being from one to three 
miles wide. It is under a high state of culti- 
vation, and a large number of our leading cit- 
izens have built fine residences there and are 
making it their country homes. Among these 
are H. Rapp, Prof. John Muir, Dr. John Strent- 
zel, the veteran horticulturist, O C. Huefner, 
of the German Demokrnt Prof. John Swett, T. 
G. Hogan of the I X L, Wm. Cluff and 

One of our reporters lately visited the res- 
idence of Prof. John Swett, four miles from 
Martinez. Six years ago tbe professor began 
to improve this portion of the valley, and now 
has a country seat whose loveliness can be real- 
ized only by personal inspection. The valley 
here is about one mile wide and surrounded 
with hills covered with evergreen trees, exoept 
in portions where the oaks have been leveled 
and their places taken by the choicest vines, 
deciduous fruits and olive trees. The mildness 
of the climate is attested by the fact that there 
is growing on his place a tomato-vine over five 
feet high, which now has hanging upon it more 
than 100 tomatoes, many of them almost full- 

Polled Angus Beef. — A Polled Angus steer 
was recently purchased from tbe herd of the Oook 
Stock Farm in Contra Costa county by Arthur 
Williams, a butcher at Walnut Creek. The 
animal was 30 months old. weighed gross 1345 
pounds, and dressed net 835 pounds. The car- 
cass was seen on the block by a Rural reporter 
and showed the complete marble that is olaimed 
for beef of this stock. Mr. Williams, who has 
been in business at Walnut Creek for 16 consec- 
utive years, pronounced it the finest specimen 
of marbled beef he had ever seen. Several old 
farmers and stock-raisers who had come to the 
village to see this beef expressed themselves in 
terms of surprise as to quality and gave the 
highest commendation of this breed of cattle as 

Death to Squirrels.— J. J. Elliott has fol- 
lowed the business of poisoning squirrels for 
several years. His system of procedure is to 
take a section and rid it of these vermin, guar- 
anteeing satisfaction or no pay. He uses a 
combination of poisons and a compound that 
attracts the squirrels. Parties desiring it can 
secure this compound at $1.50 per gallon by 
addressing him at Danville, Contra Costa 

Martinez Hotel. — This new and commo- 
dious hotel lias recently been renovated and re- 
furnished by E, A. Montgomery and is now 
ready for guests. The service and table will 
oompare favorably with any hotel outside of 
our city, and tourist and traveler will find 
this one of the best houses at this popular sum- 
mer resort. 

McAfee & Baldwin is the newly-adopted 
name of the firm of wide-awake and reliable 
real estate agents and auctioneers, hitherto 
known as McAfee Bros, 



[Jan. 12, 1889 

HI he 3?ublis Xaajmds. 

Revision of the Land Lnws. 

Washington, Jinnary 3 I. — Toe House Com- 
mittee on Public Ludt to-day took action on 
the Senate bill relating to public lands, by 
meaDS of which it is hoped to seoure legislation 
at this eeseion of Congress which will greatly 
modify the public land policy of the Govern 
ment. The House passed during last session a 
bill repealing pre-emption and timber culture 
and otherwise amending the land laws, but do 
action has been taken on the measure by the 
Senate. In order to facilitate the passage of 
the essential features of this general land bill, 
the House C>mmittee to day took up the bill 
passed by the Senate in December, providing 
that the public lands of the United States now 
subject to private entry shall be disposed of 
under homestead laws only. After making 
numerous amendments to the bill, Holman was 
instructed to report to the House and ask its 
early consideration. 

It is the purpose of the committee in this 
way to endeavor to throw the proposed land r<» 
form legislation into the hands of a C inference 
Committee of the House and Senate to secure, 
if possible, the substantial changes desired to 
be effected in the land laws. The bill agreed 
upon by the committee to day provides that 
public lands chiefly valuable for agriculture and 
not subject to private entry shall be disposed 
of under the homestead law only, and that the 
pre-emption law shall «be repealed. Persons 
who have made pre-emption or homestead en- 
try of land, but have not perfected title there- 
to, are given the right to make another home 
stead entry. Whenever a settler upon the 
public domain is nnable, on account of destruc- 
tion of crops, sickness or other unavoidable 
casualty, to secure support from the land 
located upon, the local land officers may grant 
leave of absence from the claim to the settler 
for a term not exceeding one year. Home- 
stead settlers who have made entry to less than 
one-quarter section of land are given the privi 
lege of making another entry, the aggregate 
quantity under the entries not to exceed 160 

An Important Declaim. 

Washington, January 3-1. — In the case of 
the United States vs. the Slate of California, 
involving the question of the right of the State 
to indemnity for school lands to compensate lor 
deficiencies in fractional townships, made so by 
n a on of swamp land found therein, the Secre- 
tary of the Interior has reversed the decision of 
the Ommisstoner of the General L ind Office 
and sustained the validity of such selections. 
The selections in this case were approved ami 
certified to by the State prior to the Act of 
March, 1877, as land inuring to the State under 
the Act of February 26. 1859, providing for 
sohool land indemnity to compensate for de 
ticiencies where school sections are wanting, or 
where townships are tract onal from any cause 
whatever. Tne Commissioner held that such 
selections were invalid whenever b sed upon 
the alleged dt ticiencies in fractional townships, 
caused by swamp lands tound therein, and held 
the selections for cancellation. He directed 
that they be disposed of under the proviso of 
the second sectioo of the Act of M ruh 1, 1877, 
which allows a purchaser trom the State to pur- 
chase said lands of the Government where said 
selections are invalid and not confirmed by the 
Act of 1877. 

In reverring this decision, the Secretary held 
that the State is not entitled, as others, undtr 
the language of the various Acts providing for 
indemnity school lands in the State of Cali- 
fornia, to make selections in lieu of swamp 
lands, merely because they are swamp and over- 
tl nved, but he holds that under the statute ap- 
plicable to the State of Cilifornia directing sur- 
veys in said Slate, townships were made frac 
tional by reason of the existence of Bwamp and 
overflowed lands in the same manner and with 
the same eff.ct as in other States, and resulted 
from surveys, b ing made fractional by bodies 
of water, whether fresh or salt, of such charac- 
ter as to be meandered, and b fore such frac- 
tional townships, made so by reason of the sur- 
vey thereof, furnished a basis for indemnity se- 
lections under the Act of February 26, 1859, 
which provided for selections to compensate 
for deficiencies for school sections where Sec- 
tions 16 and 36 are fractional in quantity, or 
where one or both are wanting by reason of 
townships being fractional; or from any natur- 
al cause whatever. 

He also holds that the Act of 1S77 confirmed 
to the State all selections of land made prior to 
the passage of said Act, and Dot sold the State, 
whether basis for such selections existed or 

This decision, it is said, controls the case of 
Elieha Wright et al., appellants, against the 
State of California and J. W. Warner et al., 
respondents, and involves a large quantity of 

Makysville, JaDuary 31. — The decision cf 
the Cummi88ioDers of the General Land Office, 
rendered about a year ago, held forcaDcellation 
about 5000 acres in the counties of Yolo, Colusa, 
Tehama and B llano, held by numerous parties 
under title from this State as indemnity selec- 
tions based upon swamp land lien. The parties 
had been in undisturbed possession for a drzen 
years, and the decision occasioned much indig- 
nation. Dicker & Jewett, the bankers of this 
city, were the owners of 2400 acres of this land. 
They, with a number of others, engaged coun- 

sel and took an appeal to the Secretary of the 
Interior. To-day, Decker, Jewett & Co. re- 
ceived a telegram trom Washington, announcing 
that the appeal had been sustained. This baves 
the present owners again in undisturbed pos- 

Ladies' Costumes. 

The two figures herewith illustrate the 
same pattern. A back view of the costume 
is shown, the material illustrated being che- 
viot suiting, with applied braid orna- 
ments for trimming. The basque-like body 
is closely adjusted, and to it between the 
side seams is joined the gathered edge of a 
full drapery that falls in straight folds over a 
pad to the edge. On the oack, extending 

standing collar, the back and the shoulders 
are trimmed with braid ornaments. On 
each jacket front is' applied a braid orna- 
ment that is widest at the bust and extends 
from the shou'der to the lower edge. 

The skiit is in the four-gored shape, and 
on its front-gore ts a panel that is laid in two 
dee p, firwa' d-turning plaits, which meet at 
the Delt and flare slightly toward the lower 
edge. On each side are arranged two lapped 
pinels that are cut in deep scollops and 
pinked down iheir front edges, and in the 
scollops are cut holes that show a star-like 
ma gin. Underlying each panel for some 
depth from its ftont edge is a similarly 
pinked strip of cloth in the light shade of 
gray, which shows beyond the edges of the 
panels and also through the holes with most 



from the neck nearly to the wais'.-line, is a 
V ornament of braid that also includes 
shoulder ornaments, from which extend 
pointed ornaments that lie upon the jacket 
Iron's all the way down. The standing 
collar is covered with braid ornament*. 

The bonnet is of velvet and is trimmed 
with libbon, beads and an aigrette. 

The superb effect of the costume is ful'y 
di«p'a>ed in the front view of Fig. 5, where 
the materials combined are velvet and cloth 
in a da'k shade of Gobelin-gray and Surah 
in the lightest shade of Gobeim-gray. On the 
closely-fitting fronts, which reach only to the 
waisi-line, is arranged a full plastron vest 
that is laid in fine tucks fiom the neck nearly 
to the bust and allowed to fall naturally to 
the top 01 a broad, plaited girdle of velvet, 
which apparently confines the fullness. 
Jacket fronts open widely over the vest and 
girdle, below which they hang in points. 
Above ihe bust they are turned over in 
Directoire revers and faced with velvet; the 

attractive effect. The coat sleeves are 
trimmed at iheir wrists with a wrinkled band 
of velvet that is caught down at the center 
of the upper side. 

One or two of the panels in the costume 
may be of one ot the contrasting materials 
in the body, and the plain panels may show 
elaborate arrangements of braid, either in 
embroidery or applied ornaments. Fur is a 
handsome border decoration for the side- 
panels and the jacket fronts. All sorts of 
dress goods are devoted to these costumes, 
and, it desired, the vest may furnish the only 
contrast. For the vest, sott, flexible material 
should be selected, and Surah will be asso- 
ciated with the most wintry fabrics. 

The cap is of velvet and is in the Tarn 
O'Shanter style, with a puff crown that has 
a small, smooth center-piece, near which 
several shirrings are ornamentally arranged. 
The band is covered with fancy galloon, and 
a bird is placed at the left side well up 
against the crown. 


It is a Farm and Home Journal of the highest 
class, pure in lone and well intormed on all matters 
of industrial interest. It is handsomely printed and 
illustrated. It is a 20-page weekly, and is furnished, 
postage paid, for $3 per year in advance. Single 
copies, 10 cents, prepaid. 

All branches of Farming, including the keeping 
and breeding of Horses, Cattle, Sheep. Swine. Bees, 
Poultry, etc ; Girden, Fruit, Vine, Grain, and Hop 
Culture; Reliable M irket Reports, with other im- 
portant departments devoted to the Grange, Home 
Circle. News, etc. 

It is the leading Agricultunl Home Newspaper 
and s'andard authority on all branches of California 

It has the fullest and most accurate Reports of 
Horticultural Meetings, and is the best record 


Fruit-Gkowers in all parts of the State. 

Its market reports are prepared with care and the 
greatest reliability possible for the benefit of the 

The Pacific Rural Press has more circulation 
and influence jn the Pacific States and Territories 
than all the other agricultural weeklies in the United 
States combined. Advertisers can reach nearly all 
the leading reading farmers through its columns. 

A well-known horticulturist who was in attendance 
upon the meetings of fruit-growers, writes; "The 
greatest praise that could be bestowed on the Rural 
Press at the late Fruit-Growers' Convention and, 
which shows, undoubtedly, the well-deserved pop- 
ularity ol that paper, is the fact that almost all the 
members of that Convention were subscribers to the 

Established 1870. Yearly «ubscriptien $3. [Thir- 
teen and one-hall months are allowed new subscrib- 
ers and old subscribers paying $3. strictly in advance.] 

What Others Say of the " Rural Press." 

Proud or the Rural —We feel proud of the Rural 
Press. It Is a paper that we are uot ashamed to aeud to our 
friends lu the East. Every farmer ou the Pacific Coast 
should take it, and it is a valuable paper for anyone to read. 
We appreciate your efforts. Long way you live to bless our 
cause. -Jamr* I: ■ ', Sittita Bttrbtira Co. 

Ix valuable.- I coogratulate you od the <jen*Tal excellence 
of the Rural Prkss. and consider it simpiy invaluable to 
all residents of the Pacific Coast — Frederic* C. Uheldon, 
M. 1>. , Lot A ncles Co. 

The Rural Bent of All. - I take from four totdi - ipers 
but if I could lake hut on*, I should unhesitatingly choose 
the Pacific Rural Press.-./ it. Ather. San Uicuo Co. 

DEWEY & CO.. Publishers, 
No. 220 Market Street. San Francisco. 

Inducements to Subscribers. 

To favor subscribers to this paper, and to Induce new 
patrons to try our publication, we will furnish, to tho»e 
icho pay fully one year in advance of date, if riqukstrd 
the following articles (while this notice continues), at the 
very irreatlv reduced figures named at the right : 

1. — The Agricultural Features of California, by Prof. 

Hilgard, 138 large pages, illustrated, cloth, with 
colored maps (full price 91) SO 25 

2. — World's Cyclopedia, 794 pages, 1250 illustrations; 

(exceedingly valuable) 50 

8. — Dewey's Patent Elastic Binder (cloth cover), name 

of this paper stamped in gilt SO 

4.— Niles' Stock and Poultry Book for Pacific Coast, 

pamphlet, 120 pages, illustrated 26 

6. — Kendall's Treatise on the Horse and Diseases, 89 

pages, instructive illustrations 05 

6. — To New Subscribers, 12 select back Nob. of the 

Rural Priss, "good as new " Free 

7. — Any of Harper's, Frank Leslie'sand most other flrst- 

class U. S. periodicals, 16 per ct off regular ratee- 

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icals, except special publication*, we can usually 
give 10 to 16 per cent off advertised retail rates. 

10.— March of Empire, by Mallie Stafford 26 

1 1. — Life Among the Apaches, 322 pages, stiff cloth .26 
12.— il worth of choice seeds, to be selected from a list 
of 107 flower and 82 garden seeds, as previously pub- 
lished, or which list we will send on application .26 
14.— Dewey's Pat Newspaper Fileholder (18 to 38 in.) .26 

15- — European Vines Described, 63 pages 06 

18.— Webster's Dictionary, 634 pages, with 1600 illustra- 
tions; very handy and reliable 60 

23. — Architecture Simplified, SO pages 06 

24. — M ther Bickerdike's Life with the Army; patriotic 

and ably written; 166 pp., cloth, SI. 00 50 

26. — Ropp'B Easv Calculator, cloth, 80 pp 26 

26-— How to Tell the Age of a Horse O6 

27. — Percheron Stud Book— French — bound in 

leather, 192 pages (full price, S3) l.OO 

28. — What Every one Should Know; a cyclopedia of 

valuable information; 610 pp.; clotb; (full price 
SI) 50 

29. — Knitting and Crochet, by Jennie June; 144 pp., 

200 illustrations '->5 

30. — Needle Work, by Jennie June; IX p\..,- .'«.»> 

trations 25 

31. — Ladies' Fancy Work, by Jennie June; 162 pp., 700 

illustrations 26 

32. — The Way to do Magic; illustrated, 60 pp 10 

33 —The Taxidermist's Manual; illustrated, 64 pp.. .lu 
34.— A Dictionary of American Politics; comprising ac- 
counts of political parties, measures and men, and 
explanations of the Constitution, divisions and 
practical workings of the Government, together 
with political phrases, familiar names of persons 
and places, noteworthy savings, etc, by Everit 
Brown and Albert Strauss '(Full price tl ). . .60 

Beautiful Poetic Review, entertaining and instructive ; 
36 pages (a handsome and pleasing present). . .26 

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Send for free circular describing most of these pre 
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Ioform your neighbors about our offers and paper. 

A Talking Newspaper, or a daily composed 
■if phonographic records, ia the latest idea 
vitii which the New York World oredita Mr. 

Ch*ap Money in Farmers! 


large sums below market rates. S. U HOVEY, 
318 Pine street, San Francisco. 

Jan. 12. 1889.1 



Electricity and Plant-Life. 

From time to time, of late years, says the 
Scientific American, experiments have been 
made of the effect of the electrical light on 
flowers and plants, with results seemingly the 
same, to wit, feeble efforts of some plant to 
prolong their periods of bloom into the night 
and then premature decay. One has only to 
study their actions, as observed, to conclude 
that even plants need rest, or to be more pre- 
oise, they seem to thrive best under the condi- 
tions which Nature has imposed — the period of 
darkness and the period of the light which is 
heat as well, or else that the family of plants, 
as they now are, sprung from these exact con- 
ditions, and will not thrive without them. It 
is the nature of some flowers, as every one 
knows, to open at one period of light and close 
at another; of others to open only at night and 
close before or at the moment when the orb of 
day tops the horizon. So strictly do some of 
these follow their unwritten laws, that floral 
clocks have been constructed, so that one may 
step out into his garden, of a bright day or 
clear night, and learn the time by the condition 
of bloom on the floral dial. 

Prof. Wollney of Munich, satisfied by experi- 
ment that electrical light will not advance or 
improve plant growth, recently tried the effect 
upon them of the current itself. We quote the 
following, being the means employed and its re- 

He " took patches of ground 12 feet square, 
separated by boards penetrating the earth to 
the depth of a foot. In one case he applied 
two earth plates and interposed five earth cells; 
in another he inserted an induction apparatus; 
and in a third, a plate of copper at one side 
and a plate of zinc at the other side to form a 
natural battery. Peas, potatoes, carrots, etc., 
were planted on these and other patches; but 
the electricity, whether of high or low poten- 
tial, seemed to have either no influence or a 
bad one upon their growth." 

Plants being full of sap, and sap a fairly good 
conductor, every fiber must have been reached, 
and, so far as the professor was enabled to per- 
ceive, the only effect of the current was to pro- 
voke a perturbation on the protoplasm. 

Our Agents. 

Ona Friskds can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents In their labors of canvassing, by lending their In- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

A. F. Jbwbtt— Tulare Co. 

F. B. Logan — Southern California. 

H. G Parsons— Northern California. 

Gro. Wilson — Sacramento Co. 

W. W. Theobalds — San Diego Co. 

.'oiin L. Doylr— Napa Co 

J. C. Hoao— *an Francisco. 

J. G. H. Lampadius — San Francisco. 

The Use of Butter Color not Contrary to 

Id a recent communication from Hon. J. S. Miller, 
Commissioner of Internal Revenue, lie distinctly states 
that his office has never ruled that the coloring of but- 
ter renders it liable to a tax under Internal Revenue 
LawB; and he further states that in the Law in question, 
which was passed August 2 188(1, butter is defined to be 
*'a food product usually kuown as bu'ter, and which is 
made exclusively from cream, or milk, or both, with or 
without common salt, and with or without additional 
co'oring matter." The Uw distinctly recognizes the 
fact that the use of a Butter Color is necessary and law- 
ful, and there need be no fear on t^e part of any makers 
of butter that the United States law will ever be used 
against them because of their making use of Butter 


An old phvsician retired from practice, having had 
placed In his hands by an East India missionary the for- 
mula of a simple vegetable remedy for the speedy and 
permanent cure of Consumption, Bronchitis, Catarrh, 
Asthma and all Throat and Lung Affections, also a posi- 
tive and radical cure for Nervous Debility and all Ner- 
vous Complaints, after having tested its wonderful cura- 
tive powers in thousands of cases, has felt it his duty to 
make it known to his suffering fellows. Actuated by 
this motive and a desire to relieve human s' ffering, I 
will send free of charge, to all who desire it, this recipe, 
in German, French or English, with full directions for 
preparing and using. Sent by mail by addressing with 
stamp, naming this raper. W. A. Noyes, 149 lowers 
Block, Rochester, N. Y. 

To those wishing roses, hardy plants, bulbs and seeds 
for home planting we cordially recommend the old re- 
liable house of The Dingee & Conard Co., West Grove, 
Pa. They are admitted to be the largest rose growers in 
America, and their roses and plants are well and favor- 
ably known all over the United States and Canada. 
Their New Guide, 110 rages, handsomely illustrated, de 
scribes and tells how to grow more than 2000 varieties of 
the newest and choicest rcses, hardy plants, bulbs and 
seeds, and is sent free to all who write for it See adver- 
tisement in this paper, and address The Dingee & Con- 
ard Co., West Grove, Pa. 

Metallic Pens Not of Modern Invention. 
At Acosta a Human metal pen has been found. 
It is a bronze pen slit in exactly the name 
fashion as the present steel nen. The Dutch 
invented a metal pen in 1717, but it was not 
until many years later that the hand screw 
press, which made the first cheap steel pen, 
came into use. 

For Removing Old Varnish. — A mixture 
for the removal of old varnish has been patented 
in Germany by a Mr. Meyer. It is obtained by 
mixing 5 parts of 36 per cent silicate of pot- 
ash, 1 of 40 per cent soda lye, and 1 of sal- 
ammoniac (hydrochlorate of ammonia). 

A German is reported to have invented a 
paper that resists the action of both fire and 
water. Asbestos, aluminum, sulphate, chlor- 
ide of zinc and resin soap are the ingredients. 





Always gives a bright natural color, never 
turns rancid. Will not color the Buttermilk. 
Used by thousands of the best Creameries and 
Dairies. Do not allow your dealer to convince you 
that some other kind is just as good. Tell him the 
BEST is what you want, and you must have Wells, 
Richardson & Co's Improved Butter Color, 
Three sizes, 25c. 50c. $1.00. For sale everywhere, 

WELLS. RICHARDSON & CO. Burlington. Ut. 

New Music for the New Year 

Now is the time for good resolutions. Resolve to lose 
no time in procuring one of Ditton & Co,'* excel- 
lent Music Books; all first clas', and these among the 
best. For ONE DOLLAR you can secure the new 

or POPULAR PIANO COLLECT" ON, 27 Piano nieces; 
or CLAS°ICAL PIANIST, 41 classiial pieces; 
or PIANO CLASSICS, 44 classical jiieres; 
or YOUNG PEOPLE'S CLASSICS, 62 easy pieces; 
or SONG CLASSICS 50 song* for Soorano; 
or CLASSIC TENO* SONGS, 3C songs; 
or CHOICE VOCAL DUETS, the newest duets; 
or COLLEGE SONGS FOR BANJO, ) Two popular 
or EV MANUEL, Trowbridge; "\ Oratoiio 

or KUTH AND NAOMI. Damrosch; | and 
or JOSEPH'S BONDAGE. Chadwi"k; V Cantatas for 
or FALL OF JERUSALEM, Parkhurst; I Musicil 
or HOLY CITY, Gaul; ) Societies, 


42TAny book mailed promptly, post paid, for $1. 

OLIVER DITS0N & CO., Boston. 

C. H. DITSON & CO.. - • 867 Broadway. New York. 

Back Filbs of the Pacific Rural Prbss (unbound 
can be had for $3 per volume of six months. Per year 
(two volumes) 86. Inserted in Dewey's patent binder, 
60 cents additional per volume. 






Is recognized as the 

Always gives satisfaction. SIMPLE, 
STRONG and DURABLE in all parts. 
Solid Wrought iron Crank Shaft 
with doubur beakinos for the Crank 
to work in, all turned and run in ad- 
justable babbitted boxes. 

Positively Self-Regulating, 

With no coil springs, or springs of any kind. No little 
rods, joints, levers, or anythiug of the kind to get out of 
order, as such things do. Mills in use 6 to 12 years in 
good order now, that have never cost one cent for repairs 
All genuine Enterprise Mills for the Pacific Coast trade 
come only through this agency, and none, whether of 
the old or latest pattern, are genuine except those bear- 
ing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look out for .this, as 
inferior mills are being offered with testimonials applied 
to them which were given for ours. Prices to suit the 
times. Full particulars free. Best Pumps, Feed Mills, 
etc., kept in stock. Address, 


GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES (as always before), 

San Francisco Agency, JAMES LINFORTB 
37 Martint Front St San Francisco 


W. C. PRICE & CO. 

General Produce Commission Merchants, 

327 & 329 Front St. and 301 & 303 Clay St. 

Removed to 320 DAVIS ST , San Fran'co 

For Coughs, Colds, Croup, AhIIhh <, Itron- 
chltis, Influenza, Loss of Voice, Incipient 
Consumption, and all Throat and Lung 
Troubles. J. K. (JATKS A: CO . Proprietors 
417 naiiKonie St.. .San Francllico 


pany, No. 220 Market street, San Francisco. 


1888, 1887, 1888, 

— AT TUB — 


MRS. ELIZABETH H. SHELLY, of San Jose, was 
awarded the 25th premium for report showing the bett 
results from the use of LE KOI DES SAVONS— 
The King of Soaps. 


And not injure the Clothes, leaving them purer and 
whiter with each successive weekly washing. 


Capital Soap Company, 



Union Uuderflannel, .lersey Fitting, Ready 
Made and Made to Order. 

The Perfect Corder Corset, all colors, for ladies and 
children; button or steel front. Skirt and hose support- 
ers for ladies and misses. All styles of bustles. 
/aTGold Medal awarded tnese iroods at >' ate Fair 1883 
«■■*"' orse^s re^dy-madc and made to order. S'"nd for 
Illustrated Catalogue and price list. 

332 Sutter Street, San Francisco. 




723 Market Street, History Building, 


tSTOrders for everything in the Music Liiib promptly 
attended to. 


BROTHERS' ^ ■ ■ 

DIAKirtC 1 K<> H ,,:,S A < II .«SF. AsrnK. 


Send stamp for 100-page Illustrated Catalooub of 


Guns, Pistols, Cartridges, Air Guns, Hunting Coats, Leg- 
gings, Loading Implements, Base Ball Goods, Lawn 
Tennis, Koxing, Fencing and Gymnasium Goods, Ham- 
mocks, etc. 

Fine Hun work done by first-class smiths. 
5-!5 K»arnv Street. San Francisco. Cal. 


An Automatic Orjran Combined vslth an 
Ordinary Mve-Octave Oman. 

BODY CAN PLAY the latest and i ost difficult muBic of 
everv class- Every home should have one. Scud for 
descriptive circulars, priceB and terms lo 

KOHLFR & CHASE, 137 & 139 Post St., 
Dealers In all kinds of Musical Goods 


Spanish King On 
grown from rict'ii procured 
lis. Kidl imitlculars freiv A,l- 

K HOUSEKEEPKKa Mlmiciipolln, Ml,,,,. 

75 CARDS.a:;:: 

PailtMgOinlaataraauiQtOa AUoulj IV oaula* Ut 

lu, butties ll» ObW 




(Single Thread). 
"It runs with a breath." 


More modern, lighter running, and simpler than any 


Scientifically and mechanically perfect. 

Offices Everywhere. 

Perfection Guaranteed. 

The Singer Manufacturing Co., 


(Makers of 8 Million Machines). 




Sewing Machines. 

jv» Simrle in Construction. Light Run- 
ning, Mo9t Durable and Complete. 
Visitors always welcome. 


108 & 110 POST ST., S. F. 



Before Buying a Sewing Machine. 
It is the leader in practical progress. Send for price list 
J W. EVANS. 29 Poet St., S. P. 



Dealers in and Packers of 

Canned Goods, Dried Fruits, Nuts 
and Raisins, 

Have removed their offices and salesrooms 
to their new store, 

Nos 10 and 12 Main St., 


and all kinds of Pumping Machinery built to order. 
Awarded Diploma fur Windmill* at Me- 
chanics' Fair, 1885. Windmills from $66. Horse 
Powers from «60. F. W. KROGH <Si CO., (SI 
Ht»-»»t Ran Prftnnlscn 





7fS OOO TON* CAPACITY, rjp? r\f\f\ 
I KJ f \J\J\J storage at Lowest Kateo. ' <->,WKJ 

Cal. Dr7 Dock CO.. props. Office. 80S Cal 8t room 18 



[Jan. 12, lb 89 

Lands for Sale and Jo Let. 


The undersigned offers for sale, on good terms, his 
CLOVERDALK OAIKY FA KM of 600 acres, situated on 
Squirrel Creek, 2 miles west of Gra's Vallev. It is well 
watered by springs and has excellent irrigation fac lities 
commodious farm buildings, orchard of 160 trees and 6 
acres of vineyard. A fine herd of Holstein, Ayrshire, 
Jersey, and Durham (thoroughbred and grade) cattle for 
sale with or without the rancb. Hol.tein and Ayrshire 
premium bulls on lowest terms, including •'Tehama," 
which, on a. -count of kinship to the herd, can no longer 
he used in breeding. A good dairy route is also included 
in this offer. 

H. B NICHOLS, Proprietor. 


Best location in the Stite of California for beautiful 


Located near the thriving city of CHICO, Butte County, 
California. Subdivided from the heart of the famous 


he well-known property of 


Town Lots and acreage property, from fractions of an 
acre upward. TERMS REASONABLE. For further 
particulars, address: 


Real niHtate Agents. 

<.;titci>, Butt*» t:r>.. Oal. 


On Exceedingly Liberal Terms. 

The S. E. quarter of Sec. 13. T. 21. R. 23, and all of Sec 
15, T. 23, K. 24, in the artesian belt in Tulare county, will 
he reuted at a nominal rent for winter sowing, if applied 
for soon. The rreater part of thi* land is rich, level and 
all ready for the plow. Address L. E. Smith, Pixley, 
Tulare Co., Cal , or Ranch Owner, office Rural Phemj 
San Francisco, Cal. 

FOR $5000. 

A Ranch in El Dorado county, near Placerville, con- 
tains 160 acre?, nearly all feno-d in with a four-strand 
barbed wire fence, a good house of 11 rooms, hard 
finished, two brick chimneys, cut stone basement with 
rut stone steps, a good barn and stable, chicken house, 
work shop and other out-houses, a good well of water, 
one water ditch for the land. 1000 fruit trees, all in bear- 
ing. Peach, Apple. Fig and Cherries, 1000 Grapevines; 
80 acres cleared and ready for the plow, all nearly level; 
about 25 acres woodland, pines, etc., all of which can be 
cleared; three cows anil two calves The Ranch is five 
miles from Coloma and nine miles from Placerville 
The soil is a rrd loam the house stands on the county 
road and the stage parses it twice every day. A span of 
horses, a new harness and wagon, plow, harrow and 
other farming utensilB to be given with the Ranch. The 
Title, U. s Patent. For further information address. 
"RANCH," Box 2361, San Francisco, or care of Illus- 
trated Publishing Co., 220 Market St., S. F. 

Agricultural and Grazing 


7075 Acres of fine grazing and agricultural land, in- 
cluding 4000 head of fine grade stock sheep; abundance 
af water; 9 miles from Merced City, and near Merced 
River; price, $7.25 per acre; 1000 acres good wheat land. 


Merced, Cal. 

624 Matket Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


Ranch of 200 acres on Coquille River, Coos County, 
Oregon; 40 acres bench land 160 acres bottom, 80 acres 
under cultivation; It miles from Coquille City, one-half 
mile from steamer landing. An abundance of fine 
spring water on place. Price, $4500 cash, or will ex- 
change for California property in vicinity of San Fran- 
cisco Bay. For further particulars apply to 
659 Clay 8t., 8au Francisco, Cal. 


D. N. & C. A. HAWLBY, 
221 & 223 Market Street, San Fr*nr-lsco 


University Avenue, Berkeley, Cal. 


References to parents of pupilB who have entered the 
University from this school. Send for c'nular. 

T. S. BOWENS. B A., 



1534 Mission Street, San Francisco. 

Prepares Boys and Young Men 


College, University and Business. 
Christmas Term opens Wednesday, Aug. 1st. 

REV. E. B. SPALDING, Rector. 

The Santa Rosa Boys' School, 



Desiring thorough preparation for CoMege, University or 
Business. Location healthful, grounds ample, rooms 
large, well lighted, warmed and ventilated. Influences, 
moral and social, of the very best. Number of pupils 


Winter Term will q egln January 2, 1889. 

Address the principal, 
Rnv. SEWARD M DODGE, B. A., Santa Rosa, Cal. 


2000 S 

Men and 
educated for business. 
"Interest Made 
Easy" will be sent by 
mail for 12 desirable 
names. Send for the 
College Journal. 

E. C. ATKINSON. Principal. Sacramento. 


46 DTARRELL^t n d £ ck°td r n)S.F 


Typewriting. Telegraphy, Modern Lan- 
guages ana all the branches of the regu- 
lar nUSINESS COUBShi are Included in 

Combined Course at $75 for Six Months. 

"OUR COLLEGE LEDGER," containing full particu- 
lars regarding th«- Col lege Departments, Course" of Study. 
Terms, etc., will be mailed free to all applicants. SEND 


24 POST ST.. 8. F. 

I? College Instructs in Short hand , Type Writing, Book- 
keeping, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the En- 
glish branches, and everything pertaining to business, 
for six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
individual instruction to all our pupils. Our school has 
its graduates in every part of the State. 
laTS&ND ros Circular. 

E. P. HEALD, President. 

C. 8 HALEY. Secretary 


" Greenbank " 98 degrees POWDERED CAUS- 
TIC SODA (tests 99 3-10 per cent) recommended by 
the highest authorities In the State. Also Common 
Caustic Soda and Potash, etc., for sale by 

Manufacturers' Afrnnte, 
104 Market St. and 8 California St., S. F. 








AbHolutP (•imnintce (riven to do 


Writ* for Ultutrmftd ciroul«r, ** . fc« ,hu jxu>~. 


""/TH AN E VER. 


Distributes Fertilizers 




Jewelers and Silversmiths 

ST., 8. F., 

— HA VI — 





On Application. 



Material used coat* nothing 

No Leather Valves or Bellows 

To get out of order. 

Every Machine guaranteed to 
give satisfaction or money refunded. 

Send direct to Patentee and 
Manufacturer to save agents' com- 

Price, $3.00 

Any infringement of this Patent 
will be prosecuted to the full ex- 
tent of the law. 

8end for descriptive Catalogu 
and Testimonials to 


44 S. Spring St , 
Ioa Angeles, Cal 

geeds, Plants, fac, 


Trees and Cuttings. 




At Reasonable Rates 

White Adriatic Figs grown and packed by me fir rale 
bj Goldberg, Bowen & Co., 8 F.,and Tillmann ft Bendel, 

S. F. 




T^HE H. H. H. Horse Liniment putt 
„ new life into the Antiquated Horse' 
for the last 14 yeara the H. H. H. Home 
Liniment has been the leading remedy 
among Farmers and Stockmen for the 
cure of Sprains Bruises. Stiff Joints, 
Spavins, Windfalls, Sore Shoulders, etc. 
and for Family Use is without an equal 
£>r Rheumatism. Neuralgia, Aches, Paiao 
noises, Cats and Sprainsof all character* 
Ine H. H. H. Liniment has many imita 
bona, and we caution the Pnblio to see 
that the Trade Mark " H. H. H." is on 
svery Bottle before purchasing. For Bale 
everywhere for 60 cents and $1.06 ne 

For Sale by all Drunarlets. 


44 Third Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

This Fire-proof Brick Building Is centrally located, In 
the healthiest part of the city, only a half block from 
the Grand and Palace Hotels, and close to all Steamboat 
and Railroad Offices. 

Laundry Free for the use of Families 


Terms, Board and Room, $1.00 per Day 

And upward. 





.<nd farmers with DO experience make H'i.Hn en 
honrduringsnarptim . J V. Kenvon, Glens Falls, 
made SIM or: dny. 976.50 one week, 
bo can you. Proofs nml rntnloeui- free. 

I. v. km *-,.» ri, * iw. Cincinnati. r> 

I^OvEa 6.000.000 people believe that n, 
' ' nays best to buy Seeds 

of the largest and most reliable house, and UK-/ use 

Ferry's Seeds 

n. H. FERRT ft CO. are 
cknowledged to be the 

Largest Seedsmen 
In the world. 

D M. Ff.bby A Co's 
Illustrated. Descrip- 
tive and Priced 


For 1889 
Will be mailed FREE 
to all applicants, and 
last ye*r'« customers 
without ordering it. Inmlu. 

E "»»' °"»«°-« I oXriirCa 

In existence. I 8 h ra ,ld send for it. Address 

D. M. FERRY & CO., Detroit. Mich. 

Fruit Trees^for Sale. 

Pear, Apple, Peacb. 

Walnut, Fig, 

Japan Kelsey Plum and 

other Trees and Plants. 

P. O Box 304. Los ADgeles. Cal. 


guaranteed to be from the far-famed "Dummett 
Grove" Orange. Hock from one fourth to one inch, 
strong, healthy, well rooted. Packed F. O. B. cars at 
925 per M; 5000 and 10,000 lots at $20 per M. 

Sunny Home Nursery, Jacksonville Fla 


I. X. L. Drake Seedling and Golden State 



Davlsvlile, Oal. 


One year old, #300 for the lot, or $20 per 11; also Dor- 
mant Buds, Peach and Apricot, $50 per M. Fan Palm, 
Ash Trees, Texas Umbrella, 10 cents each PARADISE 
NURSERY, PsaSTIX, Arizona. D. TURNER, Manager. 

California Walnuts and Locust Trees, 

P O Pox 429 



W odianr), Cal 

, Our sales in 1888 
««< thoee of 1887. 
iWhj? Because »» 
f sell only tbe H'-'i 
Reasonable Prices 

SEED POTATOES. »';"•'■./"■' j 
Small Fiuit Plants and Treon. Cm«1ii«uh hrvr. 
FKA>K FOKD «fc SUV'S Itanium, Ohio. 

F"ny's Prolific Curriwit. 

Two years old, fine, $3 per 10; #20 per 100; 1 year old, 
fi e, 12 per 10; $15 per 100. The above are genuine, 
pplendid and ready to bear. Raspberry, Blackberry and 
strawberry Plants ; usual prire. Address, PiLKINGTON 
& CO., Pearmount Nursery, Portland, Oregon. 


3000 Bartlett Pear Trees, two rears old, for 
sale. Address: H. B MUSCOTT, 

Box 84, San Bernadlno, Cal. 

5000 One-Year-Old 

For Sale. 

A. B<~TJTON Hea'dsburiT, Cal. 


ROSES »»° SeedS 

We offer postpaid at your 
own door,ihe LARGEST 
America, alt varieties, 
ind prices, to suit 


Goods sent everywhere by mail or express. Satis/action Guaranteed. Our NEW GUIDE, no pages, 
handsomely illustrated. FREE TO ALL who -write /or it. It will pay you to see it before buying. 
THE DINGEE & CONARD CO.. Rose Growers and Importers, West Grove, Pa. 

Come, Fellow Farmers! 

It Is the frond things and (he new things you want. 
Here Is a Catalogue full of them! Do you want tested 
seed, raised from stork selected with extra care, 
grown from the beat s-tralns, pot from the origi- 
nators? I aim to have mine Just such. Do you 
want new varieties that are really good, and not 
merely novelties? I aim to have mine such. Do 
you waut seed that the dealer himself has faith enouirh 
in to warrant? 1 warrant mine, as see Catalogue. Do 
you want an exceptionally large collection to select from? 
Mine Is such. Do you want them directly from the grower f 
t grow a large portion of mine— few seed-men grow any! My 
Vegetable and Flower Seed Catalogue for IvS'FRKE to every- 
body. MMli J. U. CltEGORY, Marhlchoad, Mas*. 

Jan 12, 1889.] 



Contra Costa County. 

From a pamphlet published by the Contra 
Costa Board of Trade, we make the following 

Contra Costa connty has an area of 444,491 
acres, the Coast Range of mountains running 
parallel with the ocean, crossing the county, 
extending in a southeasterly direction. The 
most distinguished feature of this range is Mt. 
Diablo, standing out boldly 3896 feet above the 
sea level, its location being very near the center 
of the State. It has been selected as an initial 
point by the Government as the base and 
meridian line in the survey for nearly two- 
thirds of the State's area. 

The Contra Costa range of hills marks the 
county's western border. Between Diablo and 
these hills runs the central valley of the county, 
beginning at the B ty of Suisun, a short distance 
east of Martinez, and stretching, with various 
widths and under various names, to the Liver- 
more and Sunol valleys, where it is divided 
from the great Santa Clara valley by only a 
slight elevation. The central valley is about 
30 miles in length, and varies from one-half of 
a mile to six miles in width. It comprises por- 
tions known as Pacheco, Diablo, Ygnacio and 
Sin Rimon valleys, and nearly every foot of it 
is composed of the most fertile of soils. 

Interspersed in the Contra Costa hills and be- 
tween the Diablo ridges nestle numerous other 
valleys, rich in soil, prolific in products. San 
Piblo valley, on the west, reaches to San Fran- 
cisco bay, embodying a fine section of country. 
It is a continuation of the valley in which the 
city of Oakland is situated, being, in fact, a 
portion of the Sinta Clara valley. East of 
Diablo, faoing the San Joaquin, lies a vast 
sunny valley which comprises nearly one-third 
of the entire area of the county. 

Farther than the eye can reach to the east- 
ward and southward, extending from Bay Point 
to Byron, lie the 80,000 acres of wheat field 
level almost as the floor, from which come the 
great quantities of grain shipped annually from 
Antioch. These lands yield such a generous 
and regular return that their owners are, with 
few exceptions, content to grow the staff of life 
rather than devote the soil to vineyards and 
orchards with their increased care and labor of 

The hills dividing these valleys are no less 
valuable or productive than the valleys. Ris- 
ing gently and symmetrically, every foot of 
their sloping sides, to their very summit, is 
susceptible ot cultivation, producing the choic- 
est wine and the best of grain and pasturage. 

Mr. Wetmore, Chief Officer of the National 
Viticultural Association, says of this section: 
" The long chain of beautiful valleys extending 
northward to Martinez are sections destined to 
rival the most noted vineyards of the world. 
To the east, and south and west, even over the 
slopes of Mount Diablo, lie the most fertile 
fruit and vegetable lands on earth." 

The tourist, passing through the many beau- 
tiful valleys and over the rolling hills through- 
out Contra Costa county, is impressed with its 
similarity and general characteristics to the 
gentle slopes of sunny France. Scattered in all 
directions are numerous small vineyards and 
orchards that, with but little cultivation, pro- 
duce the highest results. 

Yolo County Charms and Resources — 
We tre indebted to R. B. Blowers, Eiq., of 
Woodland for a copy of the New Year's edition 
of the Yolo Mail, which is a very creditable 
publication, well filled with facts showing the 
delights, resources and progress of this favored 
portion of our State The editor of the Mail 
followed the wise plan of inviting special arti- 
cles from leading citizens of his county whose 
names would carry weight to the statements 
they make about their localities and industries. 
There are a dozen such contributions which are 
valuable and should have wide circulation We 
recognize several of the writers as friends of the 
Rural, and among them Mr. Blowers himself, 
whose article on climate should be printed by 
the hundred thousand and distributed at the 
£ ist by our State Board of Trade. The New 
Year's edition is well illustrated, a portrait of 
the famous trotter "Yolo Maid" and several 
excellent engravings of public buildings being 
by the Dewey Engraving Co. of this city. 

Convention of Raisin Producers and 
Packers — There will be held at the office of 
the State Board of Horticulture, 220 Sutter 
St., S. F., at 1:30 p. m., Saturday, January 
19th — a meeting to which all interested in 
growing, packing or dealing in California rai- 
sins are earnestly invited. The published call 
for the meeting suggests reforms in grading 
and packing, the establishment of proper 
grades under local names, and emblems be- 
fitting the country; also certain prevailing 
methods in marketing raisins. These matters 
are all of impoitance, and should bring out a 
large assemblage of those in the raisin interest. 

Thorburn's Seeds. — The long-established 
house of Jas. M. Thorburn & Co., 15 John St., 
N. Y ., sends us their annual catalogne of seeds 
— a handsomely illustrated pamphlet of over 
100 pages. 

Coach and Draft Stallions Coming — Hoi- 
bert, Stimson & Co. are bringing to Los Ange- 
les a lot of full-blooded stallions, which were 
selected in France and England last autumn. 
See their advertisement for further particulars. 


Mr. Seeley J. Bennett, one of the pioneers of 
Contra Costa county, has borne an important 
part in developing her resources and bringing 
into notice her advantages for home-builders. 
The large edifice shown in the illustration was 
built in 1884 to meet the growing demand for 

livery, and provided the exceptionally fine 
turnouts for taking tourists and parties to the 
summit of Mt. Diablo. This stable has become 
a place of note within the last few years as the 
headquarters of blooded stock that is shipped 
to or from the "Cook Stock Farm." 

In the upper story a very fine hall and lodge- 
room have been finished and well equipped for 
societies and public meetings. 


The accompanying map presents a view of 
the Colmena Colony, containing 3100 acres of 
choice vine and fruit lands finely watered by 
creeks and an abundance of pure well-water. 
Its location in the center of one of our promi- 
nent fruit sections, on the line of the Cilifornia 
& Oregon R R , in subdivisions of 20 acres, 
should attraot attention. 

Grapes that were grown in close proximity to 
this tract were awarded the first premium at 
the district fair held in MaryBville in 1888 
For nearly a quarter of a century Marysville 
has been one of the prominent fruit-shipping 
points of the State. In that time it has been 
demonstrated that the fruits of that section are 
among the earliest and best in the State. Along 
the Honcut, the Feather, the Yuba, the Bear 
and the Sacramento, there are large areas of 
sediment land of unsurpassed fertility. Oo 
these sedimentary soils great quantities of 
vegetables are raised, with large profit to the 
tillers of the soil and to the land-owners. 

It is now more than a quarter of a century 
since citrus and other semi-tropic fruit trees 
were planted in Yuba and Sutter counties. On 
the Hock Farm, General Sutter's old pi tee, 
there is a grove of fig trees, the oldest in the 
northern part of the State. There are now in 
Marysville 3000 bearing orange trees, and many 
of them have been in bearing for a number of 
years. They present incontrovertible evidence 

that this is a citrus fruit country. With the 
proper shelter of cypress hedges or rows of 
trees, orange and lemon trees will grow and 
produce on all the valley lands. 

The " Abbott orchard," the largest peach 
orchard in California, is located nine miles 
from Marysville, in Sutter county, and 
contains 425 acres. The first 50 acres was 
planted in February, 1883. In 1885 the sales 
of fruit from this 50 acre lot amounted in 
round numbers to $6000, and the next season to 

About one-third of this tract is bottom land, 
bordering on the creeks, and is especially 
adapted to deciduous fruits. No irrigation is 

Should any purchaser desire irrigation, there 
is ample water supply at command from the 
Excelsior Water and Mining Co., who have an 
abundance of water which can be brought to 
the land very cheaply. 

Daring the year 1888, large crops of wheat, 
barley, and bay were raised on this tract, and 
it is confidently be'ieved that home-seekers 
will find in this colony an investment that will 
be satisfactory. 

The proprietors, Messrs. Abbott & Montague 
of Marysville, have undertaken to plant or- 
chards or vines on any tract sold, and take care 
of the same this year. Lots will be sold on 
easy terms, and the projectors will make great 
tff'orts to establish one of the most notable 
colonies in California. 

The new depot of the S. P. at Los Angeles 
was opened New Year's Diy with a ball given 
by the railroad employes. The structure is 
507x90 feet. The main waiting-room is 64x57 
feet, the baggage-room 60x36 feet, and all ap- 
pointments are of the best. The depot will not 
be used for some time, as a question of right of 
way has not been settled. 

R. R. Taxes Paid —On the 28th of Decem- 
ber the Southern Pacific Co. paid into the State 
Treasury at S icramento taxes for 1888, amount- 
ing to $521,679.70. 

A Postoffice has been established at Orosi, 
Tulare county, and O. C. Goodin appointed 

California Products at Chicago. 

Chicago, Jan. 9.— Easter Beurre pears are the 
only green California fruit remaining on the market; 
they sell in a small way at $3-2s@3.5o $ box. Or- 
anges are quite plenty; Florida and Mexico sending 
in all supplies. Large fruit is rather easy. Smaller 
sizes, when of good quality, meet with fair sale and 
rule rather steady. Some stock arrives in bad order 
and has to be sold for lower prices. Prices rule at 
$2.40@6 box, according to kind and quality. 

California dried fruits remain steadily held at late 
quotations; trade, however, is very quiet, quotable 
as follows: 

Apricots— Evaporated, bxs, 15c; bleached, bxs, 
14c; do, sun-dried, sks, 9@ioc. Peaches— New, 
bleached, unpeeled, 8J4@ioc; do, peeled, bxs, 14® 
15c; do, sun-dried, sks, unpeeled, 6^@7c; do, new, 
evaporated, unpeeled, io@nc. Nectarines — White, 
bxs, 9@i2c; do, red, bxs, 8®nc; do red to white, 
sks, 7@ioc. Plums, new, pitted, 9@nc; new do, 
unpitted, 4@7c; Prunes, according to size, in sks, 
5@9c; Silver, io@I3C 

Raisins— Loose Muscatels, old, J? box, $i@i.i6; 
do, new, $i.3o@i.6o; London layers, new, $2.25® 

Choice grades of hops are meeting with moderate 
sale, and as the quantity is not large a steady feel- 
ing prevails. Hops, more or less off in quality, 
however, are in (air supply but rather slow. Prices 
were ranging as follows: Pacific Coast, prime, 22@ 
24c; do, fair to good, i8@2oc; do, low grade, 14® 

Beans rule steady; the market, however, appears 
to be rather quiet. Offerings are not large, and the 
supply may be said t > be about fair. Quotations 
range as follows: California pea beans, $i.95@2; 
Lma beans, California, $ lb., 4^c. 

List of 0. S. Patents for Paeiflo Coast 

Reported by Dewey & Co.. Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific States. 

From the official report of U. S. Patents Id Dbwiy & 
Co.'s Patent Office Library, 220 Market St., S. F. 


394,958.— Electric Belts— S. Colling, Oak- 
land, Cal. 

395,046.— Pipe-Wrench — C. H. H. French, 
Hollister, Cal. 

395,052.— Roller Bearing— R. W. Hent, S. F. 

395. 'So.— Dental Engine— W. A. Knowles, 
Alameda, Cal. 

394,989. — Harvester— J. N. Miller. S. F. 

395,072.— Car-Coupling— F. Ott, Estrella, Cal. 

395.096. — Fire Alarm— Alex. Watson, S. F. 

395.097. — Candlestick— G. Werntz, Placerville, 

Notb. — Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dbwby & Co., in the shortest time possible (by mail 
or telegraphic order). Amerioan and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent business for Paeiflo Coast 
inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates and in the shortest possible time. 


And rew Smith of Redwood City, who is 
famous on this coast as a successful breeder of 
dish-faced Berkshire swine and an habitual 
prize-winner at State and district fairs, has had 
so many inquiries for Poland Chinas, also, that 
he has decided to breed the latter as well as 
the former. He has just imported, from the 
very best blood to be found in the Western 
States, two boars and four sows of different 
strains, at prices ranging as high as $100 per 
head (exclusive of freight charges), and will 
soon be in position to supply young Poland- 
Chinas, as well as Berkshires, according to the 
preferences of buyers. 

Mr. Smith informs us that his sales for 1888 
exceeded 100 head of both sexes, his customers 
being found not only in California, Oregon and 
Washington Territory, but also in Honolulu, 
Mexico, Central and South America; and he 
has heaps of letters from purchasers, who ex- 
press unvarying satisfaction with the animals 
he has forwarded to them. His latest importa- 
tion of Berkshires from England is now on the 
way hither. 

His prices are reasonable, being but $20 
apiece for pigs of either breed, old enough tor 
safe shipment, nicely boxed and delivered free 
on board, with feed sufficient for transporta- 
tion any ordinary distance, every animal being 
guaranteed, the same as has been his custom 

Mr. Smith is making arrangements to have 
their pictures taken, and we hope in the course 
of a few weeks to be able to show our readers 
original portraitures of some of the choicest 
swine in his unequaled breeding-herd. 

What Every Subscriber Should Have. 

An Easy Binder.— A. 
T. Dewey's Patent Elastic 
Binder, for periodicals, 
music and other printed 
sheets, is the handiest, best 
and cheapest of all econo- 
mical and practical file 
binders. Newspapers are 
quickly placed in it and 
held neatly, as in a cloth- 
bound book. It is durable, 
and so simple a child can 
use it. Price, size of Min- 
ing and Scientific Press, 
Rural Press, Watchman, 
Fraternal Publishing Cos. 
journals, Harper's Weekly 
and Scientific American, 85 
cents; postage 10 cents. 
Postpaid to subscribers of 
this paper, 50 cents. Send 
to this office for illustrated circular. Agents wanted. 


jpACIFie RURAlo p ress 

[Jan. 12, 1889 

breeders' directory. 

Biz lines or less in this Directory at 60c per line per month. 


JKKhKYS — Tlic Best Berd, all A. J. C. Registered, is 
owned by Henry 1'ierce, San Francisco. 

8ETH COOK, breeder of Cleveland Bay Horses, De- 
von, Durham, Polled Aberdeen-Angus and Galloway 
Cattle. Young stock of above breeds on hand for 
sale Warranted to be pure bred, recorded and aver- 
age breeders. Address, Geo. A. Wiley, Cook Farm, 
Danville, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

J. H. WHITE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder 

of Registered Holstein Cattle. 

K. J. MERKELBT, Sacramento, breeder of Norman, 
Percberon Horses and thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. 

T. 8KILLMAN, I'etaluma, importer and breeder of 

Suffolk, Percheron-Norman and French Coach Horses. 

M. D. HOPKINS. Petaluma, importer and dealer in 
Eastern registered Shorthorns, Ked Polled Cattle, Hol- 
steina, Devons and Shropshire Sheep. 

PETER 8AXE & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past 18 years,' of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

GEO BEMENT & SON, Maple Grove Farm, Oak- 
land P. O., breeders of Ayrshire Cattle & Essex Swine. 

F. H. BURKE, 401 Montgomery St., S. F.: Registered 
Holsteins; winners of more first prizes, sweepstakes 
and special premiums this year than aoy herd ou the 
Coast. Pure Berkshire Pigs. Catalogues. 

H. P. MOHR, Mt. Eden, Alame'a Co., Cal., breeder of 
Clydesdale Horses and Holstein-Friesian Cattle. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough- 
bred Registered Holstein and Jersey Cattle. Write me. 

H. S. SARGENT, Stockton, importer and breeder 
of registered Jersey Cattle. Correspondence solicited. 

P. PETERSKN, Sites, Colusa Co., importor s breeder 
of registered Shorthorn Cattle. Young bulls for sale 

W S. JACOBS, Sacramento, Cal., breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Shorthorns and Berkshire Hogs. 

BRADLEY RANCH, San Jose, Cal., breeder 
of recorded thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. A choice 
lot of young stock for sale. 

HENRY HAMILTON, Grayson, Cal., breeder of 
Kentucky Jacks and Jennies, Draft Horses and Hol- 
stein Cattle. Jacks, Horses and Mules for sale: 

DENMAN & McNEAR, Petaluma, importers and 
breeders of thoroughbred and graded Clydesdale horses. 

EL BOBLAR KANCHO, Los Alamos, Santa Barbara 
Co., Cal.. Francis T. Underhill, proprietor, importer 
and breeder of thoroughbred Hereford Cattle. Infor- 
mation by mail. C F. Swan, manager. 

J. R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder of 
Thoroughbred Devons, Roadsters and Draft Horses. 

P. H. MURPHY, (Brighton,) Perkins P. O., breeder 
of Recorded Short Hornj and Poland China Hogs. 

Station, S. F. & N. P. R. R. P. O., Penn's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 


GALT POULTRY YARDS, S. W. Palin, prop'r, 
Gait, Sac'to Co. , Cal. , importer and breeder of thor- 
oughbred P.y. Rocks, Lt. Brahmas, Langshans, Wyan- 
dottes & P. Cochins; eggs, single sitting S3, 3 sit'gs $7| 

W. G. EL.J_.1S, 954 Broadway, Oakland, Cal., importer 
ami b'etder of tnoroughbred Black Leghorns. 

A. C. RTTSCHHAUPT (successor to Jas. T. Brown), 
P. O. Box 43, Station B, Los Angeles, Cal., J ard on 
State St., Brooklyn Hights, imp >rter anil breeder of 
all leading thorouijhbr d Fowls, and Eggs, at reason- 
able prices Circular free. 

W. C. DAMON, Napa, $! each for choice Lt. Brahmas, 
Wyandottes, P. Rocks, White and Brown Leghorns 
Beet 8eed for sale. 

D. H. EVERETT, 1618 Larkin St.S. F., importer and 
breeder of Thoroughbred Langshans and Wyandottes. 

Cal.; send for illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 

R G. HEAD, Napa, Cal., breeder of the choicest va- 
rieties of Poultry. Each variety a specialty. Send for 
new Catalogue. 

T. D. MORRIS. Ai;ui Caliente, Cal.; pure bred fowls. 

'_>. J. ALBEiS, Lawrence, Cal., breeder and importer. 


R. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and importer. 
South Down Sbeep from Illinois and England for sale. 

Ferry, Cal., breeders of Merino Sheep. Kami for sale. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys It Berkshire Swine high graded rams for sale 

W. WOOLSEY & SON, Fulton, Cal., importers 
A breeders Spanish Merino Sheep; ewes & rams for sale. 

ANDREW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; see adv't. 


JOSEPH MELVIN, Davisviile, Cal., Breeder of 
Poland China Hogs. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal., breeder of 
thoroughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pies. Circulars free 

ANDREW SMITH. Redwood Citv. Cal.; see adv't 

I M«y I V XTIIonii- Curds, One Pack Hold 

Pio ia. '.si c.r-u. QaaP^k ifc— rt On. Pi.k riirt»ii6. 1 »-:», !>*• if 

i - iwt » --■ ' -• - - * ; °* 



OF the highest breeding and most popular strains. We carry a large stock of young, vigorous stall'ons an-1 mares 
at all seasons, importeu young and matured on our farms, thus fully acclimated and sura breeders. Prices low 

and terms easy. 


At exceptionally low prices. Grand opportunity to secure foundation stock at low fiju'es. 
Send for illustrated descriptive pamphlet and mention the Pacific Rukal Press. 

GEO. E. BROWN & CO., Aurora, Kane Co., Ill- 




S. N. STRAUBE, Proprietor, P. O. Address, FRESNO, CAL 



For information address or call on S. N. Straube as above. No trouble to show stock to intending purchasers. 

HECKMANN & IMMEL, Commission Merchants 



Poultry, Game, Eggs, Hides, Pelts, Tallow, Etc. 

fgTCountry Orders Promptly Filled. Consignments Solicited. 
P. O. Box 192a 400 & 402 DAVIS ST. and 122 WASHINGTON ST., SAN FRANCISCO 


Registered Herd Book Stock of the Aaggie, N'etherland, 
Neptune, Clifden, Artis and other families. None better. 


Of the Coomassie, Alphea and other choice strains. 


POULTRY— Nearly all varieties. 

Poultry and Stock Book, 60 cents by mail, postpaid 
Twelve years experience on this coast. Address 

WM. NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Winners of all blue ribbons 
in their classes and sweep- 
stake* prizes at State Pairs, 
Sacramento, 1886 and 1887. 
Importations made by me an* 
uu»lly of the best blood ob- 
tainable in England, regard- 
les*ofcost. Young stock, bred 
from these Importations, male 
and female, fro m di rterent 
families, for sale at reasonable 
pric s, and every animal guar- 

ANDREW SMITH. Redwood City. Cal . or 21S California St.. 8 F. 

Royal Duke of California. 

Redwood Duke, No. 13.368. 






I wish to state to the public that I am now offering for 
sale, at BED-ROCK PRICKS, Imported and High-grade 


Of the above-named classes. Come and have a look at 
this line stud of horses, make your selection and I will 
guarantee prices and terms to suit. 
Catalogue sent 00 application. 

_t3THorses may be seen at the RED STABLE, a little 
to the north and right of the R. R. Depot, Petaluma. 



One and a half miles northeast of San Leandro, 
Alameda County, has every facility for Break- 
ing Colts properly. Rates very reasonable. 
Horses boarded at all times. 


P. O. Box 149, San Leandro, Cal 




Of the best families. A choice lot of young Bulls and 
Heifers for sale, 4 years old and under, from the cele- 
brated Kirklevington Oxford Count, 38723. 


The Fine bred Young Stallion, 


Eight years old, 16 hands high, weight 1250 11)8. . color 
dark chestnut, with heavy mane and tad. Very stylish, 
well built, general purp >se horse. Very kind disposi- 
tion and Mire foal getter. 
For pedigree and terms, address 

Farmlngton, San Joaquin (Jo., Cal 


I offer for sale at my ranch, on Clear Lake, near Lake, 
port, pure-bred Percberon Mares and Horses of the 
choicest families. Pedigrees recorded in the Pcrcheron 
Stud Book of France and America. They are principally 
the Brilliant, Caesar strains of blood Addre.-s 


Lakeoort, Cal. 


For the next thirty days a number of fine, pure bred 


(llegistend) will be on fale at reasonable terms at the 
MT. EDEN BREEDING FARM. Address or call ou 
H. P. MOHR, 
Mt. Eden, Alameda Co., Cal. 

P A T MOUSTACHE and illustrated catalogue for 10c; 
i ii JjOIj 111 3 for 25c Tuubbsr & Co., Bay Shore, N. Y. 


No. 370 Eleventh St., OAKLAND. CAL. 



tW We have on hand and for sale several selected 
Stallions, and will sell on very reasonable terms. All 
young and weighing from 1700 to 1925 pounds, Blacks 
and Grays. 


To Breeders of all-work Horses, 


A two • nd one half year old Stallion Colt; weighs 1300 
pounds; cob.r, beautiful steel if ray: perfectly sound; 
broken to drive BiDkle and double, and for style, consid- 
ering weight, sice and age, perhaps cannot be excelled 
in the State. Is thrce lourths Norman and one-fourth 
Belmont. For further particulars apply to 


• Sunol. Cal. 


The Celebrated Dr. Fisherman's Carbol- 
ized Alkaline Lotion, 

A Specialty for Stable and Farm, is Booming. Why? 
Because it has greater merits than any other remedy and 
ten times cheaper. Order one quart or one gallon. 
Price, $1 per quart, $3 per gallon, making half a gallon 
and two gallons of Lotion. Money refunded in all cases 
of dissatisfaction. Ask your Druggist to get it for you. 
Send for reliable testimonials. 


116 California St., 8. F. 


Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
London. (Diploma dates April 22, 1&70.) For two year 
Veterinary Inspector of Live Stock for the British Gov- 
ernment. Parties having sick or injured horses, cattle, 
dora, etc., can have advice and prescriptions by return 
of mail by sending full particulars of disease and $1. 
Calls to the country by mail or telegram promptly at- 
tended to. Fees reasonable. Residence and Pharmacy. 
No. 11 Seventh St., near Market, (Telephone No. 3369), 
San Francisco, Cal. 

All horse, cattle and dog medicine* kept on hand. 

T. CARPENTER, M. 0. C. V. S. 


Graduate of Ontario Veterinary College, Honorary Fel- 
low of Ontario Veterinary Medical Society, 
Graduate of McMahon's School of 
Veterinary DentUts. 
Veterinary Infirmary. 220 8th St., Oakland. 
Telephone No. 427. 
HssiorNcn— 331 Golden Gate avenue, San Francisoo. 
Telephone No. 3(69 

Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 



Manufacturers of all kinds , 
Of Perf mated Metal, Lip 

and Lip Hook Screens, m mm- _i_ , , 

round and slotted, or any — 
other kind desired for clean- 
ing and separating grain. 
Farmers will please take ^sW CO o. 
notice that the metal screens do not clog or choke up as do 
the old wire screens heretofore In u«e. Also manufacturers 
of Quartz Screeus. Information by mall. California 
Perforating Ncrr-pn Co*. 45* 147 Bkalk St.. 8. F 


On account of the death 
of F. A. Brioos, Manager of 
the Pacific Coast Branch of 
the AmeBDnry (Mass.) Car- 
riage Factory, the whole 
stook of fine light Carriages, 
Buggies, Carts, Robes, Harness, Whips, etc, 
is offered for sale at less than cost, to settle 
the estate. 0. CREGO, Administrator. 

Salesrooms, 220 & 222 Mission St., S. F. 

Jan. 12, 1889.] 

f> AClFie I^URAId press. 



Oor. 17th fe Castro Sts., 

Oakland, Cal. 

Manufactory of the PACI- 
BtiOODEK. Agency of 
the celebrated silver finish 
galvanized wire netting for 
Rabbit and Poultry-proof 
fences, the Wilson Bone 
and Shell Mill, the Pacific 
Egg Food, and Poultry ap- 
pliances in great variety. 
Also every variety of land 
_ . and water Fowl, which 
have won first prizes wherever exhibited Eggs for 
Hatching. The Pacific Coast Poulterers' Hand-Book and 
Guide, price, 40c. Send 2c. stamp for 60-page illustrated 
circular to the PACIFIC INCUBATOR CO., 1317 Castro 
St., Oakland, Cal. 




The Most Successful Machine 
Made. « 

3 Gold Medals, 1 Silver Medal, and 16 

Hrst Premiums. 
Hatches all kinds of Eggs. 
Made in all Sizes. 
Write us for Large Illustrated Cir- 
cular Free, describing Incubators, 
Brood r , Houses, How to Raise Chickens, etc. AddreBS 


Importer and Breeder of 

Langshans, Plymouth Rocks, 

Brown and White Leghorns, 
PeKin Bantams, Light Brahmas, Part- 
ridge Cochins, Bufl Cochins, Black Mi- 
norcas, Registered Berkshire Pigs. Also 
one pen of Langshans direct from China. 

Large lot of young birds ready for sale; send for circulars. 

The Halsted Incubator Co. 

1312 Myrtle St., Oakland, Cal. 
Thoroughbred Poultry and Eggs. 
Send Stamp for Circular. 


GEO. E. DUDEN, Proprietor, 
Importer and breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry, B miles 
southeast of Sacramento, near Lake House, on the upper 
Stockton road. P. O. address, Box 376, Sacramento, Cal. 


Simple, Perfect ao,l Helf-Bsgulntlng Hun. 
Tdreds in successful operation. Gunranteeil 
u J t,o hutch larger percentage of fertile e^prs 
| n c„cu V II at less cost tluin ntiv other lintchfr. Send 
»l»r» fit.| 6c£orlllusCatu. GKO. U.STAUL, Oui„c.v,lll. 

issued March and Sept., 
each year. It is an ency- 
clopedia of useful infor- 
mation for all who pur- 
chase the luxuries or the 
necessities of life. We 
can clothe you and furnish you with 
all the necessary and unnecessary 
appliances to ride, walk, dance, sleep, 
eat, fish, hunt, work, go to church, 
or stay at home, and in various sizes, 
styles and quantities. Just figure out 
what is required to do all these things 
COMFORTABLY, and you can make a fair 
estimate of the value of the BUYERS' 
GUIDE, which will be sent upon 
receipt of 10 cents to pay postage, 


111-114 Michigan Avenue, Chicago, TIL 




"5*5*5 Willoughby.Ohio. 


Send for circular and prices 




fH&s a Pad different from all 
others, iscnp shape, with Self- 
adjusting Ball in center, adapts 
"itself to all positionsof the body, while 
_ thebal'm tiio cup. presses back 
^^bs^^*^ the intestines Just as a per- 
son does with the finger.. wlthligSt pressure 
the Hernia is held securely day and night, and a radical 
cure certain. It Is easy, durnbluand cheap. Seiithy mail 
Circulars free. KUULtSTON TUUSS CO. , Chicago, 111. 


Climax Spray jF»ia.xi3.;ioe» 

Cheapest arid B;st Spray Pumps on sale. Unequaled 
for durability, convenience, simpl city and ea e ' f work- 
ing. Send for circulars and prices of different sizes. 


California Fire Apparatus M'fg Company, 
18 California Streot, San Francisco. 


sll-iinklng mid prospecting tools sent 
on trial. feet has been mink in 8 
hours. Instructions for beginners. An 
Encyclopdia or 1**1 Engravings of well 
k and prospectors tools, pumps, 

rind and steim engines. A trea- 
ttisc on gas and oil. Book 
free, mailing charges 
25 cts.each. 
The American 
: WellWorks. 
U. S. A. 



309 and 311 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Agents for Growers and Manufacturers. Charterers of Vessels for all Trades. Agents 
for the Mexican Phosphate and Sulphur Company's Products. 
General Insurance Agents. 
Have correspondents in all the chief cities of the United States, Europe, Australia, India, China and the princi- 
pal islands of the Pacific. Purchase goods and sell California products in those countries. 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast of NATIONAL ASSURANCE! CO., of Ireland; 




Warehouse and Wharf at Port Costa. 


H1<M« Nam* an-1 Motto Card*. Scrap Pidarw. Pur r l->. Ouim, IrirV. 1 a 
Mafic, onopaob of MM* Card*, and Iwjr* Sample Hook of gtnuinaCkrri*, 

I do I plcturfs. ) AH fvt 1 1 »ul ■Lamp. Bua«f Can* Co., <-*■■-. Uaio, 


Money advanced on Grain In Store at lowest possible rates of interest. 
Full Cargoes of Wheat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited, 

E. VAN EVERY, Manager. A. M. BELT, Assistant Manager. 



Hardware and Groceries 

Agents for Studebaker Wagons, Carriages and Buggies, Oliver Plows, 
and Cassidy Sulky ano Gang Plows. 

Country Orders Solicited. T. A. rLAUDER, Manager. 

W. H. WOOD & CO, 

XIV, 119-123 «T £»*., SACRAMENTO, CAX-i. 


Kentucky Blue Grass, California and Uah Alfalta Seed, Wild Oats, Etc. 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS in Oregon, California and Nevada Products. Potatoes, 
Beans, Honey, Butter, etc., a Specialty. 

Xj. Gr. 8RESOVICH c*J OO., 



every day. Ask yoi r Grocer for Pioneer brand It is the best and cheapest in the world Medals 
awarded in all hairs where exhibited. 

SEASON OF 1888-89 







Offer to the Viticulturists for this season a Special Grade of Fertilizer best 
suited to the growth and production of Fruit Trees and Vines, of a guar- 
anteed analysis of 14£ per cent Phosphoric Acid, G per cent Ammonia and 
7.4 per cent Sulphate of Potash. 

We offer Liberal Terms to responsible parties. For Sale by 

H. M. NEAHALL & CO., 309 & 311 Sansome St., S. F. 

Com»iop Merchants- 


Commission Merchants 



Green and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Consignments. 

308 & 310 Davis St., San Francisco 

[P. 0. Box 1936.] 
^^Consignments Solicited. 


Grain Broker & Commission Agent 

Member of the S. F. Produce Exchange and 
Call Board Association. 






501, 503, 505, 507 and 509 Front Street 
and 300 Washington St., S. P. 

General Commission Merchants. 


Poultry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Produce and 

S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

rFree Coach to and from the House. J. W. BECKER, Proprietor. 



— AMD — 

General Commission Merchants, 

810 California St., S. F. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange 

.•^Personal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad 
■ an cos made on Consignments at low rates of interest. 





39 Olay Street and 28 Commercial Street 
San Francisco, Cal, 

C. L. BENTON & CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 


65, 66, 67, California Market, S. F. 


Commission Merchants, 

Green and Dried Fruit, Produce, Eggs, Etc. 
Consignments solicited. 413. 416 & 417 Washington St., 
San Francisco. 



And Dealers in Fruit, Produce, Poultry, Game, Eggs, 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St., and 221, 228 
226 and 227 Washington St., San Francisco. 

Fruit and General Commission Merchants 


408 & 410 Davis St., San Francisco 


Commission Merchants. 

All Kinds of Oreen and Dried Fruits. 
coNSisHMBMTS SOLICITED. 824 Davis St., S. F 



Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boilers. 

Portable Straw-Burnmg Boilers k Engines. 


Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notloe. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery, 

inoludlng Grape Crushers and Stemmers, Elevators, Wine 
Presses and Pumps, and all appliances u (in Wine 
Cellars. Irrigating and Drainage Pumps. Heald's 
Patent Rnarine Governor. Etc. 

This paper is printed with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Charles Eneu Johnson St Co., 500 
South 10th St., Philadelphia. Branch Offi- 
ce*— 47 Rose St, New York, and 40 La Salle 
St., Ghlcatto. Agent for the Pacific Coast— 
Joseph H. Doretv. 030 Commercial St., 8. Jf 


[Jan. 12, 1889 

Weekly Market Review. 


San Francisco, Jan. 9, 1889. 

There was more general trading the past week in 
farm products, causing.a steadier feeling in some of 
the cereals and higher prices for wheat. Clear skies 
and drying weather allowed the starting of more 
plows in localities where heavy rainfalls had inter- 
fered with outdoor work. At the East and also 
abroad the wheat market showed more strength, 
with a slight gain in prices. 

Liverpool, Jan. 9. — Wheat — Firm. California 
spot lots, 7s 7d to 7s iod; off coast, 39;; just shipped, 
39s 6d; nearly due, 39s 3d; cargoes off coast, quiet 
but steady; on passage, not much demand; Mark 
Lane wheat, very few buyers in market; English 
country maikets. firm; French, steady; wheat and 
flour in Paris, steady; weather in England, some 

Liverpool Wheat Market. 

The following are the closing prices paid for wheat 
options per ctl: 

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. 
Thursday. 7s9d 7s9Jd 7»9}d 7-»H 7al0d 7al0d 

Friday 7t9}d 7sP)d 7«lujd 7sl0jd 7sl0jd 7slljd 

Saturday.... 7 f 9jd 7 t 9j I 7»10JJ 7sl0jd 7sl0|d 7slljd 

Monday 7 f »J I ToSJd 7o 0\d 7slOJd 78lujd 7sllJJ 

Tuesday 7s9jl 78lUjd 7»10jd 7slld 7nlljd "sllid 

The lollo*ing are the prices for California cargoes 
for offcoa-t, nearly due and prompt shipments: 

O. C. P. S. N. l>. Market. 
Thursday . . . 39-3d 39s6 1 39s3d Steady. 

Friday 39,-3d 39.-6d 39?3d Steauy. 

Saturday 39«3u 39. 6d 39<t3d Firmer. 

Monday 39»3.i S»=6d 39»3d Steadier. 


Eastern Grain Markets. 
The following shows the closing prices of wheat 
in New York: 

Day. J»n. Feb. May. 

Thursday 100j 102} 106} 

Friday 1003 101j 106J 

Saturday 101 102J lnoj 

Monday 1013 101 B 1053 

Tuesday 1001 lOzi 1061 

The closing prices lor wheat have been as follows, 
at Chicago: 

Day. Jan. Feb. Mav. 

Thureuay 10 > .... 105} 

Friday 99} 101 1043 

Saturday 9>>i 100} 104{ 

Monday 99J 101} 104 [ 

Tuesday 100} 101} 105j5 

Tils FoitigD Grain Trade. 
London, Jan. 7. — The Mark Lane Express, in 
its weekly review of the British grain trade, says: 
Freezing and foggy weather encourages wheat farm- 
ers. Owing to good reserves of the leading cereals 
the exchanges have not shown the buoyancy which 
frequently characterizes the opening of the new 
year. There is but little change in prices from those 
of December. There is improved retail inquiry. 
Three cargoes of California wheat have been sold. 
One cargo sold at 38s 9d for 15,230 quarters and 
two cargoes at 39s. English wheat was firm. The 
prices of foreign showed a hardening tendency. 
Flour was dearer, and the opinion prevails that the 
best English is kept too high. Round corn was 
firm, but flat was 3d cheaper. Beans and peas de- 
clined 6d. The demand was disappointing. Oats 
were 3d dearer for lighter sorts, owing to the close 
of Russian navigation. 

Eastern Wool Market 
New York, Jan. 4. — Brads/reefs says: Though 
trade in wool reached only moderate proportions 
this week, the year opens with a strong undertone 
and fair prospect for continued activity. Many 
manufacturers are still in need of supplies, and their 
purchases ought to be more liberal soon. Coarse, 
heavy-weight goods is finally settled. It is gener- 
ally thought somewhat higher prices for fabrics will 
be secured during the coming season than were ob- 
tained last year. The American Wool Reporter es- 
timates supplies of wool in various markets of the 
country at 80,189,157 lbs. as against 124,995,096 a 
yar ago, not including stocks of foreign wool in 
bond, which amount to 12,973,802 lbs. at Boston 
alone. Manufacturers have more material on hand 
than a year ago, when the market was falling in- 
stead of rising. This, of course, must be taken into 
account in the estimates of supplies for the coming 
season. Sales will be resumed at London on the 
29th, when good selections promise to be offered. 
At Philadelphia the volume of business has been 
moderate, but sales have exceeded receipts and 
stocks are steadily dwindling away. The lolal sup- 
ply in this market at the close of the year is esti- 
mated to have been not over 8,000,000 lbs., which is 
nearly 50 per cent less than ihe stock available a 
year ago. The market is very strong, but there is 
no quotable change from last week's prices. 

Boston, Jan. 4. — The new year opens with a very 
strong market for wool, with dealers in a very con- 
fident mood. The-demand was not very active dur- 
ing the week, but this is nothing unusual for the in- 
itial week of the year, trade being usually quiet at 
this time. It is a noticeable fact that for many 
years there has not been such a buoyant feeling 
prevalent at this season as can be found to-day. 
Throughout the country stocks show material fall- 
ing off compared with a year ago, and the tendency 
of prices is consequently upward. There is still some 
uncertainty about the position of heavy-weight 
goods, but the bulk of opinion seems to be on the 
side of higher prices before the season advances 
much further. Medium wools of all kinds are a 
very strong feature of the market. Total sales 2,- 

California Products at Chicago. 

[See page 41.] 


New York, Jan. 7. — Fine raisins are out of first- 
class hands here, and in New England many loose 
remain rated as poor, because overcured. 

Lima beans are steady, with a glimmer of im- 

Hops— Shippers are more disposed to recognize 
quality and merit and bid higher for selection. State 
and Oregon of lower grades are neglected and re- 
ceipts are falling off. Exports for the week were 
893 bales. Good to best State was quoted at i8@ 
aaj^c; other, i$%ijc\ Pacifies, i6@2ic; all old, 5(5 


Local Markets. 

The following tables give the highest and lowest 
prices paid on Call during the past week: 


S. S. R S. B. '89. S. '89. Jan. 

Thur.dav h 149 1M f 

mursday.... - ( , ug} 1MJ 

FriJav .!>> 149} 155} 

"""^ (1 149} 1544 

bw_«j«. J h 150} 156 

» aturdav (1 150} 155J 

„„„,.,. 1 h 15lf 157 

Mon,ia} il 150} 156} 

Tuesdav 1M 157J 140 

\l 151| 157} 


Buyer Season. Seller 1889. Buyer 1889. 

H. L. H. L. U. L. 

Thur-dav... 90 89} SI} 96} 

Friday..' 90 89} 

Saturday.. . . !>93. . 

Monday 90 

Tuesday 893, 89} 

BAGS — Holders of Calcuttas report a .strong tone 
to the market at 7^c for June-July delivery. 

BARLEY— There is no life to the market. On 
Call, options are inattive, with transactions barely 
affording a basis for quotations of futures. The 
stock here consists largely of poor grades. 

The following are to-day's Call Board sales: 

Morning Session: Buyer season — 200 tons, 89c; 
200, 88 Kc fc? ctl. Afternoon Session: Buyer sea- 
son — ico tons, 88 $ ctl. 

BUTTER — Heavy receipts and a strong selling 
pressure have sent values to a still lower range, but 
at the close a steadier feeling is reported, owing to 
more buying orders coming in and receipts less- 

CHEESE — The market is barely steady under a 
light demand and a desire in some quarters to clean 
up stocks. 

EGGS— Under light receipts the market strength- 
ened, but with unexpected supplies received from 
the central markets, the closing is weaker. 

FLOUR — The market is without essential change. 
The demand is about as heretofore reported. 

WHEAT— The past week has witnessed a strong- 
er market, with buyers of sample parcels bidding an 
advance, but owing to holders' advanced views, 
trading was light. On Call, dealings in futures have 
been more active with a steady advance, under 
strong buying in all options. 

The following are to-day's Call Board sales: 

Morning Session: Buyer 1889—300 tons $1.56; 
100, $1.55?,; 300, $1.55^; 600, $1.55^; 200, 
$ r -55Si- Buyer Season — 700 tons, $1.58^; 600, 
$1,505$;; 1700, $1.50 $ ctl. Afternoon Session: 
Spot, season's storage paid — 100 tons, $1.44 '4. 
Buyer 1889 — ico tons, SX.54.7f ; 400, $1. 54^:300. 
$1.55. Buyer season — 100 tons, $1.49 y t ; 400, $1.49 r a 
t? ctl. 


Market Information. 


The Mark Lane Express, Dec. 17th, says: The 
feggy and disagreeable weather which has prevailed 
in the great cities, and especially in London, should 
not lead us to forget that the past week, agricultur- 
ally speaking, has been of a distinctly seasonable 
character. Undue forwardness in the growth ol 
wheat plant has been satisfactorily checked by the 
fall in the temperature and by the night frosts, at 
the same time that these latter have not been severe 
enough to penetrate at all deep into the soil, or do 
any injury to the grain in the ground. This autumn's 
sowings of wheat may now be regarded as having 
made a promising start; they were well-rooted and 
have come up well; a winter of seasonable, without 
excessive, cold should hand over to the spring a 
large acreage of wheat land promising to atone in 
1889 for the deficient quantity and quality of the 
previous year. 

The London Earmer and the Chamber of Agricult- 
ural Journal says: It is now stated that a great 
li our ring is being formed from the Tweed to the 
Humber. As much as £2, 000,000 has been under- 
written in connection with this movement, which, by 
the way, does not stand from the financial point of 
view on all fours with the salt trust. The American 
and European millers, to say nothing of the export- 
ers of the raw material (including India), will have 
to be reckoned with. However, it is thought that if 
local competition were suppressed by the proposed 
trust, an increase to that extent might be made with- 
out opening the gate too wide to the foreigner. 
Next it is calculated that savings could be effected 
on railway transit, competition leading to unneces- 
sary movement of flour Irom one district to another, 
on salaries of travelers, and on other payments to mid- 
dlemen, which, taken together, would mean another 
is per sack, or in all ,£200,000 per annum, which 
would be equal to ten per cent on a capital of £2,- 
000,000. I hat is the scheme bri< fly on paper, Dut 
its basis is questioned by men fully conversant with 
the trade. 

The wheat market holds very strong, with an ad- 
vance bid for the more choice shipping and milling 
grades. The general feeling among holders is that 
there will be a much higher range of values before 
spring fairly opens. Acting under this impression, 
the selling offers are light, and when any parcel is 
put on the market it is at a higher figure than quoted 
by buyers. Yesterday, Tuesday, a bid of $1.45 
was made for a sound parcel of milling delivered at 
Stockton, but declined, owing to a much higher 
price being obtainable there. The same day an offer 
of $1.45 was made for a parcel of good shipping, 
Port Costa delivery. It is claimed that the quantity 
of wheat unsold is quite large, but not, taking the 
State as a whole, equal to that unsold at this date in 
1888. The inroad made by Oregon millers into the 
China flour trade cuts off quite a slice from the out- 
let for California flour; this necessarily reduces the 
wheat requirements of our millers. 

Plowing is reported to be very active in the agri- 
cultural districts. From all that can be ascertained, 
the acreage of summer-fallow seeded to wheat is a 
full average, while the winter-seeded will be consid- 
erably larger than at any time within the past four 
or five years. While this is the case it is out of the 
question guessing as to what the outturn w ill be this 
year, for that is contingent on the spring rains. 

Barley is very dull. This is said to be due to an 
entire absence of any speculative movement, and al- 

so to large consumers either well stocked or else con- 
fining their purchases to as small parcels as possible. 
Large handlers oi the grain report the supply of 
good to choice grades of feed, brewing and Cheva- 
lier to be quite light, but that the poorer grades of 
feed are in heavy supply. There is some buying of 
better grades of common barley for seed purposes 
at 85 to 90c per ctl, and of Chevalier at $ 1.40 to 
$1.60. It is very generally claimed that the acreage 
that will be put into barley this vear will be less than 
either in 1888 or 188-7. 

Oats continue to crowd the market, causing buy- 
ers to bid down for all parcels offered for sale. The 
stock now here is lully double that held at like time 
in 1888. The surplus in Oregon and Washington 
which is seeking this market is a source of surprise, 
and creates more or less of a demoralize feeling 
with the trade, and causes buyers to hesitate in meet- 
ing their wants. 

Corn is, if anything, more inactive than last week, 
with a still lower range of values quoted by dealers. 
Consumers are indifferent, unless offered lurther in- 
ducements in the way of concessions. 

Rye and buckwheat are slow, with quotations 
more or less nominal. 


Eastern apples continue to press the market, caus- 
ing a lower range of values to obtain, although 
choice hold comparatively fairly firm. The receipts 
of Oregon are fair, with the more choice received 
moving off quite freely at relatively better prices than 
the Eastern do. 

In citrus fruits the general trade shows more 
activity owing to a lower range of values for oranges 
under heavy receipts. The distributive demand is 
increasing, principally from the north. Limes and 
lemons show few changes. The shipments of 
oranges overland are increasing, with the more 
choice going forward. 

In dried truits there is absolutely nothing doing. 
A large holder tried the market yesterday, but except 
at lower prices for immediate delivery buyers would 
not operate. It is claimed that with the February 
and March demand more will go out on orders to 
distant points, when large distributors will come in as 

Raisins are dull and heavy, with buyers only 
tempted by marked concessions in prices, which 
holders will not submit to, believing that before the 
next season the trade will take all that there is 


Ground feed moves more slowly, but lessened re- 
ceipts keep prices from shading off much. Con- 
sumers only buy in a hand-to-mouth way, and any 
selling pressure is met by lower bids. 

It is claimed that with clearer weather and im- 
proved roads the delivery of hay will be larger; la- 
boring under this impression, buyers confine their 
purchases as much as possible. Holders, so far as 
can be learned, express confidence in the market, 
and will only name lower prices so as to effect sales 
lor the poorer grades, believing that the light ob- 
tainable supply of choice justifies lull figures. The 
consumption is large, considrring the improved 
pasturage reported in all parts of the State. 


Cabbiges are slow at the low prices. Los Angeles 
is now sending us string beans, green peas, cucum- 
bers, tomatoes, egg plant and green peppers. Ow- 
ing to the high prices, the demand is light. 

l'he potato market is irregular; while some are 
higher and strong, others are weak. Oregon Bur- 
bank that came to hand by the last steamer were 
placed at $1.20 per cental. The more choice grades 
of potatoes move fairly well, but the poorer grades 
are slow. The surplus in the Salinas valley and in 
Oregon is reported to be very heavy. Sweet pota- 
toes are strong at an advance. 

Choice onions are wanted, and fetch good prices 
compared with values in December, but poor are 
hard to sell. The market is overstocked with poor 
and defective, which fell "as is" at from 20 to 50c 
a sack. Selected onions fetch more money. 

Both bullocks and mutton sheep show a weaker 
tone under freer obtainable supplies. The improved 
roads, without rains soon, will, it is claimed, allow 
freer deliveries at shipping points and cause more 
competitive selling. But on the other hand, the 
selling interest claim that owing to better pasturage 
stockmen will want their stock to lake on more flesh 
before selling. Fresh milch cows are scarce at an 
average range of from $30 to $50 a head. In horses 
the market is without change. Hogs are wanted for 
the block and fetch good prices. The supply con- 
tinues light. 

The market for dressed meat is quoted as follows 
by slaughterers to butchers (to get the price of stock 
on foot, tike off one third of the price for stall and 
grain fed and one-half from the price of grass fed, 
that is animals running at large). 

HOGS — On font, grain fed, 6H@6Hc J? lb. ; 
dressed, 9(2)9 He #Ib.; soft, sK@(>'Ac It). ; dressed, 
8(a 8*£c lb. Stock hogs, 4@sc tf lb. 

BEEF— Stall fed, 8@8^c lb. ; grass fed, extra, 
7M@ — # lb.; first quality, 6@7c lb.: second 
quality 4K@6 $ lb. ; third quality, 4@sc lb.; 
lourth, 3&^4C tf* tb. 

VEAL— Small. 8@ioc #lb.; large. 6@8c 

MUTTON— Wethers, 6J4@7C g tb. ; ewes, 6 
@6J4c #tb. ; lamb, spring, 7@9C $ lb. 


From the Commercial News of Jan. 8th, the fol- 
lowing summary of tonnage movement is compiled: 
1889. 1888. 

On the way to this port "79.99' 254 S3 2 

On the way 10 neighboring ports 39,508 55, 8o 5 

In port, disengaged 20,649 107,204 

In port, engaged for wheat.... 44,501 26,225 

Totals 284.649 443.766 

To get the carrying capacity, add 60 per cent to 

the registered tons as given above. 

From July 1st to Jan. 8th, the following are the 

exports from this port: 

1889. 1888. 

Wheat, ctls 7,659,484 4,876,047 

Flout, bbls 3S»i2'3 371,601 

Barley, ctls 1,062,540 378.9°° 

Poultry has a firmer tone for choice hens, roosters 
and ducks, but turkeys are weak. Eastern continue 
to come to hand, causing prices for dressed to be 
shaded on free receipts. 

Beans are slow, with a weak tone to the market. 
Poor grades are placed with considerable difficulty 

even at concessions. The East is not drawing freely 
as yet. 

In grass seeds the feeling is weaker, with a lighter 
call reported. 

Yellow mustard seed is in liberal supply, dull and 
heavy, but brown mustard is in light supply and 
being in good inquiry commands lull prices, particu- 
larly for choice.' 

Honey is in light supply, with holders asking full 

In wool there is very little doing, owing to assort- 
ments being badly broken. It now looks as if the 
market will be cleaned up before this year's clip 

comes on. 

Hops are dull and heavy, with no improvement in 
the demand looked for until afier this month. 

Domestio Produoe. 

Extra choice in good packages fetch an advance on top 
quotations while very poor grades si U lets than the lower 

quotations. Wednesday, Jan. 9, 1889. 

BEANS AND PEAS. Soft shell 

Bayo, ctl 2 00 (g 2 75 Paper shell 

Butter 2 50 (a 3 Oi Brazil 


Large White . . 
Smell White .. 

Fid Pesn.hlkeye 

dO BTffV 

10 •« 

10 <§ 

2 00 (a 2 40 PeauutB ttt 

2 25 M 2 60 Filberts 10 

— Hickory 5 

1 90 <a 2 15 POTATOES. 

3 25 M 3 50 Early Rose 50 

1 60 1 80 Chile 50 <a 

1 60 (ft 1 75 Peerless 40 I? 1 25 (it 1 45 Jersey Blues... . 45 @ 

BROOM CORN. iRlver Reds 30 <g 

Snuth'n >< ton.. 60 00 (<t«0 00 Burbanks 75 

50 I 


1 20 


Sweet 1 00 1 40 

Tomales 60 (d 75 


Hens, doz 6 50 (a 9 00 

Roosters 5 50 (BT10 00 

Bri Hers 3 50 !g 4 50 

22| Ducks, tame 7 t>0 (alo 00 

25 Geese, pair 2 00 W 2 50 

20 do Goslings. . . — — 

— Turkeys, Gobl'r. 13 15 

- Turkeys. Hens. . 14 16 
do dressed 15 <g Is 

14 Rabbits, doz.... 1 00 1 25 

14f. Hare 1 75 <a 2 25 

Quails 1 00 1 50 

35 Mallards 350(5 450 

30 Sprigs 150<a200 

274 Teal 1 25 io 2 00 

Small ducks 75 @ 1 50 

Bran, ton 15 00 Mf 00 Canvas back.... 4 00 <jt 6 00 

Feedmeal 28 00 (,<«29 00 Gray geese 3 00 W 3 50 

Or'd Barley 19 00 («20 00 Brant 1 25 @ 2 00 

Middling* 16 00 OTI7 10 PROVISIONS. 

Oil Cake Meal.. 30 00 S31 00 Cal. Bacon. 

Northe.n 60 00 «t80 00 Culfey Cove. 


California 5 @ 6 

German 61 g 7 



OaL Com. to fair,n,20 (a 
do good to choice 20 (f$ 
do Faucy br'uds 
do pickled . ... 
Eastern in tubs, 
do in rolls 


California, tb... 10 @ 
Eastern style... 12Ja 

Cal. ranch, doz. 3?i@ 

do. store 25 «» 

Eastern 20 <p> 


24 (S 

15 <e 

20 (ft 


Wheat, per ton. 10 00 (2ei4 50 
Wheat and Oats 10 00 ;al4 00 


Wild Oats 11 OC ^13 CO r "E^"" Ugbt 

Clover 11 00 «rl3 00 LM 

Heavy, m 12 (g 

13 (ft 

13 (a 

14 @ 

Tame Oats in 00 (al3 H S&Jffi! isIS 

it.*!-. > no „yii w nanis. uai li^ia 

17 • 

Barley 8 00 011 50 

Barley and Oats 10 00 <f(12 00 

Straw bale 55 @ 65 Canary 41a 

FLOUR Clover, Red.... 12 S 

Extra, CityMills 4 75 (it 4 85 White 20 Iff 

do Co try Mills 4 50 :nr 4 75 Cotton 20 (ft 

Superfine 3 fO if 4 tO Flaxseed il(ft 

GRAIN. ETC. Hemp i\@ 

Barley, feed, ctl. 721(9 SljltaliauRyetirass 10 «t 

do Brewing... 90 (d H5 Perennial 7 @ 

do do Choice. . Hijcr 1 Millet, German. 5@ 
Chevalier dice 1 30 (d 1 40 do Common.. 5 & 
do com to good 1 10 <ft 1 20 Mustard, yellow ] . >t 

Buckwheat 2 75 (8 3 26 do Brown.... 

Com, White 1 05 (a 1 10 

Yellow 1 05 S 1 10 

Oats, milling.... 1 12}@ 1 20 

Choice feed 1 10 <ft - 

do good 1 I 7j@ — 

do fair 1 05 (g - 

do Gray 1 05 (tt — 

Rye 1 75 <g 1 85 

Wheat, milling. 
Gilt edged.... 1 5U@ ] 53J 

do Choice 1 50 W — Crude, lb. 

do fair to good 1 45 (it 1 47 Refined 

Shipping, cho'ce 1 4t>t,t<r 1 47| 

do good. 1 4'JJ a 1 45 

do lair 1 424@ — 


Dry 13 ffl 

Wet salted 5 


Oregon 10 O 

Caliiorula 10 @ 


Red — @ 

Silver-skin 25 (g 

NUTS Jobbino. 
Walnuts, Cal lb 7 @ 

do Chile 19 (4 

Almonds, hd shl. 5 @ 

do Eastern. 



Ky Blue Grass. 14 

2d quality ... 13 

Sweet V. Gnus. 75 (3 

Orchard 14 (5 

Hungarian. . . 7; (it 

Lawn 27i(S 

Mesquit 8 

Timothy 6 <g 


3 m 

6 (ft 





U t 

Humboldt and 


l \ Sac'to valley 

b Free Mountain. 
S Joaquin valley 
do inouutaj 


18 @ 

15 <a 
18 (g 
V (g 
13 (g 
15 (g 

21 ift 

16 Cala'vt F'th'll. 

Oregon Eastern. 
— do valley .... 

90 FALL 1888. 

Son Coast, def.. 10 (g 

9 Son Coas . free. Uf 

San Joaquin. .. . 11 . ■< 

7 Mountain, free. 15 (ft 






Dried Fruits, Etc. 

The q"otat : ons given below are for average prices paid. 
Choice to extra choice fetch au advance uo the highest quo- 

tationg while poor sells slightly below the lowest quotations. 

Prices named for sun-dried are for fruit In sacks. Add 

for 60-ftn boxes &c per tb., ajd for 25-lb boxes |c to lc per lb. 

Apples, sun-dried, quarters, common 2ior 31 

prtnu 3\vt 41 

■' " " choice 4((a 

sliced, common 3} ■ 

" prime 4t<i* 

" " " choice & @ 

" Evap. bleached, ring. 5u-U> l>oxes 6 (ft 

A ricots, sun-dried, unbleached, common 4 @ 

'■ prime Hp 

eh' ice 6i@ 

hkached, priine 11- 

" choice U @ 

fancy 13 <tf 

" Evap. choice, in boies 14 (a 

" " fancy. " 16 

Figs, suu-dried, back - (g 

" " white — (ft 

" " " washed — (g 

" fancy — (ft 

" " " pressed 4 (g 

" " " impressed 2 (tt 

Grapes, sun-dried, steinless 3 (g 

" " unstemmed 2\(g 

Nectariues, suu-dried 4 (J* 

" evuporated, in troxes 1 (ft 

Peaches, sun-dried, unpeeled, common 4 (ft 

" " prime 6 

" " *' choice flfd 

" " " fancy 7 (g 

" evsjiorated " choice 10 (g 

" " " fancy 13 W 

11 sun-dried, peeled, prime 12 

" " " choice 13 ia 

" m " fancy 15 (ft 

" evaporated, " in boxes, choice 1410 

" " " fancy I« ra 

Pears, sun-dried, quarte 8 3 (a 

sliced 4 (g 

" evaporated, " in boxes U 

'* " ring '• — & 

PluuiB, pirted, sun-dried 4 (ft 

" " evap. in boxes, choice — <g 

" " " fancy - (g 

" uupitted 1| 4 

Prunes, Cal. French, ungraded r zes tt (g 

graded " 90 o 'CO 4 (g 

" " 8 • to 90 . . . . 4tj a 

' " " 70 to 80 5 # 

" " " " ' 60 to 70 H(g 

" " 50 to 60 6 m 

Fancy sells for more money. 

Comb, dark, 2-lb. frames, 60-fb. case*, V B>. • 





8 (3 9 

Jan. 12, 1889.1 



amber, " " cs. new " 10 O 11 

whit© " 12i@ 13£ 

Eitr acted, dark, 5-gal. cans, 2 cans to case, 19 lb. 5 @ 5\ 
** amber, " " . 5J@ 6 

white, " " " . 6 @ 6i 

Comb, 2-tins, 2 doz. to case, $ doz $3 75 

Extracted, " !™ 2 25 

" 4-tt>. tins, 1 doz. " 4 75 


Halves, quarters and eighths, 25, 50 and 75 cents higher 
respectively than whole box prices. 

London Layers, cho'ce # bx $} 80 @ 2 00 

fancy, ** 2 10 O 9 SI! 

Layers, # bx 1 60 @ 1 70 

Loose Muscatels, common, $ bx... 1 35 @ 1 40 

11 choice, " 1 55 @ 1 70 

" fancy M 1 70 @ 1 90 

TJnsteromed " in sack , ^9 lb 44@ 5 

Stemmed " " " 5 @ 5J 

Seedless " " " 4 @> 5 

M #2(Mb bx 1 00 @ — 

'* Sultanas, unbleached, in bxs. $ lb.. . 5£t® 6J 
" " bl. ached " *'... — @ — 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

Extra choice in 
quotations, while 
Apples, bx, com 

do Choice .... 1 

do E'st'rn, bbl 3 
Apricots, bx 

do Royals lb. 
Bananas, bunch 2 
Blackberries, ch 
Cherries, wh, bx 

do black, bx. . 

do Royal Ann 

Cranberries 10 

Currants ch 

Gooseberries tb. 
Limes, Mex, 6 
Lemons, Cal. bx 2 

do Sicily, box, 4 
Oranges.Com bx 1 

do Choice 2 

do Navels 

choice 3 

do do Com... 2 
Persimmons, lb. 

Quinces, bx 

Peaches, bx com 

do Ex ch'ce, bx 
Hale's Early, bx. 
Pineapples, doz. 4 
Raspberries ch . . 
Strawberries ch. 
Pears, bx 

do Choice. . . . 
Plums, $ tb.... 
Prunes, French. 
Figs, black, bx. . 

do white, bx. 
Grapes, per box. 

do Sw't water. 

good packages fetch an advance on top 
very poor grades sell less than the lower 

65 @ 90 
00 a 1 75 
00 @ 3 50 

- ® ~ 

- @ - 
25 @ 3 25 

- @ 

do Rose Peru . 


do B. Hamb'g 

- @ 

do Muscats. . . 

— <a 

do Malajra 

- @ 

do Tokays 

- @ 

do Gomiehon. 

- @ 

do Isabella . . . 

- @ 

^iniandel, ton.. 

— M 

- @ 

Nectarines, bx.. 

- @ 

Wa'rmel'ns, 100. 

- @ 

Canteloupes, cr. 

- <a 





CO fig 7 00 Asparagus bx 
00 @ 3 00 do ext'a choice 
50 @ 6 00 Okra. dry, tb ... 
50 @ 2 CO do Green bx. . 

60 @ 3 00 Parsoips, ctl 

Peppers, dry, lb. 
50 @ 4 50 do green, bx. . 
50 @ 3 U0 ISquash, Bam- 
2J@ 5 mer, bx 

— @ — doM'r'w-fattn 8 00 @12 00 

— @ — String beans, tb. 20 @ 25 

— @ — iTurnips, ctl 1 ( @ — 

— @ — Beets, sk 1 00 @ — 

50 «t 5 50 Cabbage, 100 tbs 50 @ 60 

Carrots, sk 30 @ 50 

iGreen Corn, cr. — @ — 
Green Peas, lb.. — @ 
Sweet Peas, lb. . 
Mushrooms, tb. 
Rhubaib. bx. . . . 
.Cucumbers, bx, 

I Garlic, sk 50 @ 

iTomatoes, rv.,bx 1 CO <a 1 25 
I Egg Plant, lb... 30 <a 40 

- @ 

- @ 

- @ 

- @ 

- @ 

1 00 @ 1 25 

8 @ 10 

5 @ 6 

@ _ 

@ - 


On Country Real Estate in large and small amounts 
at lowest rates, by A. Schuller, 106 Leidesdorff St. 
Room 8 ** 


Bank of California, 

N. W. Cor. California & Battery Sts., 

* of the Directors, held on the 8th day of January 
(et) lal to ten ($10) dollars per ehare) was levied upon the 
cap'tal stock of the corporation, payable immediately to 
the caBhier, at the office of the Bank. San Francisco. 
Any stock upon which the installment shall remain un- 

On the 7th day of February, 1 889, 

Will be delinquent and advertised for sale at public auc- 
tion, and unless payment is made before, will be sold 

On the 7th day of March, 1 889, 

To pay the delinquent installment, together with costs 
of advertising and expenses o sale. 

A. D. LOGAN, President. 
FRANK McMULLEN, Secretary. 

Injurious Insects of the Orchard, Vineyard 
Field, Garden, Conservatory, etc, 


Remedies for their Extermination. 
Late Chief Executive Horticultural Officer of California. 
Illustrated with over 750wood-cuta and 26 pages of classi- 
fied illustrations. This book is designed for the use of 
orchardists, vincyardists, farmers and others interested 
in the subjects treated. It is designed to convey practi- 
cal information concerning some of the species of in- 
fects injurious to the industries of cultivators of th» 
soil, and those interested in earth produce general) t. 
Price $4, postpaid. For sale by Dkwby & Co., publish- 
ers, 220 Market St., San Francisco. 


A practical treatise by T. A. Garbt 
giving the results of long experi- 
ence in Southern California. 196 
pages, oloth bound. Sent post-paid 
at reduced price of 75 cts. per copj 
bv ORWRY CO.. Publishers. ft V 



Bed Bluff. 


8. Francisco. 



Los Angeles. 

San Dlego 


Jan. 2-8. 






Weather.. I 








Wind .... 



| Weather. . 



1 Temp 








Wind ... 






^ Weather . . 













































































































































































































































F . 




























[Furnished for publication in this paper by Nelson Gobom, Sergeant Signal Service Corps, U. S. A ] 

Explanation.— CI. for clear; Cy., cloudy; Fr., fair; Fy., foggy; Cm., calm; — indicates too small to measure. Temperature, wind and weather at 12:00 M. (Pacific Standard time! 
with amount of rainfall in the preceding 24 hours. T indicates trace of rainfall. Observations taken at 5 p. m. instead of 12 M. 



Use Wheeler's Carbon Bisulphide. 

Applied as a liquid, it turns immed'ately to vapor, de- 
stroy ing all inmates of the hole. The liquid is not poi- 
sonous and mav be applied with perfect safety to the 
operator. SOLD BY ALL DEALEKS, also by the 
manufacturer, JOHN H. WHEELER, No. 2IG 
Montgomery St., San Francisco. 


By F. S. BURCH. 


Sixty-four pages, cloth 
bound, containing chapters 
on Milking, Milk Setting, 
Cream Kaising, Churning, 
Working, Salting, Packing, 
Shipping and Marketing. 
A Hand Book for the Be- 
ginner. Full of useful in- 
formation and worth many 
times its cost. Price, by 
mail, 30 cents. Address, 
DEWEY & CO , 220 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 

'/WCQCCEDQWANTED Everywhere, at; 

\W ^VCnOttnO home or to travel, a reliable per-I 

■ ^ M M1 " in t-:tch C.'imly to tack up advertisements and" 
J ^^^r show cards of Electric (Joods on trees, fences andj 

■ turnpike,, in conspicuous places in town and country, in all part, iff tbcB 
'United States and Canada. Steady empluTinent ; W SgMi #2.50 perS 

■ tloy ; expenses advanced ; no talking required. Local work" 
•for all or part of time. No attention paid to postal cards. ADDRESSES 
IWITHSTAMP,J.C.EJIOUV.vl('0.,Slh*iViiieSlK., ( 


Fresh SEEDS ^ 


Delivered FREE by Mail. 


and Plant some y | £? § 

I 5 r yc r It loom i ii jl; UO 

tine standard varieties. 

including 1 new variety. ^11 
15 Large fanev (low 

■» « 4 v ,| 1,-411 >y 






line Kxhihitinn sorts, 

Finest sorts si. 

10 Extra fine flowering 

BEGONIAS, finest « u .% 

plants in cultivation, SSI. 
We have the most varit-tl 
collection of BEGONIAS in 
the country, among thorn the 
curious Whorl .-a Rex which will succeed with everybody. 
Illustrated OAT A IiO(;i!E VII EE. II will pirns,- , on. 
No exaggerated descriptions. Exact facts about every 
tested variety, ear Please mention this paper. Address 




3,000 PERCHER0N 

French Coach Horses, 




of serviceable age. 
150 COLTS 
superlorindividuals, with choice pedigrees. 

(80 in foal by Brilliant, the most famous living sire). 


Best Quality. Prlres Reasonable. 
Terms Easy. Don't Buy without inspect- 
ing this Greatest and most Successful 
Breeding Establishment of America. 
Address, for 250-page catalogue, free, 


35 miles west of Chicago on C. & N.-W. R'y, 
between Turner Junction and Elgin. 


HOLBERT, STIMSON & CO. will receive their 
first importation of 

Coach and Draft Full Blood Stallions 


During the present month. On February 1, 1889, we 
shall be ready to show to persons wishing either a good 
Coach or Draft Stalliun, the best Horses of their breed 
bred in and France, where they were selected 
by our Mr. Holbert last autumn. 

These-horses are all registered, »nd the shipment will 
romprise Cleveland Bays, English Shire, Norman and 

.tarFor further particulars, address or call at Room 
No. 6, New Wilson Block, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Descriptive Circulars sent on application. 


Los Angeles, Cal., Jan. 7, 1889. 

Japanese Oranges. 

We caution parties against buying trees from inex- 
perienced Japanese and other irresponsible parties who 
ha*e been shipping Orange Trees here under different 
names. Many farmers, etc , had a severe lesion last sea- 
son, losing, in some instances, four-fifths, without the 
prospect of a single one being replaced. Wk were the 
first to introduce the OONSHIU to the notice of orchard- 
ists, recommending it stroDgly, and will replace any 
trees that die after receiving proper care Our importa- 
tions, so far, are over 100,000, ana we do not offer any 
that have not been acclimated in our (7) nurseries at 
least a year. 

N.w arrivals preserve their leaves for a time, but 
sooner or later wilt nearly to the ground, the result of 
the long voyage and the disinfecting process. Our Mr. 
H. E. Anioore has lately returned from China and Japan, 
where he has lived for nearly 28 years, and will be happy 
to correspond with any one interested in the Citrus and 
other fruits of Japan. We employ nearly 40 Japanese 
gardeners, and are planting out on shares, in different 
parts of the State, trees against land, feeling perfectly 
assured of pecuniary success. See various compli- 
mentary notices in Pacific Rural Press, San Fianc sco 
Chronicle of Dec. 3d, etc. 


120 Sutter St., San Francisco. 

The German Savings and Loan Society, 

526 California Street. 

For the half-year ending December 31, 188S, a dividend 
has been declared at the rate of fiveand one-tenth (5 1-10) 
per cent per annum on Term Doposits, and four and one- 
fourth (4 J) per cent per annum on Ordinary Deposits. 
Payable on and after Wednesday, January 2,"1889. 

GEO. TOURNY,' Secretary. 


For Salo. 

We are authorized to offer at Private Sale a choice 
herd of POLLED ANGUS CATTLE, 15 head, comprising 
one bull two years old, weight about 1800 pounds; ten 
two-year-old heifers; two yearling heifers and two 
calves. The heifers will weigh from 1200 to 1400 pounds. 
These are a superior lot of cattle and offer a fine oppor- 
tunity to any one desiring to found a herd of this popu- 
lar breed. For fuither partfculars apply to 

22 Montecmery St., San Francisco. 

Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press 
Patent Agency. 

Our U. S. and Foreign Patent Agency 
presents many and important advantages as a 
Home Agency over all others, by reason of long 
establishment, great experience, thorough sys- 
tem, intimate acquaintance with the subjects of 
inventions in our own community, and our 
most extensive law and reference library, con- 
taining official American and foreign reports, 
61es of scientific and mechanical publications, 
etc. All worthy inventions patented through 
our Agency will have the benefit of an illustra- 
tion or a description in the Mining and Scien- 
tific Press. We transact every branch of 
Patent business, and obtain Patents in all coun- 
tries which grant protection to inventors. Tl e 
large majority of U. S. and Foreign Patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our Agency. We csn 
give the best and most reliable advice as to tl e 
patentability of new inventions. Our pric s 
are as low as any first-class agencies in tl e 
Eastern States, while our advantages for Pacific 
Coast inventors are far superior. Advice and 
Circulars free. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents, 
220 Market St., Elevator, 12 Front St., S. F. 

Telephone No. 658. 
a. t. dewey. w. b. ewer. geo h. stkong. 


Made of steel, lighter, stronger, cheaper, more 
power, everlasting and competition distanced. For 
proof order on trial, to Keep the best and get any 
ether alongside if you can. Reversible Full Circle 
w& Belt Presses, all sizes. 

AtMreqa for circulars anii''^^ 

Matlon of WcBtcrn and Southern Storehouses and AgenU. 

P. K. Ill III KM K A CO., ALBANY, N. I. 

Apiarian Supplies Manufacturing Depot. 


Apply to MRS. J D EN A S, 
P. O. Box 30C. Napa City, Cal. 

APIARIAN SUPPLIES for sale by Mrs. J. D. 
En>s, Napa City, Cal. 


p*rim*dt« la mtgic, tod urn pU c*rd*T All oaij 

my Trover, Q<m><1- 

ool; 10 

»uod*Bye, «fe 

H'l .l*lflht. l rh»oJ Incka, lbii. 



[Jan. 12, 1889 

Seeds, Ma pts, fac. 


Budded on 3-year-old Trees and 3 years' 
growth from bud. 

Choicest lot ever presented for sale— Seed- 
less, thin slcln, most delicious flavor 
aDd true to name 

To Nurservmen in lots 1000 ro 10.000 or up 

To Firmer* in lota 100 to 1000 or up 

To Gardemrs in lots 1 doz. to 100 or up 

SPECI AL LOW KATES, according to number, 
which defy c mpetition and surprise every one, as all 
mus r be sold m thin 30 days. Correspond or send ordeis 
immediately and not lose this opportunity. 

Importer and Dealer in Seeds and proprietor of the 
Improved Egg Food, 

425 Washington St., Pan Francisco. 


Seed Merchant. 


Onion Sets, Grass, Clover, Vegetable 
and Flower Seeds. 

Largest Stock anfl Most Complete Assortment. 

Illustrated des -riptive and priced seed catalogue for 
1889, the most elaborate and valuable of its kind of any 
Pacific Coast publication, mailed free to all applicants 
Address E. J. BOWEN, 

815 & 817 Sansome St., San Francisco, 
Or 65 Front St., Portland, Or. 



The best kind for Shipping and Canning. 
General assortment of all kinds of 




Also, a large stock of imported Fruit Tree Seedlings, 
Apple, Pear, UyrolKilan Plum and Mazzarcl ('hern . 
A large stock of dormant buds, heavy- roottd. 
Send for prices. 

Marysville, Oal. 

Formerly of Martinez, Cal. 
Di ane Wbstcott. Sam-si. Brfik 





Grass, Farm and Garden Seeds, Plants, 
Trees and Bulbs in Stock. 

Correspondence Solicited. Catalogues Free. 

406 & 408 Sansome St , San Francisco. Cal. 


All Fresh, Hardy. Healthy Stock. 

Transplanted Cypress, 6 to 10 inches high, in boxes of 
100 each, at $2 per 100; 8 to 12 inches, of 70 per box, or 
10 to 15 inches, of 60 per box, at 32 per box. Monterey 
Pines, 8 to 12 inches of 70 to 80 per box, at J3 per 100; 
12 to 18 inches, of ft) per box, at W p r 100. Acacia Me- 
lanoxvlon (Yellow Blooming Everereen), 1 to It fret, of 
20 to 30 per box, at ft per 100; 14 to 2 feet, at »7 60 per 
100; 2 to 3 feet, atilO per 100. Blue and Red Oum Trees 
of all sizes an 1 prices. Also seeds of the above kin. s. 
All goods delivered free to shipping point and forwarded 
in first-class condition. Send Dia'ts, Postal Orders or 
Notes to GEO R. BAILEY, Park Nurserv, Berkeley, Cal. 


120 Sutter St., San Francisco. 


(See Rural Prbss of Feb. 12, 1887, page 125.) Accli- 
mited Trees now in our various nurseries for fale. 


Send for our New Catalogue. Mailed Free 




Shipped to California last season and arrived in good 
condition. All the leading varieties. Largest st ick in 
Florida. Send for Illustrated Catalogue. Special prices 
in large lots. 

Palm Springs, Orange Co., Fla. 
Altamonte Nurseries. 


One-year-old Picholine, in boxes: verv large and fine. 

616 Eighteenth St., Oakland, Cal. 




Established 1853. 


Cypress, Pine & Gum Trees 

All Transplanted, hma :*t..r feet high. 


i^Samples can be t-ecn at our store. 

We ha\e always on hand a large sii' p'y of the Choicest 
Hardy Grown Grass, Clover, Vegetable and Tree Seeds 
direct from our farm. 

JjTCatalogues free by mail on application. 

409 & 411 Davis St., San Francisco. 


L. F. MOULTON, - - - Proprietor, 

Offers for sale (without bugs) the following: 


French (Petite), Robe de Sergent. Hungarian. 


Blenheim, Peach, Heimkirk and Royal. 


Early Crawford, Snvipiehanna, Sal* ay, Milko, free, Karl) 
TuBcan and Wiutet'd II. tan, cling. 

Bartlett Pears and California Walnuts. 







Importers of Australian and Japanese 
Seeos and Plants. Holland Bulbs. 

New Crop ESPKRSETTE (Sainfoin) 
tar LValoguis free bv mail. 


411.413. 415 Sansome St , San Fran co. 

Reasonable in Price 

Market (Janlrni rs, Farmers, 
- Florists, and all who U98 
Se.-ds, will liml our HUME- 
SEEDS to be of the 

eeda, will find our 

Try Ttiem 

Our large illustrated catalogue (100 pages) will 
be mailed on application. Address 

34 So. Market St., Boston. Mass 

Rawson's New Book : 

a on receipt of si. 
ormation fox tlic i 

., sent post 
I bis is full of impurtair" 


Ros:ville, - - Placer Co , Cal, 


Four thousand Rosea, one and two years old, consist- 
ing of the leading varieties of Teas, Hybrid Teas, 
Chinese, Bourbon, Noisettes and Hybrid Perpetual*. 

Five thousand Palms in Pots, consisting of Prit hardii 
Filamento-a, Chamierops Kxcel a. Phoenix Dactylifcra, 
Hataua borbonica and Corypha Austra>is. 

One thousand Pawlonia Imperials, either in pots or 
balls from open ground 

Mi - 1 Kh SOLI), as the ground is needed. Address 
E BC'Th, 

Kosevllle, Placer Co., Cal 


Oriental :»n<i Month em Fruits, "f which 

art* adapted to rl • ■ extreme South and oth* r- farther North. 
The largest Kt ck of Peach and Plum Trees ever grown in 
Florida. hiWinMng many varieties of extremely early iiltru 
Southern Pencbe*. Ten varieties of Oriental 
PIuiuk. A full line of Olives, Figs. Apricot?. Pooai ■. 
Jap^n Pei>it> mons and other fruits. The NaUumn 
Orange is the hardiest known variety and one of the n.-t. 
Henu Btatnp for Illustrated Catalogue, Price LiBt ami Mail- 
ing List. Mention thix paper Addr m, 4*. I*. T.iUKIt, 
<;u-n. st Naryi Baker *■».. Fi<»ri*ia. 


Apples and Pears. 

Ornamental and Shade Trees : 

c»tal|ia Sie-iosa, si'ver Leaved Maple. Itox Elder or 
Meguido •. i aliforuia Sr ft .Map e, Biro, L> mb.rdv 
Pop a , Pepper Tiees in boxes aid p^ts, two varieties 
Pi tosporum, Red Oum, Cypress, Monterey Pine. Roses 
and Shrubs. California Fan Pa.tus, wholesale and retail. 

a. TOSETTl, 8an Leacdro, Cal. 



— roR — 

Cheapness and Dura, 


Cannot be Torn. Any- 
body can put it on. 

No Coal Tar^ No Odor. 


Cattlemen, Ranchmen 
and Settlers. 


310 California St.. San Francisco. 

FRUIT TREES! ( Established 1863. | FRUIT TREF5 ! 


Agency of CALIFORNIA NURSERY CO., Nil s, Alameda Co., Cal. 

We have now for sale at Lowest Market Katts the •* Ro=t Selected and Healthiest Stock of 

- « i» 

Fruit Trees, Grapevines, " otnall Fruits, Etc., Etc. 

■ tik« new varieties, all grown on new land at the above 
er i - r - . Sample* o( the trees always on hand. 


Grass, Clover, Vegetable. Flower and Tree Seeds, 

And Ornamental Trees and Plants, Bulbs, Roses, Magnolias. Palms, etc., 

at lowkst rates. New Catalogue for 1S8S mailed on application. 

p o. Box 2059. 1HOS. MEBERIN, 516 Battery Street, 


Kicr offered on the Pacific Coast, including a', tin. new varieties, all grown on new land at the above 
Nursery and free from scale and other pests. Samples of the trees always on band. 

Seeds! Seeds! Seeds 



Established 1863. 


French Walnuts, Home-grown Oranges and Rooted Grapevines. 

Illustrated Catalogue and Price List for the season of 1887-88 free to all sending for them. All Trees, Vine*, 
etc., guaranteed free from scale and other injurious pests. A certificate of inspection furnished to all. 
A full line ol Kruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Vines and Hothouse Plants. 

E. O. CLOWES, Proprietor 

(Successor to W. B. WEST), 

Stockton, Cal. 


460 ACRES. 






White Adriatic Fig, Ten Tested Varieties of Table Figs, Olives, 
Pomegranates, and also a Fine Collection of Palms, 
Roses and Oleanders. 

tw A five-pound box i f White Adriatic Figs sent by express prepaid to any address on 
receipt of Sl.- r >0. S ml In Fall Catal< gue and wholesale price list. Address all letters to 

F. ROEOING, Proprietor, Fresno, Cal. 





Fruit Trees, Olives Oranges and Lemons. Nut Trees, 

Wine and Table (Jrapes, Berry Plants. Shade Trees, 

Evergreens, Shrubs, Roses, Etc., Etc. 



USTllos. Alamoda Oo.„ Cal. 

Jan. 12 1889.] 

f ACIFie I^URAId press. 


j5eeds, Hants, Etc. 



Nuts, Prunesjnd Grapes. 

The L,»rg«st and Finest Collection of "Nut- 
Bearing" Trees to be found in 
the United States. 

21 Varieties of Walnuts. 
9 Varieties of " Marrons," 

Or French Chestnuts (solely propagated by graft- 

10 Varieties of Filberts 

(proi agated by layering). 

4 Varieties of Almonds. 



Or Fertile Walnut, 

Introduced into California in 1871 by Felix Gillkt. 

'' Second " Generation Proeparturiens 

(California Grown). 


*' Barren Hill Nurseries" ia the only establishment in 
the United States where grafted Walnuts may be found. 
The finest French varieties, highly recommended for the 
size, beauty and quality of the nuts; fertility And hardi- 
ness of the trees. Foremost araong them: Mayette, 
Parisieone, Franquette, Chaberte, Meylan and Vourey. 


The purest typeB of the French Prune or Prune 
D'Ente, from the Valley of the Lot, France, viz.: 
I.mI D'Ente, 
Mont Barbat D'Ente, 
IMiymirol D'Ente. 
Also Saint Catherine Prune, 
" True from the root." 

231 Varieties of Grapes, from all parts of the 
world, including the earliest Table Varieties known, 
some of them 25 days earlier than Sweet Water. 

61 Varieties of English Gooseberries, all 
shapes, colors and sizes. 

April Cherries, Apricots, Pears, Figs. etc. 

French, English, German and American 


Portugal Orange, 

Blidah (Algeria) Mandarin Orange, 
Corsica Lemon. 

Large Fruited Lemon, 
Imported from the south of France and expressly grafted 
for the California tiade. 


By FELIX GILLET, of Nevada City, Cal., an essay on 
the different modes of Budding and Grafting the Walnut, 
so difficult to graft; illustrated with eight cuts made 
after nature and of natural size. Will be gent with 
Descriptive Catalogue, under the same cover, to any 
address on the receipt of 25 cents in postage stamps. 

ty Send for General Descriptive Catalogue, illustrated 
with 37 cuts, representing Walnuts, Ch stnuts, Almo ds. 
Filberts, Prunes, etc. 


I do hereby caution Nurserymen all over the United 
States, that have been in the habit of stealing my Wal- 
nut and Chestnut cuts, and appropriating them to kinds 
that they do not represent, that I have had all the cuts 
of my General Descriptive Catalogue and those of mv 
Essay on Grafting the Walnut duly "copyrighted," and 
that hereafter I will prosecute any cne guilty of such 
contemptible piracy. 




25,000 PEAR TREES, 

One and two \ ears, Bartlett, Howell, Beurre Clairgeau, 
Winter iNelis and otheis. Also a general assortment of 
Apples, Cherrirg, Peaches, Plums, etc. Prices furnished 
on opplicatiou. Address, 


Poialuma, Cal. 


Five pounds and over* $1 per pound; less than five 
pounds, $1 50 per pound. 

Vitis Californica Seedlings, Phylloxera Proof, 

$10 per 1000. 

P. O. Box 8. Mtddletown, Lake Co., Cal. 





Fresno, OaI. 

BRANCH OFFICE, No. 425 Eleventh Street, Oakland, Cal. 

We would respectfully call the attention of the public to our very complete list of Nursery 
Stock for the ensuing season, consisting of a full line of all the Standard Varieties of 




Guaranteed, and the NEW LYONS CLING PEACH. We have an immense stock of ROOTED 
VINES, comprising 86 varieties. We carry also a full line of CITRUS FRUITS, well grown 
and warranted free from all peats and true to label. 

43TSend for Catalogue and address all correspondence to Fresno, Cal., Box 175. 




Comprising all the Leading and Desirable Varieties 


Olives, Oranges, Persian Walnuts, Deciduous and 
Evergreen Ornamental Trees, 


Seed and Tree Catalogues on application. 

TRUMBULL & BEEBE, 419 & 421 Sansome St.. S. F. 



Capital Nurseries, Sacramento, Cal. 

1 finn niin °' * ne *" ie8 ' Trees ever offered on this Coast, in lots to suit, at lowest market rates. A com 
I , UUU, UUU piete assortment of Prunes, Plums, Apricots, Almond, Peach, Nectarine, Apple, Pear, Cherry, 
Orange, Lemon, Olive, Grapevines. Berry Plants, Shade and Ornamental Trees, Shrubbery, Fluwering Plants, etc ; 
in lact, everything to be found in a first-class Nursery We would call special attention to our immense stock of 
Orange and Lemon Trees. Extra fine stock of all the best known varieties, positively f<eo from Insect Pests. 
These fine Trees will be sold, either wholesale or retail, cheaper than ever before offered on this Coast. We can 
also supply any desired quantity of Magnolia Grandifiora Trees very cheap. 

We are better prepared thin season to supply all kinds of Nursery Stock than ever before. See our Stock and 
compare it with others before placing your order?, or correspond with us. SPECIAL TE!tMS GIVEN ON LARGK 
ORDErtS, e> penally on Orange, Lemon and Magnolia Trees. We woulu also call fpecial attention to our unusually 
large and complete assortment of all kinds of 


Every kind and class of the best and freshest Seeds, both wholesale and retail, very low; also a complete stock of 
Flowering Bulbs. Send for our New Illustrated Seed and Tree Catalogue. It is the finest and 
most c.mplete book of the kind wo have ever issued. Sent free on application. Address all communications to 

W. R. STRONG & CO., Sacramento, Cal. 


Ovcr 100.001) customers of 1888 gladly U-stifv that thev INCI!EA8KI> ALL YIKI.US. 
I Yes, often thoin by sowing SALZFIi'S NORTHERN (iltllWN SEKI>8. Be- 
| cause no other seed is so full of life, vigor and vitality— so prolific and early as Salzers. 


|Thisis the most wonderful Oat we have ever seen or heard of, and we have tested E\ EIC Y 
t offered by EVERY seedsman in America, lint none emne half way np to it In * I FXD, 
or, beauty and quality. Scores of 1SRS customers say: SALZER'S GIANTfSVFLAT DUTCH. 
I Yielded 5 to 10 limes as much as common oats! Itsenor- 
I mous yield is due to its great stoolinf? properties, long 
I ears and plump kernels. Early, One, wonderful. 

$?50 In prizes for Large** Yield In 18S!>. See Cat- 
alogue about it. First Prize 8*00. Who wins it? The farm- 
I er wants big crops. Well, he can have them every time 
I by sowing my seeds— yielding on wheat, 10 bn., harley 70 
" ., new corn 125 bu., potatoes 640 bu., etc. Headquarters 
,.wrall Farm Seeds. ( Ira^.-s, Clovers, M'CF.KNIS CLO- 

Floor area of seed store 2 acres. Potato cellar capacity 
60,000 bu. 26 Packages Earliest Vegetable Novelties, post- 
paid. $1. EST Send 8e for Wonder Out and Grain Samples 
or 10c for Giant Cabbage and receive elegant Catalogue.." 
JOHN JL. SALZEK, !..» < roK*e, Wis. 

CHERRIES. Black Tartarian PEARS, Bartlett and Winter Nelis. 

PLUMS. Bradhhaw, Columbia, Green (lage, Peach Plum, Washington and Yellow Egg. 

Also a large stock of Gums, Cypress and Laurustinus in Boxes, and complete assortment of general 
ORNAMENTAL PLANT-.. Roses Our JSr>©o±«.lty-. 

Send for Catalogue and Price List. Address: GrIIjIi'jS 3NTTjriSiEH.IES, 

Twenty Eighth Street, near San Pablo Ave., OAKLAND, CAL. 

The Lakeland Nursery Company, 


Offer their immense stock rf Citrus Fruit Trees, all choice and healthy, at a bargain Varieties strictly ire' nine 
and cons st of the following popular kinds: Homosaasa, Magnum Bonum, Nonpareil, Majorca. Jaffa, Mediterran- 
ean Swtet, Hart's Tardiff, Maltese Blood, Washington Navel, Du Koi, Sweet Seville, Centennial. Madam Vinous, 
Miltese'iv 1, St. Michael, Tuny, Mandarin and Tangierine. Lemon, Sicily, Bclair Premium and Villa Franca 
Lime, Tahiti and Florida. Citron, Lyman. Sweet and Sour Orange, and Grape Fruit Seedlings. 
MTSpecial prices quoted on large orders. Send for descriptive catalogue and price list to 

E. H. TLSON, Business Mmmiger. 



Send for Catalogue. Mailed free. 
1426-1428 St. Louis Ave., Kansas City, Mo. 



California Advance Cherry, 

Seedling of Early Purple Guigne, by the origi- 
nator of "Centennial" Cherry. 


Plums, Figs, Pears, 

Olives, Peaches, Nectarines, 

ppl es, Cherries, Walnuts, 





California Seedling Oranges. 


Napa City, Cal. 


FOR 1889. 

Great Reduction in Prices. 


The Best Orange Trees are now within the 
reach of all planters. Genuine Riverside 
Washington Navels, of our own budding, and 
other varieties at ab< ut one-half usual prices. 
Orange orchards $300 to $403 an acre. Orange 
and Vineyard lands at low prices. 
Send for Circulars. 




Should be planted on every Farm and in every Garden 
in the United States. 
An immense stock of New and Old Varieties of 

Fruit, Forest and Ornamental Trees aid Slinibs 

Including the new-named var'eties of 


And all kinds of Small Fruits, Grapevines, Forest Tree 
seedlings for Timber Claims at, hard-lime prices. 

A paper devoted to Fruit Culture Free to all who buy 
41 worih of stock. Trees and Plants b\ mail a specialty. 
Three hundred acres in nursery within bu miles of the 
center of the United S ates. Spleudid shipping facilities. 

Send at once for price list. 

Jefferson County. Palrbury, Nebraska. 

Fine Small Fruits a Specialty. 


Finn and Luscious, stands travel finely, bears irn- 
menselv, and has two crops a yeir; 75 cents per d^zeu; 
S3 per 100 Also S rawberries, Blackberries, Gooseber- 
ries, Cu rants, etc., of the finest imported varieties. 
Prices on application. L. U. McUANN, 

Santa Cruz, Cal. 


Nursery and Fruit Farm, 

Lodi, Ca 1 . 




Shrubs, Vines, etc., both wholesale and retail at 
Lowest Rates. 
SPECIALTIRS-Nonpareil Almonds, I X L Almonds, 
Hoy il Apt lota, French Prunes, Bartlett PearB, Choice 
Pi aches in variety. Catalogues on app ication. 



Seed Store at your door. Send for our illustrated cat- 
alogue of everything for the Farm and <;nrdcn. 



• fACIFie RURAlo press. 

[Jan. 12, 1889 


Grand Opportnnity 


A Small Tract 

or Tim 

Best Fruit & Vineyard Land 

— '\ — 

Central California! 

Reasonable Pric. s Bnd Easy Terms. 

Natoma Water & Mining Co. 




Suitable (or Fruit, Vines and Vegetables, in subdivisions 

5, 10 and 20-Acre Tracts 

The tract now offered in subdivisions is situated on 
the south side of the American river 18 miles from the 
city of Sacramento, the Capital of the State, adjoining 
the town of Folsoni, and on the Sacramento and flacer- 
ville Railroad. 

Two hundred acres are now planted in fruit, in full 
bearing; the balance of the land, 800 acres^ i now ready 
to plant either in fruit or vineyards. 

The soil is of a very superior quality, being a deep 
rich loam, well drained, and capable of producing every 
variety of fruits or vegetables, including the peach, 
apple, apricot, cherry, pear, plum, prune, nectarine, 
quince, fig, almond and walnut. 1 he topographical feat- 
ure of this locality is the gentle slops of the land, insur- 
ing perfect drainage. 

Facilities for Irrigation. 

Water for irrigation and other purposes will be fur- 
nished to all who desire it at the Com,any's rates. The 
water is taken from the American river, near Salmon 
Falls, and the ditch has a capacity of 3000 miners' inches 
and a never-failing supply of water. All of the land 
now offered for sale lies rtelow the ditch, and conse- 
quently can be ir igated therefrom. This is a very im- 
portant item and greatly increases the value . f the land, 
as by irrigation a sure crop can always be depended 
upon, even in the driest of seasons. The irrigating 
ditches run directly through the tract, and in addition 
to this, an unfailing supply of pu e and eoft water can 
be obtained from wells at a depth of from 40 to 100 feet. 

Transportation Facilities. 

The transportation facilities, a very important factor 
to all fruit-growers, are of the very best; the Sacra* 
men to and Placerville Railroad running through the 
orchard its entire length and having a receiving depot in 
the most centrd location on the tract, so that no fruit 
has to be hauled more than half a mile. 

Why the Land Offered is a Profitable 

The soil is of the best, being sandy loam and sedi 
ment, and adapted to the choicest quality of all varie- 
ties of fruits and vegetables. The property is located in 
that portion of the State where all fruics ripen early, 
and naturally command the hii-hest prices. 

The property is also situated in the central part of 
California, and in the center i a great fruit-producing 
section, and immediately adjoining the principal markets 
of the coast— by the quick transportation facilities which 
it enjoys. 

The company w'll assist purchasers of their lands by 
giving them employment in preference to all others, 
furnish them water for irrigation at verj - low rates, 
assist them by their knowledge of the property in p'ant 
ing the different varieties of fruit and vines on the lands 
to which they are best adapted, furnish pasture for 
stock, and in fact they will at times be prepared to ren- 
der such assistance to purchasers that will be of benefit 
to them in cultivating, selliug and shipping their prod 

The prodncts of the lands of the NATOMA WATER 
AND MINING COMPANY have always commanded the 
highest market prices both on the Pacific Coa-t and in 
the Eastern market. The f-uit Is loaded in the cars on 
the property and is transported intact to its destination 
in the East and other markets, a facility of transporta- 
tion that is of th« greatest impotence, and with these 
great advantages prosperity is assured, and to day there 
is no better field for solid and profitable investment on 
the Pacific Coast, as these lands are offered at prices be- 
low those of other lands not so ac'vantageously located, 
and not paving an immediate income. 

The portion of the property set out in orchard is all 
in bearing; thus purchasers will at once receive an in- 
come, theteby enabling them to pay for the land from 
the products. Good soil, abundance of water, healthy 
climate, easy of access, close proximity to schools and 
churches, with lew prices and easy terms combine to 
make the purchase of these lands the most profitable in- 
vestment ever offered. 

For maps, photographs, price-list and tub information 
apply to 


Real Estate Agents & Auctioneers 


Lick House Building;. Sau Francisco, 


E. K. ALSIP & CO., 1015 Fourth St., Sacramento, Cal. 

C. H. 8CHU8SLKR, Esq., Superintendent of the Na- 
toma Water and Mining Company, Natoma, Sacramento 
county, Cal, 



(Formerly Sec'y & Land Officer of Immigration Ass'n. 






*WSend . btaf'dyfi'i page description of California by counties with State map and 
85 page Catalogue t?li]i,'f ->le in every part of the State. 

——- 8q 

i i 



Specially Adapted for SEEDING and 


All Genuine bear TRADE MARK, 
Have Steel Clod Crushers, DOUBLE FLEXIBLE GANG-BARS, 


Adjustable Reversible Coulters, 

Which, when worn, may ba turned end for end, thus giving doable the amount of wear. 


No Other Harrow Combines these Points. 

DUANE H. NASH, Sole Manufacturer, 




and Los Angeles, Cal. 

And STAVER & WALKER, Portland, Oregon. 




Best and 

As other 


Strongest Explosives in the World. 


The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For Stump and Bank Blasting. From 5 to 20 
pounds blows any Stump, Tree or Root clear 
out of ground at less cost than grubbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers use no other. 

makers IMITATE our Giant Powder, so do they Judson, by Manufacturing 

a second-grade, inferior to Judson. 
BANDMANN, NIELSEN & CO, General Agents, San Francisco. 

For Killing Squirrels, Gophers, Prairie Dogs 


This aitiele in specially prepared for this purpose, and will give a better return for the nrnney than any other 
goods on the market. No animal can live in its closed hole with this. It leaves no useless residue. 
• a trial older from your Druggist and sec for yourself. 
Manufactured by EDWARD H. TAYLOR, Manufacturing Chemist, Cleveland, Ohio 

JAMES LINF0RTH. Agent, 37 Market St., San Francisco. 

FOR SALE BY ALL DRUGGISTS. Directions for use with each package. 



Codlin Moth and Insect Exterminator. 

112 and 114 Front Street, - - San Francisco, Cal. 









Consisting: of Wood and Iron Working 
Machinery. Pumps of every 




Ikcorporatkd April, 1874. 

L"ijVpf T 

Authorized Capital $1,000,000 

Capital paid up in gold coin 684,160 

Reserved Fund 40,000 

Dividends paid to Stockholders.. 616,680 


A. D. LOGAN President 

I. U STEELE Vice-President 

ALBKRT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 


Oeneial Banking Deposits received. Gold and Silver. 
Bills of Exchange bought and sold. Loans on Wheat 
and countrv produce a specialty. 

Jan. 1, 1888 A. MONTPELLIER, Manager. 



Immense Water Power 


At Merced Falls, Merced County, located on Merced 
River; size of Mill, 33x70; two stories in front and four 
stores in roar; latest improved roller machinery; new 
capacity; 100 bairels per day; pjwer to increase to any 
capacity desired; title to water and land perfect; 60 acres 
of land, coorp'ising the town site of Merced Falls; 
reputation of flour is Al; commands all mountain trade; 
fine wheat country surrouDding; no failures aver known; 
grain warehouse 80x80; four dwelling housed; 38 shares 
o Merced Falls Woolen Factory go with purchase. 


Merced, Cal. 

Or N. C. CARNALL & CO., 
624 Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 


Manufacturers of all lauds of 


Orape and Berry Baskets, 
Cor. Front and M Sts., SACRAMENTO. 


Vol. XXXVII.-No. 3 


$3 a Year. In Advance 

Single Copies, 10 Ots. 

A Foothill Peach. 

We give on this page a photo-facsimile by the 
Dewey Engraving Co. of a California seedling 
peach which is coming into great popularity in 
Placer county. The plate is one of the series 
of photo representations of new California vari- 
eties, which will appear in Mr. Wickson's book 
on " California Fruits and How to Grow Them " 
which is now in the hands of the printer, and 
of which a definite, formal announcement will 
appear in an early 
issue. The picture 
is from a photo- 
graph of a speci- 
men of the fruit 
sent us last sum- 
mer from Plaoer 
county. During 
the transmission, 
the leaves became 
badly wilted and 
shriveled, hence 
their unhandsome 
appearance in the 
plate. The fine 
form of the peach 
is, however, easily 
discerned and a 
statement of its 
origin and qualities 
will be read with 
interest by peach- 

. The fruit is the 
Albright Cling, 
which originated 
on the farm of a 
grower, whose 
name it bears, in 
the neighborhood 
of Placerville, El 
Dorado county. 
Our notes on the 
fruit include a 
statement of P. W. 
Butler of Peniyn, 
that in 1S82 he 
heard of the fru t 
and went to visit 
the orchard of Mr. 
Foster, near Plac- 
erville, who had, 
at that time, about 
600 trees of this va- 
riety in bearing. Mr. Eutler found the trees 
laden with fully ripened peaches of remarkably 
fine form, color and quality. As compared 
with Orange Clings growing near by, the Al- 
bright Cling was more highly colored, of better 
flavor, and the tree a more prolific bearer. Mr. 
Butler assures us that he has never seen 
peaches of larger average size than those in the 
orchard of Mr. Foster, where they had plenty 
of irrigation. 

The ripening season of the Albright at Pen- 
ryn is from August 15th to 30th, while at Plac- 
erville it is a week later. The peach, as the 
engraving shows, is almost perfect in shape 
and it is more regular and less liable to be mis- 
shapen than some other favorite varieties. Its 
colors are those of the Orange Cling but appar- 
ently more intense, and its flavor and general 
quality unexceptionable. 

Naturally being so favorably impressed with 
the peach, Mr. Butler secured stock of it, and 
in 1888 he gathered about 4000 boxes from 1000 

trees four years old from dormant bud, or three 
years old as the age of trees is usually counted. 

The experience of Ira F. White, Willard 
Hazen and other growers of the Albright peach 
in the Placer-county peach region is, as we un- 
derstand, enthusiastically in favor of the va- 
riety. The following is Mr. Butler's enumera- 
tion of its excellencies: Very tine in appear- 
ance and high colored; perfectly and uniformly 
shaped; large and regular in size; tree of good 
habit and a strong growler, and capable of sup- 

Potent Though Silent pleas in favor of pro- 
tecting Californian industries have been made in 
the Senate cloak-room at Washington by Sen- 
ator Stanford, who has been having samples of 
our fruit products placed there, day after day. 
"On one occasion," says a correspondent, "it 
may be a box of Fresno raisins, and handfuls of 
the delicious fruit are greatly relished. At an- 
other time it will be a basket of figs, often finer 
than any the Senator ever saw before. Then it 
will be Riverside oranges, large and luscious, 





porting a large crop; pit, small; flesh, rich 
yellow, remarkably tender and juicy, and re- 
mains in eatable condition for a longer time 
than any other peach known to him. 

The last point was enforced upon Mr. Butler's 
observation in this way: Ingathering for drying 
he found that the culls which had been rejected in 
packing for shipping as under-sized and were al- 
lowed to hang on or lie under the trees for two 
weeks after picking for shipping had stopped, 
were found to be perfectly sound and good even 
for a period of two weeks after reaching a good 
eating condition. Mr. Butler does not know 
another peach which has such durability. A 
sample-box of this fruit sent to this offioe the 
first week in September fully attested this char- 
acteristic as noted by Mr. Butler. 

We understand that the Albright Cling made 
an excellent shipping record this season and 
seems destined to become one of the coming 
peaches of the yellow cling style in regions to 
which it proves itself to be adapted. 

and the arrival of a box is whispered around 
the chamber until every Senator who knows 
the' quality of ' Stanford's oranges ' has buried 
his lips in their sweet, juicy pulp. When 
everybody has satisfied himself as to the qual- 
ity of the fruit which happens to be on exhibi- 
tion, Senator Stanford incidentally remarks 
that the fruit-raising industries of the United 
States must be protected from competition on 
uneven terms with the fruits of foreign lands. 
The argument is unanswerable." The Senator 
is also reported mindful of our beet-sugar pro- 
ducers and will not give his consent to any 
tariff changes which threaten tq militate against 
that interest 

James (J. Swan, U. S. Fish Commissioner, 
hat reoeived notification from Washington 
that a carload of lobsters has been shipped 
to Port Townsend, W. T., for transplanting. 
Scow bay, opposite Pi>:» Townsend and near 
Point Wilson, has been chosen for lobster-beds. 

Desert Lands in Lassen. 

At the second session of the Forty-third Con- 
gress, and two years prior to the general desert- 
land law, there was passed an Act providing 
that any citizen of the United States may file 
with the proper local land officers a sworn dec- 
laration of his intention to reclaim a tract of 
desert land situated in Lassen county, Cal., and 
not exceeding one section, by conducting water 
upon it so as to reclaim all said land within two 
years. The Act 
was designed to 
cover all public 
lands within the 
county (excluding 
mineral and tim- 
ber) which do not 
produce grass, or 
will not, without 
such reclamation, 
produce any agri- 
cultural crop. On 
making satisfac- 
tory proof within 
the time specified, 
that the whole 
tract deecribed has 
been reclaimed in 
the manner afore- 
said, the applicant 
is entitled to enter 
the land at $1.25 
per acre and re 
ceive a patent 

Atthat time sev- 
eral San Francisco 
capitalists became 
interested in a pro- 
ject for tapping 
Eagle lake by 
means of a tunnel, 
18 feet below its 
surface, and thence 
irrigating a wide 
area; but after 
$200,000 or $300,- 
000 had been ex- 
pended in further- 
ance of this plan 
the work was sus- 
pended, though 
not abandoned, by 
those who hav e 
invested. Meanwhile — 
a gentleman who has 
deal on his faith 
too many 

"innocent victims" have been led by real- 
estate schemers to sink their money in land 
which they have no means of reclaiming. And 
he says the public should be made aware that 
while there are myriads of acres of public land 
still open for settlement in Modoc and Lassen, 
yet for successful farming on most of these 
tracts irrigation is quite indispensable. There 
is, therefore, ample room for private enterprise 
in the line of developing water and construct- 
ing storage reservoirs at the base of the mount- 
ains in these counties; but no one should be in- 
duced to buy out "claims " unless a supply of 
water is guaranteed. 

most money there 
we are informed by 
himself staked a good 
in the Susan River valley's future 

The Riverside Press says more bona-fide 
sales of real estate are now made than one year 


f ACIFI6 f^URAb f RESS. 

[Jan. 19, 1889 


The Wool-Growers' Program. 

J. H. Kirkpatrick, the well-known California 
wool-grower, who is now in Washington attend" 
ing a meeting of wool-growers, sends us the fol- 
lowing letter from Hon. Columbus Delano, pres- 
ident of the National Wool-Growers' Associa- 
tion, which describes the position of the organi- 
zation with reference to pending tariff legisla- 
tion by Congress: 

The wool schedule in the Senate Tariff Bill as 
it now stands fails to give such protection as the 
wool-growing industry requires. If no better 
assistance is afforded this pursuit when the tariff 
bill is enacted into law the flocks of the United 
States will continue to decline in numbers, and 
the clip will diminish in quantity as rapidly as 
they have done since the Act of 1883. 

Protest against the injustice of this schedule 
would have been made sooner had not the ad- 
journment of Congress and other circumstances 
rendered it apparent that such protest had 
better be delayed until Congress again con- 
vened. It is known to those familiar with this 
subject that the carpet manufacturers, and 
some other manufacturers who desire free wool, 
procured the changes in the wool schedule, to 
which objection is now made, after that sched- 
ule had been agreed to by the producers, the 
dealers, and a part of the manufacturers. It can 
be easily demonstrated that the representations 
made before the Senate Committee or sub-Com- 
mittee, in order to procure the present objec 
tionable features of the wool schedule, were er- 
roneous and misleading, and that the carpet 
manufacturers and their colleagues in this mat- 
ter have no reason arising from their business 
to justify the demand they have made. 
No industry in the United States is in bet- 
ter condition than the carpet-manufactur- 
ing business, and none has been more pros- 
perous for many years past, and none 
approaches nearer the condition of a perfectly 
protected industry. I know of one estab 
lishment that has made during the past five 
years more net gains than all the wool-growers 
of the United States added together have made. 
While this is (aid, it seems fit, in this connec- 
tion, to refer to the condition of the wool-pro- 
ducing interest. Our flocks have diminished in 
numbers since 1883 to the full extent of 10,000,- 
000, whereas they should have increased by the 
natural increase of the country not lees than 
10,000,000. Our annual clip has diminished in 
quantity to the extent of 55,000,000 pounds, and 
the price has been reduced not less than 20 per 

The reduction of the clip and the declination 
in price have created an annual loss of §40,000, - 
000. It does not seem just that a great agri- 
cultural industry (if it is so diversified as to pre- 
vent those who pursue it from folly presenting 
their claim* to Congress) should be overlooked 
or neglected while marked and needless encour- 
agement is afforded to a kindred but not more 
worthy business. 

If all members of Congress could understand 
how important sheep husbandry is to agricult- 
ure in general, it would be much better for us. 

This industry it is that makes useful our roll- 
ing and hilly lands that cannot be cultivated 
without destruction by reason of washing and 
waste when plowed and that are comparatively 
of little value except for grazing. And the ad- 
vantage resulting from the fertilization of culti 
vated lands by means of sheep husbandry is an 
important consideration little known, but 
which, with increasing population, is growing 
constantly in importance. 

The representatives of this industry have 
ever stood faithfully by the principle of pro- 
tection. They and their friends and advisers 
have insisted that by so doing they would assist 
in establishing an economic system that will 
sustain all of oar practical and useful indus- 
tries. It is apparent that this system needs 
the aid of all its friends, and I am directed by 
some of those whom I represent to inform you 
that the wool growers oannot acquiesce in the 
present schedule, and that they intend to hold 
a meeting as soon as convenient to consider 
the situation and present to Congress and the 
people, if necessary, their just claims and de- 
mands, with their reasons therefor. 

Tbey respectfully urge the reconsideration of 
this schedule and the adoption of provisions re- 
lating to scoured and carpet wool equivalent to 
thoee insisted on last summer. 

More should be given — less will leave their 
industry in a condition to cause in future what 
has been seen in the past, a constant diminu- 
tion in the number of our sheep and a steady 
decline in the quantity and value of the clip. 
This, in a short time, will substantially sur- 
render to foreign nations an industry the im- 
portance of which is not now appreciated. 

Wool-growers are impressed with the impor- 
tance of the step they propose. They under- 
stand the necessity of harmony and unity 
among the friends of protection. They have 
made every concession compatible with the 
preservation of their industry; but events have 
forced upon them a conviction that the injus- 
tice which they have heretofore suffered is like- 
ly to be prolonged if not perpetuated by the pas- 
sage of the bill now before the Senate of the 
United States. 

They deem it best, therefore, to frankly ad- 
vise Congress that if it is found impossible to 
afford the producers of wool no better encour- 

agement than is offered in the present bill, 
those who pursue this industry will be com- 
pelled to determine each for himself whether to 
continue a fruitless struggle that has entailed 
constant loss and disappointment, or surrender 
to the inevitable, and abandon their business, 
relying upon the hope that the loss to the na- 
tion, resulting from the destruotion of their in- 
dustry, may soon lead to an economical policy 
sufficiently comprehensive and just to restore it. 

C. Delano, 
Pres. Nat. Wool-Growers' Ass'n. 

Dairy Progress in Oregon. 

At the Farmers' Institute held in Salem, 
Oregon, January 4th, there was an address by 
W. W. Baker of Portland, from which we take 
the following relating to the progress of the 
dairy in our sister State: 

A little less than four years ago the butter 
industry of this State was so depressed by the 
large importations of imitation butter that to 
talk to any one about the advantages of the 
dairy industry was but to insult him. Batter 
was selling in the market at 10 to 20 cents per 
pound, and on April 1, 1885, it was estimated 
that there were from 40 to 50 tons in the city 
of Portland alone that could not be sold at even 
the price named. 

The Oregon State-Dairy law went into effect 
at that time. By a vigorous enforcement of the 
law, the arrest and conviction of unprincipled 
dealers, the gang were glad to throw up their 
hands. They quit dealing in the article, and in 
less than six months butter had advanced to 20 
and 30 cents. 

It is estimated that each inhabitant consumes 
26 pounds of butter per annum. Supposing 
that Oregon, including transient travel, has a 
population of 300,000 people, and that half that 
number bought their butter, they would pay 
the butter-makers for 3.900,000 pounds. This, 
at 15 cents per pound — the average price when 
the Oregon Dtiry law went into effect — would 
amount to $585,000; at 25 cents, the price since 
the advance, they will pay $975,000, or a dif- 
ference of $390,000. 

This is not all, and I always regret to stand 
as a lone witness when there is other proof at 
hand. In the fall of 18S6, desiring to present 
valuable facts in my report to the Governor 
relative to the working of the dairy law, I had 
the following correspondence with business 
gentlemen in Portland: 

Portland, Or.. Dec. 31, 1886. 
Henry Everding, Rsq.: — I am aware that your 
dealings in dairy products are sufficient to enable 
you to form very correct ideas as to the present 
standard of Oregon dairy products. I would there- 
fore be pleased if you would state in writing your 
opinion regarding the Oregon dairy products now 
as compared with 2t months ago, or in other words 
before the Oregon State dairy law went into effect. 
1 would also esteem it a favor if you would give 
your opinion as to the influence of the Oregon dairy 

Mr. Everding replied as follows: 

Dear Sir: In reply to your favor of the 31st ult., 
I am pleased to say that I believe that our Oregon 
butter has improved in its quality at least 40 per 
cent during the last 21 months, or since the Oregon 
State dairy law went into effect. The banishment 
from our State of oleomargarine and butterine made 
a market for the cheaper Oregon butter particularly. 
The law has had the effect to stimulate the Oregon 
dairymen, for in the law they believe they have a 

Then again I am satisfied that if there had been 
no law regarding imitation butter there would not 
now be a creamery in the State. There are some 
six of these, and, as a consequence, we are being 
supplied with good butter, to the exclusion of butter 
heretofore imported from other States. Yours truly, 

Henry Everding, 
Commission Merchant, 47 Kront St., Portland, Or. 

I called on Messrs. E. Larsen & Co., com- 
mission merchants, corner of Washington and 
Front streets, who are large dealers in Oregon 
dairy products, and showed them a copy of the 
letter written to Mr. Henry Everding, as well as 
that gentleman's reply. Mr. Larsen wrote: 

1 indorse all said in Mr. Everding's letter, except 
I say that, in my judgment, the improvement has 
been from 35 to 40 per cent. Yours truly, 

E. Larsen & Co. 

Then there were six creameries within our 
borders; now there are some 16, and new ones 
are going into operation every little while. The 
great success of the imitation butter traffic has, 
it is believed, induced manufacturers and deal- 
ers in other foods to so adulterate them that it 
is now believed the State dairy laws have all 
had their day, and that we must meet the food 
adulterators by enacting laws which will cover 
the whole ground. In this connection I am 
pleased to note the fact that there will be a bill 
introduced in the coining Legislature to regulate 
the manufacturing, offering or selling of adul- 
terated foods. Should such a law be enacted 
and properly enforced, it will be worth more 
than a million of dollars annually to the pro- 
ducers of this State. 

Assuming that we have the very best climate 
and soil, and that our people will have the 
cows, and withal the intelligence and energy 
to make the North Pacific a land where no wolf 
will ever be seen at the door, may we not rea- 
sonably expect this will become a large export- 
ing State in plaoe of an importing one as now ? 

The Truth About "Johnson Grass." 

Editors Press : — I am a new arrival upon 
this coast and have read a great many glowing 
" reports " in certain prominent seedsmen's 
catalogues regarding the virtues of evergreen 
millet for a dry soil. These reports claim it 
as a very valuable forage plant, and add that 
a fine quality of hay is produced if out while 
green and tender. 

In contradiction to these statements comes 
the sorrowful cry of one from Fresno in your 
issue of December 15, 1888, asking bow to 
kill "Johnson grass," asserting that it is a 
worthless pest. Now I would really like to 
know the truth about the matter. 

1. Is evergreen millet valuable for hay and 
grazing for cattle? 

2. Does it become worthless after a few 
years ? 

3 Will it really stand the average summers 
of such ooast counties as Mendocino and Hum- 
boldt ? 

4. Providing that the land is never re- 
quired for any other purpose, would it pay to 
plant upon average corn land ? Some of your 
rural readers are doubtless perfectly compe- 
tent to answer the above queries from their 
own personal experiences, and in so doing will 
greatly benefit this section of Mendocino. 

For the benefit of others, let me state my 
case. When I located here I found that the 
wool craze of a few years ago had ruined this 
section by overstocking with sheep. All the 
natural grasses had been eaten out and killed 
off by close feeding. Never giving anything 
eatable a chance to seed itself, the consequence 
is that a growth of worthless vegetation is the 
final result, as nature protests against going 
bareheaded. Camphor- weed, tar-weed, etc, 
have almost taken possession, and what we 
earnestly desire is to find out some robust 
perennial plant that will clean out all useless 
weeds — one that, once planted, will hold its 
own against all weeds, and at the same time 
withstand California's dry summers. This 
much, and more, is claimed for "Johnson 
grass," but before going to the expense of 
planting, I would like to learn from others. 

I have heard of an Italian clover, said to be 
grown for trial in San Luis Obispo county, a 
perennial with a taproot like alfalfa and to 
withstand drouth. Can any one give me any 
information regarding such a valuable plant? 
Where can the seed be obtained » 

T. H. Bcrooyne. 

Cummingx, Mendocino Co. 

(5he Vineyard- 

Experience in Grape-Grafting. 

Eli F. Sheppard of the Madrone vineyards 
writes for the Bulletin an account of his expe- 
rience in grape-grafting, which is a subject 
widely occupying the attention of grape-grow- 
ers at the present time. We quote as follows: 

I wish to answer the numerous inquiries ad- 
dressed to me by vine-growerB indifferent parts 
of the State, regarding a method of graiting 
European vines upon American resistant 
stocks, whioh has been attended with success 
at the Madrone vineyards since 1885. 

Until quite recently there has existed a popu- 
lar distrust, if not a downright prejudice, 
against grafting vineyards on resistant stocks; 
first, because of the great labor and expense 
which the operation was believed to entail; 
secondly, on account of the added time sup- 
posed to be necessary to bring grafted vineyards 
into productive bearing; and thirdly, because 
of the accredited uncertainty generally of its 
success — the popular idea being, that the vine 
does not graft with the same certainty and ease 
as the apple, pear and other fruit trees. 

After repeated practical experiments, extend- 
ing over a series of years, and attended with 
uniform success, I feel warranted in saying that 
the planting of American resistant vines and 
grafting the same with European varieties is 
neither a very expensive operation, nor is it 
necessarily attended with any more uncertainty 
than the grafting of common fruit trees. 

Like everything else, success in this matter 
is largely dependent, no doubt, up >n the 
amount of care and skill bestowed in the per- 
formance of the work, and there is no reason to 
believe that like satisfactory results in graf tine 
the vine may not be obtained by other methods 
than the one employed by myself; but as the 
method which I have pursued has proven uni- 
formly successful, while other attempts have, 
in some instances at least, failed to give good 
results, it will scarcely be deemed presumption 
on my part to offer it as so much positive knowl- 
edge gained — knowledge of a subject of un- 
doubted interest and importance to every 
California vineyardist. 

Experience in France and in this country 
sufficiently demonstrates that all the native 
varieties of American vines, with the exception 
of the Scuppernony, successfully bear the vin- 
ifera; but up to the present, owing to the want 
of experimental knowledge of the subject,_ no 
particular process or method of grafting vines 
has been generally accepted as the best. 

Experience has, however, shown that the 
really serious obstacle to successfully grafting 
vines, particularly on stocks of small diameter, 
arises from the difficulty of sufficiently ex- 
cluding the air from the joint of the graft and 
in finding a suitable, convenient and easily 

applied ligature for holding the graft securely 
in place while the union is being formed. 

Numerous devices for the attainment of these 
objeota have been recommended and tried with 
greater or less success. The most common 
method is the use of small pieces of hemp or 
cotton string, or cord of Raphia; but it is found 
that while these are about the best in general 
use, the material is liable to rot in wet seasons 
before a union has formed, and in dry seasons it 
has to be loosened once or twice, and finally 
cut away just as soon as the graft starts its 
growth, which is both tedious and expensive. 
Different kinds of wire have also been employed 
for the same purpose; but it possesses no 
elasticity whatever, is exceedingly difficult of 
application, and is always liable to strangle the 
young graft. 

One of the cleverest devices perhaps is that of 
Mr. Corny, which consists of a flat elastic rub- 
ber band. It has been found, however, that a 
rubber band is too elastic to hold the graft 
securely, and as it will not rot it has to be out 
away, which is both laborious and expensive; 
but none of the devices have proven entirely 
satisfactory, for the reason, mainly, that tbey 
are all more or less inconvenient and imprac- 
ticable, and none of them are designed to suffi- 
ciently exclude the air from the joint during tna 
time of union of the graft with the stock. 

And just here another obstacle presents 
itself. It is well understood that the applica- 
tion of an absolutely impervious mastic or graft- 
ing wax to the joint of the graft is impractica- 
ble for the reason that it is liable to induoe fer- 
mentation of the redundant sap, which cauBes a 
fatal rot of the roots of the vine. 

The exclusion of the air from the joint must, 
therefore, be accomplished, if at all, by some 
method or agency which will absorb or permit 
the escape of the surplus sap from the stock. 
For this purpose the application of soft, porous 
clay has been used with satisfactory results in 
France and with varying success in California. 
Bat the labor of applying it and its constant 
tendency to crack and fall off in dry seasons 
renders its use too precarious for general adop- 

About five years ago, while conducting a 
series of experiments in grafting vines by the 
several methods above described, I conceived 
the idea of a modified, or partly waxed cotton 
bandage for tying the graft, the idea being to 
make it sufficiently impervious to the air, so ad- 
justed as not to bring the wax in direct con- 
tact with the graft joint and which would al- 
low the superfluous Bap to escape. 

My first experiments with these bandages 
were attended with the most gratifying results. 
Out of some 300 Semillon grafts on Lenoir stock, 
treated in this way, all except eight grew and 
flourished vigorously, while fully 12 per cent of 
the same varieties grafted in the ordinary way 
but otherwise equally well cared for and sur- 
rounded by like conditions, failed to unite and 
died outright. When I came to examine them 
later in the season, I discovered, what I have 
ever since observed — -that the grafts with wax 
bandages had uniformly made a perceptibly 
smoother and more perfect union with the native 
stock than those by other methods. 

Another equally gratifying result from the 
use of the waxed bandage is that it does not re- 
quire to be loosened, as it has proved sufficient- 
ly expansive to permit the natural growth of 
the vine without strangling the grape or de- 
forming the joint. Subsequent experience has 
demonstrated to my entire satisfaction that, if 
properly prepared and applied, the bandage 
does not require to be cut away, but rots off in 
due time, leaving a clean, healthy union with- 
out further inWference or labor, after it is 
once put on. Last, but not least, it does not 
require to be tied when it is put on, an immense 
saving in labor. It only remains for me to add 
that in all my subsequent experience in graft- 
ing vines I have met with uniform success in 
the use of the waxed bandage. The following 
is the formula for preparing the same: Take 
old soft muslin — the coarser the better — cut it 
across the grain into narrow slips half an inch 
wide and eight inches in length; arrange the 
slips in bundles of 100 each, for convenience in 
applying the wax; melt, in a shallow iron pan, a 
pound each of beef tallow and beeswax, add 
four ounces of resin; heat the whole to the 
boiling point. Then take the bundle of pre- 
pared muslin slips and dip one-half its length 
only into the boiling liquid, take it out quickly 
and hang up in a cool place till the wax hardens; 
and the bandages are ready for use. The band- 
age so prepared is applied as follows: After 
carefully inserting the graft in the cleft, begin 
a little below the joint and wrap the dry or un- 
waxed end of the bandage closely and firmly 
three or four times, spirally upward around the 
cleft, completely covering it; when the waxed 
portion of the bandage is reached, draw it tight- 
ly around, going spirally downward and over 
the now covered cleft joint until the whole is 
completely inclosed, air-tight, with the waxed 
cloth. Press the bandaged joint gently be- 
tween the thumb and forefinger to close up any 
exposed points, and carefully cover up the graft 
to the terminal bud with dry, fresh earth. 

Any workman with ordinary skill and intelli- 
gence, after mastering the theory of grafting, 
may be safely intrusted with the work, pro- 
vided he exercises a proper amount of care. A 
careless man should never be intrusted with 
grafting vines under any circumstances. As a 
rule, I have found that green, inexperienced 
men, who were willing to receive instruction 
from me, succeed better than those — and there 
are plenty such — who think they " know more 
than the boss." 

Jan 19, 18fc9.~| 

f ACIFI6 I^URAId press. 


(5he JjujviberjvIan. 

Our Lumber Interests. 

The past year has afforded to the lumber-mills 
on the Pacific Coast the longest and most prof- 
itable season they have enjoyed for many 
years. Quite recently, however, the prices of 
lumber have fallen to a very, low figure, but 
even this has not worked any special hardship 
to the lumbermen, for the reason that it has 
greatly increased building enterprises and 
turned hundreds of young men in the direction 
of home-getting. Every family should have a 
home of its own. The whole State prospers 
from any condition of things that tends in that 

Sawmill men report that notwithstanding 
the fact that they manufactured a large 
amount of fencing lumber this season, they 
have not now on hand a sufficient quantity to 
supply the demands, and in several instances 
the mills have not had a foot on hand. Thus, 
notwithstanding two dry seasons, our farmers 
have apparently enough money on hand to im- 
prove their ranches by fencing them and build- 
ing houses where none existed before. 

The San Bernardino Index speaks of the 
immense amount of lumber that is being 
hauled into that town from the neighboring 
mountains, and determined to ascertain just 
how many mills were running, and about how 
many thousand feet have been cut this season. 
It was ascertained that there were eight mills 
in operation, and that their total output would 
aggregate 7,410,000 feet. 

High up in the Sierras the mills are obliged 
to close down in the winter. Advices from 
Carson of Deo. 5th state that all the sawmills, 
railroads, flumes, wood and logging camps 
around Like Tahoe have closed down for the 
season. All the men employed around the 
lakes have left for Carson, Truckee, Sacramento 
and San Francisco, where they will remain 
until wo'k opens np again in the spring. The 
Carson & Tahoe Lake Co. sawed 25.600,000 
feet of lumber in their two mills during the 
season, and cut 28,300 cords of wood, which 
has been flumed to Carson during the summer 

Puget Sound advices of Dec. 22d say that all 
the sawmills on the Sound, except the local 
mills, have shut down and will remain closed 
till Jan. 2d. The object is to make a "clean- 
up " for the year, take account of logs on hand, 
make estimates of the future supply of logs, 
and in a general way to make preparations for 
work next year. The past season has been 
prosperous, and the outlook is good. 

Reports from Tulare and Fresno counties say 
that the lumbermen of that vicinity have had a 
prosperous season, and immense quantities of 
timber land have been bought and taken up the 
past season with a view to active operations in 
the early future. The mills belonging to the 
Madera Flume & Trading Co. were cloBed 
down about the last of November. Some idea 
of the immense amount of business transacted 
by the company can be gleaned from the fact 
that over 14,500,000 feet of lumber have been 
turned out bv 't during the season. The Soquel 
mill sawed 7 500,000 feet and the California 
mills 7,500,000 feet. Most of this lumber has 
been floated down the flume to Madera. 

Numerous capitalists, says the Yreka Jour- 
nal, are taking up timber land along the Klam- 
ath river in the Happy Camp section, in the 
southern part of Siskiyou county, with the 
intention of floating the timber down to the 
coast line, where it can be cut up and shipped 
by ocean to San Francisco and other sea- 

Redwood lumber is being shipped to Europe 
in considerable quantities. The ship India 
recently took a full cargo of redwood lumber 
for the United Kingdom. A few year:, ago 
peveral cargoes of this kind were sent to 
Europe. The last previous cargo was cleared 
January 24 1887, by the Remittent, which 
carried 336,436 feet. The India carries a much 
larger cargo. Considerable business will no 
doubt, ere long, be developed in shipping Cali- 
fornia redwood to Europe. Large quantities 
have been sent to domestic Atlantic markets 
both by sea and overland, and with satisfactory 
results. Even the stumps of redwood trees 
have been turned to profitable account. The 
wood is susceptible of fine finish, and the grain 
and coloring make a pleasing effect. Recently 
(October 19th) the Norwegian bark Orion left 
Puget Sound for London with 456,452 feet 
lumber. This is the first cargo of the kind to 
clear from the Sound for Earope in some time. 

The Humboldt Mail says : The Pacific Lum- 
ber Company is building a large pond, or 
reservoir, for holding logs about two miles 
above the mill. It will cover 12 acres, 
and will hold an enormous amount of tim- 

A large shingle mill at Trinidad, Col., has 
been started to fill contracts for supplying sev- 
eral million shingles to San Francisco. 

Over 500 000 feet of logs were recently tied 
np at Seattle by suits to foreclose loggers' liens. 
There were only twn suits, and the amount 
claimed was only $129 

As an instance of quick work the Antioch 
Ledger says: The schooner Jewel recently dis- 
charged a cargo at the lumber company's wharf 
in time that broke the record of all former 
work in that line. Her cargo of 208,000 feet of 
lumber was discharged in 19 hours. 

No more log rafts are to be permitted to go 

out from the Canadian seaboard forests. A 
fairly prohibitory duty has been placed on such 
enterprises at the instance of the owners of sail- 
ing vessels. This is parallel to smashing up 
machinery because it reduces prices and calls 
for less labor. 

The timber-raft business has found its way 
into Europe. It is stated that a timber raft 
700 feet long, 170 wide, carrying 170 m°n and 
worth $60,000, recently went down the Rhine; 
but it was nearly wrecked when passing the 
famous curve of the L^reiei. 



Apricot Scale, Codlin Moth and Plum 

[The following is the concluding portion of the essay 
read at the Cliico Fruit-Growers' Convention by State 
Inspector W. O. Klee, of which the opening part was 
given in last week's Rural. 1 

Brown Apricot Scale. 
Another insect which has forced itself to the 
attention of fruit-growers in certain counties is 
a large brown soft scale, a yet unnamed species 
of Lecanium, which I prefer to call popularly 
the " brown apricot scale," because it is one of 
the few scales troubling this tree. It, however, 
also infests many other kinds of trees, espe- 
cially prunes, peaches and pears. The young 
appear from the eggs in May or June, and scat- 
ter all over the trees, settling on the leaves, 
which become viscid and soon covered with 
black smut. The whole tree suffers severely by 
the pores being clogged up, resulting in small 
and inferior fruit. So small and transparent 
are the young scale that they are hardly per- 
ceptible on the leaves, except through a magni- 
fying glass. They gradually increase in size, 
however, but not very materially before the 
following spring, when with the rise of the sap 
their growth is enormous, their soft, sticky 
bodies covering the branches completely, often 
measuring one-fifth of an inch in length. When 
detached from the branches the numerous white 
oval eggs are seen surrounded with a white, 
mealy powder. The young hatch in compara- 
tively short time, and there is only one brood 
in the season, other statements to the contrary . 
This insect has spread rapidly in the prune dis- 
tricts of Santa Clara, and I have also seen it in 
Alameda county. Although much less danger- 
ous than the pernicious scale (San Jose scale — 
Eds. Press), it is very troublesome to extermi- 
nate and its appearance in an orchard should 
cause thorough measures to be taken. This 
scale is evidently a native of the State, having 
been found on oak trees, from which it spread 
and has proved itself even adapted to our fruit 

This scale is hard to kill when most conspic- 
uous in the Bpring. It is then best protected 
and the tree too tender to use strong remedies. 
It must be fought either before or after this. 
In the winter it can be killed with remedies 
half the strength of what is necessary to kill 
the San Jote scale. A solution can be used as 
follows : \ pound of potash, \ pound of soda 
lye to 4 gallons of water, to which .} pound 
whale-oil soap is added to each gallon or the so 
lution. A strong solution of whale-oil soap (J 
pound to the gallon of water) will also suffice, 
but most thorough work is necessary. 

Used early in the season, immediately after 
the fruit has been harvested, the following sum 
mer wash, previously recommended, is of good 
service: \\ pounds of sulphur, 1 pound of 
American concentrated lye or four-fifths of a 
pound of powdered caustic soda, 12 pounds of 
best whale-oil soap (80 per cent), 55 gallons of 
water. Dissolve the lye in one gallon of water, 
boil the sulphur until dissolved; dissolve the 
soap in water; mix the two and boil them a 
short time; use at 130° F. (in vessel.) 

The Codlin Moth. 
The past season, unlike the previous one, 
proved exceedingly favorable to the propaga- 
tion of this pest, and more wormy fruit appears 
this year than perhaps in any other previous one. 
The remedies for the moth have also proved 
less eff ctive, and in many instances spraying 
with arsenites proves altogether ineffective. 
In most cases, except with early fruit, only one 
spraying has done no good whatever. The rea- 
son of this is obviously due to the wet weather 
in the early part of the summer which removed 
the arsenic and left the fruit unprotected. 
When two sprayings have been made, especial- 
ly after the rains, the good effect has been 

In my own experience in Santa Cruz mount- 
ains I found that all early apples, and also Bell- 
flowers, were pretty free, from five to ten 
per cent of the latter only being affeoted. The 
damage done tr» the trees by spraying (strength 
1 pound to 180 gallons) was again, as last year, 
quite severe, and the same circumstance pre- 
sented itself as last year, that trees in position 
to dry out quickly (after damp nights) suffered 
bat very little, showing conclusively that the 
damage was due to the arsenic being leached 
out by the moisture during the night. My 
statement made last year that the strength of 
solution endured by different varieties varies 
considerably, is again supported by experience 
elsewhere, particularly in the case of Bell- 
flowers. This may perhaps be solely due to 
their dense foliage. 

While the Bellflower with me was pretty 
clean, it was not the case with Esopus Spitzen- 
burg, which proves itself very badly infested. 
As these two apples, Bellflower and Spitzen- 

burg, were harvested but a short time apart, 
and were almost of the same degree of ripeness, 
the difference must be sought in other causes. 
The reason in this ca«e was evidently that in 
the Spitzenburg and Yellow Newtown pippin 
also, but especially the first, there was a dis- 
tinct second blooming some three weeks after 
the first, which did not receive any spraying, 
as there was only one spraying given. These 
blossoms, which were small and inconspicuous, 
the moth evidently made the most of, and the 
apples were so badly affected that they never 
reached any size, and although many were 
picked off, a great many fell between the vines 
growing among the trees and were lost sight of. 
This Droves conclusively the necessity of pick- 
ing off such secondary bloom. 

In this connection I will call attention to the 
importance in all early fruit regions, such as 
Sacramento river, to not allow a second crop 
to develop. By growing early varieties, and 
observing this closely, it has been the experi- 
ence of such men as Mr. S. Runyon that the 
codlin moth will do comparatively little dam- 

But while my own experience has not been 
as encouraging as it might be, other people, 
partly following my advice, have succeeded very 
well. Mr. W. W. Brier of Centerville. Ala- 
meda county, used London purple. He re- 
ports his early apples, such as Astrachan and 
Alexander, free from worms. Fall apples, 
when sprayed only once, were badly infested, 
as well as winter apples, when only one treat- 
ment was given. But when two treatments 
were given, the last in the beginnine of July 
(using a strength of 1 pound to 225 gallons), 
the improvement was great, resulting in havintr 
at least 50% of clean apples, against only 10% 
when not treated. Whether we can safely rec- 
ommend so late a spraying may be doubtful, 
yet when the apple has several months to grow 
in, the danger of poisoning from eating it is in- 
finitesimal, especially as it has been proved 
that the arsenic is gradually leached out of the 

In Coloma, El Dorado county, a widely dif- 
ferent section and climate from Alameda coun- 
ty, and where dry nights prevail, it seems that 
one spraying accomplished as much as two with 
Mr. Brier, probably owing to the absence of 
rain and dew. Under date of Oct. 15th, Mr. 
A. J. Mahler writes: " We have used the 
mixture of Paris green, 1 pound to 160 gallons 
of water, for codlin moth; we pave the trees 
only one spraying in April (the 18th), and the 
result is that we have saved at least 50% of the 
apples treated. The apples that have been 
treated are large and of excellent color; the 
trees show no damage from the poison." 

Mr. C. 1. Settle of San Jose has obtained the 
best results of any one, although surrounded 
with badly ir>fe=ted orchards. He has succeed- 
ed in saving 75% of a very large crop of late ap- 
Dies — Yellow Newtown pippin and W. W. 
Pearmain, but it was done with no less than 
four sprayings with Paris green. The foliage 
was but little damaged when I saw them in 
August last. In answer to a letter addressed 
to Mr. Settle on this point, he writes, under 
date of Nov. 13: " I washed my apples four 
times with Paris green, usiDg 10 ounces of the 
latter to 100 gallons of water, commencing 
when the apples were very small and washing 
about every 25 days, and saved 75% of the ap- 
ples that were on the trees at picking-time. I 
also used bands, removing these every eight to 
ten days." 

Knots on Roots of Fruit Trees. 

Last month my attention was called to the 
condition of a large number of plum trees in a 
young orchard near Mountain View. Subse- 
quently I visited the place and found that 
something like one-quarter of the trees were af- 
fected with knots on the roots. These knots 
were found below ground on the junction with 
the stock or on the Myrobolan root itself, on 
whioh root all of the trees were growing. All 
of the trees affected in this manner are sensibly 
smaller than those that are free. That these 
knots are the result of fungoid growth allied to 
the black knot I am quite confident, and the 
probability is that the disease is being propagated 
on the cuttings which produced the tree, which 
served as stock, the mother tree doubtless be- 
ing affeoted. This ib an additional argument 
against using cuttings of the Myrobolan stock, 
another being that the root system formed by 
tbem is often defective. 

Similar excrescences are found on peach and 
pear root and have been sent me from different 
parts of the State. Young trees affected by 
them should be avoided, as under certain condi- 
tions they will result in the death of the trees. 
Such knots should, however, not be confounded 
with those sometimes produced by the tying 
material of a bud or graft being left in by aoci- 
dent. For trees affected by these knots I have 
recommended the complete removal, if possible, 
by cutting close into their point of attachment. 
If this is not possible without seriously injuring 
the roots, the tree had better be destroyed. 
When the knots have been removed the outs 
should be washed over with a strong solution of 
bluestone, or better still, the following mixture 
put on it: 2 pounds of resin, 1 pound of bees- 
wax, 1 pint of spirits of turpentine, J ounce 
of carbolic acid. Melt the resin and beeswax 
by heat; when dissolved, add the turpentine 
and aoid, the latter having been previously dis- 
solved in a little alcohol or hot water. 

The Fresno Expotitor save the raisin ship- 
ments in 1888 were over o32 carloads, a total 
of 10,653,270 pounds. 

JT[he X rr| gator. 

Irrigation in Inyo. 

We take the following extracts from an ar- 
ticle written for the Chronicle'* annual review, 
among which is the following on 

" For the reclamation of probably the best 
watered 1 desert ' in or about the great basin we 
have :" 

Ditch. Mi'es. Inches w'tr. Acres. 

Urper Bishop cre^t- . .15 10000 20,000 

Bishop creel* 14 4,000 10,000 

R-iwson & Ford — 4,000 8.000 

Big Pine — 4.000 8,r-oo 

Sanger . 9 2,000 4000 

East Side canal 22 15000 30,000 

West Side canal 40 25 o _ o 45,000 

Stevens' ditch 11 4.500 7,000 

Pihol'j ditch 3 250 300 

*' Water now flowing in 15 miles of the 
East Side canal will this year transform a wide 
strip of sagebrush along the railroad into beau- 
tiful viueyards. Most of the foregoing are 
under construction, except the West Side canal, 
projected by ex-County Surveyor Seely. The 
Irrigation District organized under the Wright 
law for this enterprise has failed, and it yet 
offers a big show for private capital. Two 
schemes for the settlement of Eastern and 
foreign colonists are well under way. By 
no means has all the land been taken, and 20 
sections or more will revert to the public do- 
main this summer through failure of specu- 
lators to reclaim desert locations. Doubtless 
all the water is appropriated, but the unevap- 
orated part will ultimately find its way back to 
the river channel and stay for a time the drying 
up of Kig Owens lake. At the northern end, stor- 
age of water has been undertaken. All along the 
Sierras are natural sites for reservoirs and per- 
ennial streams affording infinite scope for 
Major Powell's surveys. Local land-owners 
have lacked the nerve to test the artesian prop- 
osition. Such experiment and the demonstrat- 
ed fact that low spongy lands will produce 
crops without irrigation may yet materially fig- 
ure in the aggregate." 

The Register remarks on the above that the list 
of irrigating propositions under way or finished 
is not complete. To it add, for this section: 
The MoNally ditch; the Hillside Water Com- 
pany's enterprise; the Owens river canal; the 
Russell ditch. AH are canals of some conse- 
quence. The McNally ditch has practically 
made the valley east of the river in this north- 
ern section; the Owens river canal will do for 
sandy lands west of town what the Bishop 
creek ditch has done for the region east of us; 
and the H llside Company will convert the foot- 
hill lands to the west into vine-clad slope and 
productive " forties." 

Irrigation Meeting at Tracy. 

The meeting to take final aotion on the pre- 
liminary steps to organize an irrigation district 
on the west side of the San Joaquin rivar, under 
the provisions of the Wright Irrigation law, 
took place at Tracy Jan. 5tb, of which the Tur- 
lock Pioneer gives the following report: The 
meeting was an enthusiastic one and the entire 
proposed district was fully represented. At 
the meeting held at Newman on Nov. 24th a 
tax of five cents per acre was levied on all land 
in the district, and the committee report that 
all but two readily paid the tax, whioh supplies 
ample means to carry on the preliminary work. 

The route known as the Tulare grade line, in- 
cluding all the land on the west side of the San 
Joaquin valley, was unanimously adopted and 
a committee of five appointed to carry on the 
organization work with full power to act on all 
questions arising. The proposed district will 
include 310,000 acres of land. The following 
resolution was adopted: 

Whereas, The great central valleys of Califor- 
nia are 10 a great extent dependent on irrigation to 
bring out their full productiveness and to a great 
extent are comparatively valueless without irrigation; 

Whereas, There is an abundance of water for all 
if properly handled, but which now runs unappro- 
priated to the sea, and which by the proper expendi- 
ture of a few millions of dollars could be stored in the 
mountains for use when wanted; and 

Whereas, California has furnished hundreds of 
millions of gold to the United States Government at 
a time when it was much in need of gold; and 

Whereas, It is stated that there is a large sur- 
plus in the United States Treasury unappropriated 
which should he distributed among the people by 
making improvements for their benefit; now, there- 
fore, be it 

Resolved, By the people of the West Side Irriga- 
tion District, in convention assembled, that our rep- 
resentatives in Congress be requested to use all honor- 
able means to secure an appropriation sufficient to 
thoroughly examine the Sierra Nevada mountains 
and the streams thereof, with a view to ascertaining 
the feasibility of storing the water and the probable 
cost of the work. 

The secretary was ordered to send copies to 
the Senators and Congressmen. 

Oranges from Colcsa Co — We have re- 
ceived from N. K. Spect & Co. of Orland a 
cluster of four clean, handsome seedling oranges, 
which, when subjected to the final test, showed 
rind of moderate thickness, and proved juicy, 
well-flavored and fairly sweet. 



[Jan. 19, 1889 


Correspondence on Orange principles and work and re- 
ports of transactions of subordinate Granites are respect- 
fully solicited for this department. 

Greater Inducements for Subscriptions. 


Annual Subscrip'ion R 00 

If paid in advance, la months for 3 W 

If paid in advance, 10 mouths for 2 00 

If paid in advance, 5 months for 1 00 

Trial club of ten or more, 3 months, paid in ad- 
vance, each 60 cents. _ ... 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 

Jan. 15, 1889. bo. -20 Market St., S. F. 

Official Endorsement. 

In consideration of a certain contract en- 
tered into this day between Dewey & Co., pub- 
lishers, and the California Patron Publishing 
Company of San Francisco for the publication 
of a weekly Grange edition of the Pacific Rural 
Press and the California Patron, as a monthly 
resolved that the Executive Committee of the 
State Grange of California hereby designate and 
endorse the Pacific Rural Press as the weekly 
organ and the California Patron as the monthly 
organ of the State Grange of California. 

W. L. Overhiser, 
Master of State Grange of Cal. 

A. T. Dewey, Sec'y S. G. of Cal. 
San Francisco, Cal., Jar,. 11, 1889. 

The Good Time at Haywards. 

Messrs. Editors :— The joint installa- 
tion of the officers of Eden and" Temescal 
Granges occurred at Haywards on Saturday, 
Jan. 12th, and was one of the most enjoy- 
able meetings it has been our good fortune 
to attend. At an early hour members of 
Temescal Grange might have been seen 
wending their way to the station, there to 
wait with scant patience for the train which 
was to convey them to the " land of promise " 
(i. e., Haywards). On arriving, we found 
that we were quite a numerous company, 
and only for the thoughtful ness of Bro. Den- 
nis, who was waiting with a two-seated con- 
veyance, the "bus" would hardly have had 
capacity for carrying all at one trip. 

At the hall, or rather church, where Eden 
Grange has her home, were found the busy 
sisters on hospitable works intent, as was 
shown later when the bounteous feast was 
served. All other business was deferred and 
installation of officers proceeded with; the 
Worthy Master ot the S. G., Bro. Overhiser, 
acting as installing officer, ably assisted by 
Bro. Flint, State Lecturer, and Bro. Dewey, 
State Secretary. All the officers made neat 
little speeches expressing their love for the 
( )rder and its work, and promising zeal in 
the fulflllment of the duties of the office to 
which they were severally elected. 

I said all the ollicers made speeches, but 
I should have excepted the " twin Secre- 
taries," as Bro. Dewey styles them, who, 
being pretty well down the line, had time to 
think of many fine things to say, but had 
the wind all taken out of their sails when 
Bro. Flint, in behalf of some unnamed 
friends, presented them each with a beauti- 
ful Fifth- Degree pin. Though unable to 
say but little more than "thank you," it 
was not because they did not appreciate the 
kind feeling that prompted the gift, and it 
will always be cherished as a treasure and 
will remind them ever of their duty. 

There were tears in many eyes when dear 
" Grandma Brooks" was installed Ceres of 
Temescal Grange. The remarks of Bro. 
Overhiser were very touching, and her re- 
ply full of love for her Grange home and 
friends. Bro. Overhiser said one reason he 
was anxious for the National Grange to 
come to California was that Grandma 
Brooks might take the last and highest step 
in our Order, the Seventh Degree. 

After the installation was through with, 
W. M., Blackwood declared a recess till 2 
p. m .. and we were invited to partake of the 
collation so lavishly spread on tables that 
were almost groaning under the weight of 
baked beans and brownbread, chicken pie, 
cold meats in variety, salad, biscuits, and 
beautiful golden butter, cheese, pickles, 
jelly, pastry of various kinds, cakes too 
numerous to mention; oranges and French 
candy, tea and coffee, with real milk and 
cream — in fact it was the real Grangers' 
Harvest Feast, and much credit is due the 
sisters for the excellence of everything. 

After all had been well supplied, we were 
called to order, and speeches from those who 
would favor us, interspersed with vocal and 
instrumental music from the young sisters 
of Eden Grange, a recitation from Jessie 
Weed of Temescal Grange, made the 

time fly so fast that it did not seem possible 
that 4 p. M. had come. 

Among those who spoke were Bro. J. V. 
Webster, Past State Master, Bro. McCon- 
nell, M. of Elk Grove Grange, Sister Rus- 
sell of Eden Grange, Bro. Flint, State 
Lecturer, Sister Chatterton of White Oak 
Grange, Me., who rather startled some with 
her statement of the operation of the pro- 
hibition law in that State. 

Bro. Dennis of Eden kept up his reputa- 
tion of orator of Eden by a forcible speech 
in reply to the last sister. Bro. Chester, 
Past State Secretary, on being called upon, 
responded briefly. Sister Hollister (formerly 
of Wheatland, but now of Eden Grange) 
also made a few remarks. Sister Smith of 
Yuba City Grange expressed her pleasure 
at being present and her enjoyment of the 

Bro. Dewey, State Secretary, paid a high 
compliment to the members of Eden Grange 
for their hospitality, and stated that the 
affairs of the California Patron had been 
settled by the company making the Rural 
Press the weekly organ of the Order 
and providing tor the Patron to be pub- 
lished monthly. Bro. Dewey invoked the 
aid of all members of the Order in sus- 
taining the paper. 

The Chaplain of the State Grange was 
Goodenoueh to favor us with a very inter 
esting though necessarily short speech owing 
to the lateness of the hour. 

Following is the literary program as ren 
dered : Opening chorus by the young 
ladies of the Grange, " Behold the Song;" 
recitation, Jessie Weed, " The Water-Mill;" 
"The Song that Reached My Heart," Miss 
A. Obermiller; duet, Misses Dennis and 

We were sorry the time had come to say 
good by, but "time waits for no man," 
neither does the train, and wishing for a 
speedy return of this most happy day, we 
returned to our several homes feeling that 
it was a day to be marked with a " white 
stone," and had been profitably spent. I 
wish all the farmers who are not Grangers 
could have been with us and have been 
made to feel the necessity of their orgauiz 
ing and the benefit that would accrue to 
them if they would join the Grange. There 
is such an immense extent of country to be 
made into farms, and it would be so much 
more desirable if there was a Grange in 
each town. Can we not each exert our- 
selves to revive dormant Granges and or- 
ganize new ones ? Let us each do all we 
can in this matter, and if the National 
Grange comes here it will finish the work. 

N. G. B. 

The Sacramento Joint Installation. 

Messrs. Editors : — Sacramento County 
Pomona Grange united with Sacramento 
Grange, No. 12, last Saturday to install the 
officers for the year 1889. An inviting din 
ner was spread at noontide, after which the 
officers were installed by Bro. Win. John- 
ston, assisted by Sisters G. W. Hack and 
Flo. Greenlaw. The elected officers favored 
the audience with a few short remarks, after 
which we were entertained by some of our 
visiting brothers. Respectfully, 

Alice L. Greenlaw, Sec. 

Sacramento, Jan. 14. 

Merced Grange. 

Messrs. Editors: — I am happy to say 
Merced has no more smallpox. On account 
ot the scare we held no Grange meetings in 
December. We elected our officers Jan- 
uary 5th. There was more interest man 
tested in the election of officers this time 
than I ever witnessed before. It is a good 
sign for an awakening of the Grange inter- 
ests in Merced county. I hope we will con- 
tinue in this good work, and all take a hand 
and try to entertain the Grange. Some call 
us stupid, but do not try to make it any 
more pleasant for those who do their best. 
We shall have a feast and installation on 
the first Saturday in February, our next 
regular meeting. A cordial invitation is ex- 
tended to all the Granges in good standing. 
They will receive a hearty welcome. Mer- 
ced Grange knows how to entertain right 
royally and will do her best at this feast. Fra- 
ternally yours, E. S. Elliott, Sec'y. 

Colorado State Grange. 

Our Eastern neighbor and nearest link in 
the fraternal Grange chain — Colorado— has 
just closed a very profitable and encourag- 
ing State Grange session. The Worthy 
Master, Bro. Levi Booth, closes a friendly 
letter by saying : 

" The present meeting of our State Grange 
has been a very profitable one. We had 
about 100 in attendance and GO took the 
higher de gree. We formed a new Pomona 
Grange with 50 charter members. The 
prospect for the coming year looks bright." 

To Old Subscribers of the California 

We will send you the Weekly Official Grange 
Edition of the Rural Press and the monthly 
issue of the California Patron both for one month, 
in order that you may examine and determine which 
of the two papers you prefer to have continued to 
you after that date, according to the terms plainly 
stated in our contract with the California Patron 
Publishing Co., published herewith. 

Choose, then, which paper you prefer to receive, 
and notify us by letter, giving your name and post- 
office address plainly and in full, with complete direc- 
tions as to your wishes in the matter. During the 
trial month no charge will be made for the paper 
you do not choose to continue. 

We hope many will take both issues, and with a 
view to give or send one away for the good the 
copies may do the readers, our cause and our Slate. 

However, if no word is heard from any subscriber 
by the end of the first month, we shall continue the 
weekly Grange edition of the Rural Press, as suc- 
cessor to the weekly issues of the Patron, and dis- 
continue sending the monthly beyond a single issue. 

The next issue of the Patron, and the first as a 
monthly publication, will be issued for Saturday, 
1-ebruary 2d. 

We hope (after receiving a few copies at least) to 
hear from our readers how they like this new Grange 
edition of the Rural Press. 

Worthy Master Brigham at the 
National Capital. 

Messrs. Editors: — Worthy Master J. H 
Brigham of the National Grange arrived 
here January Tth and will remain for some 
time. He is in consultation With Senators 
and Representatives relative to matters of 
legislation now before Congress which have 
the indorsement of the National Grange. 

Colonel Brigham's well-known ability is 
an assurance that the farmers of the United 
States have an able representative at the 
right place — the National Capital. 

This action on the part of the National 
Grange in sending its chief executive officer 
to see that the interests of the farmers 
of the country are properly presented 
to Congress will meet the hearty ap- 
proval of the members of the Order and 
convince the farmers not members of the 
Grange that the Order means business. 

The State Grange of Vermont has ar 
ranged through its Master, Bro. Messer, with 
Colonel Brigham to visit that State the lat- 
ter part of January and deliver some 10 or 
15 lectures in the interest of the Order. 

We expect now to hear of a boom in 
Grange work in Vermont, and it would be 
money well expended for other States to fol 
low the lead of the Green Mountain State 
and secure the services of Colonel Brigham 
Fraternally, ALEX. J. WedderBURN. 

Washington, D. C, Jan. 8. 

Grange Elections. 

Merced.— M. D. Atwater, M.; L. H 
Applegate, O; H. J. Ostrander, L.; E. D, 
Kahl,S.; Wm. P. Applegate, A. S.; Sister L. 
A. Atwater, C; H. C. Healy, T.; Sister E 
8. Elliott, Sec; J. T. Lander, G. K.; Sister 
Mary Arthur, Ceres; Sister L. Robinson, 
P.; Sister E. Shriver, F.; Sister J. T. Lander, 
L. A. S. 

Santa Rosa. — E. A. Rogers, M.; Chas. 
D. Bonner, O.; H. Gregory, L.; Geo. 
Rogers, S.; Mrs. J. H. Newman, C; J. 
Strong, T.; Miss Martha Lumsden, Sec; S 
F. Chinn, G. K.; Miss Fannie Gamble, 
Ceres; Miss Ella Sutherland, L. A. S.; L 
C. Cnopius, A. S.; Mrs. Chas. D. Bonner, P.; 
Miss Ida Godman, F. 


Newcastle January 19 

San Joaquin County Pomona February 28 

Watsonville February IB 

Note — The Secretaries of Oranges are requested to 
forward reports of all election and other matters of 
interest relating to their Granges and the Order. 

Yuba City Grange installed its office s 
January 5. Owing to the wretched condi- 
tion ot the roads the attendance was not as 
large as on some former occasions, and only 
about half of the officers-elect were able 
to reach town and be installed. It was, 
however, thought best to proceed with the 
installation ceremonies with those present 
and finish at the next regular meet- 
ing in February. The Worthy Master-elect, 
J. B. Wilkie, was also absent, being some- 
where in the north and east between Port- 
land, Oregon, and St. Paul, Minnesota, 
laboring in the interest of the Sutter Fruit 
Company, of which he is a member. Mr. 
W. is establishing agencies for the sale of 
fruit, in which he has been very successful. 
But we digress. Not being here, of course 

he was not installed ; but he paid his com- 
pliments to the Grange by sending them 
gratis a box of specially selected Oregon 
apples that in size and quality can hardly 
be duplicated, even in Oregon, the land of 
apples. The Grangers at once gave him a 
unanimous vote of thanks, and then dis- 
patched the apples with an appetite like a 
buzz-saw. The installation was, however, a 
grand success. — StUter Farmer. •■< 
— — — — ■ — i — it. 4 _i9diuu! 

The Insurance Fight. id< uj»» 

■ • i 9d» -M 

Frank Leach of the Oakland hi 
brings out his double gun and shoots - 
right and left at greedy lobbyists and undt 
writers, thus: 

It is reported that the boss lobbyist has 
notified the insurance companies that if they 
do not wish unfriendly legislation they must 
raise a sack of $50,000 to give to him and 
his lambs. These infamous tactics may 
succeed; it is not improbable that the insur- 
ance companies may have to do as they are 
bid, for they have been successfully "stood 
up " before by the same highwaymen. The 
shame of it is that a branch of the State 
government can be prot-tituted to the pur- 
poses of blackmailers. Members of the 
Legislature who are capable of entering into 
such a plot have, of course, lost the sense of 
shame, but the people should feel keenly the 
disgrace of not being able to elect better 

As for the insurance companies, our sym- 
pathies are not so much excited; their case 
shows how wrong invites wrong, and that 
injustice is never profitable in the long run. 
By charging exorbitant premiums the in- 
surance compact has invited this attack, 
just as much as a man would invite high- 
waymen if he advertised that he would fill 
his pockets with gold and go out walking 
in the night on the back streets. We do 
not say that an agreement between insur- 
ance companies to maintain rates is in it- 
self wrong; when started it was probably 
necessary to prevent ruinous cut-throat cottl- 

fietition. But the same greed which stimtl- 
»ted the companies to that kind of compe- 
tition before they had a contract stimulates 
them, after they unite, to demand unreason- 
able profits and bleed the property -owners. 
They cannot be content with fair profits, 
and by their tyrannous use of the power of 
the compact they have brought on them- 
selves this terrible evil of a blackmailing 
lobby armed with the power of legislation. 
All around the affair exhibits the meanest 
aspects of human nature. 

The Soap Swindle. — We see by our 
exchanges that small towns throughout the 
State are complaining of a new phase of an 
old swindle. Female agents, claiming to 
be from Chicago, canvass at houses, leaving 
a cake of soap as sample. They return and 
ask the lady to sign a printed "testimonial," 
the same to be prestnted to the grocers to 
influence the latter to handle the trade. The 
testimonials afterward turn up as " orders," 
calling for soap in various quantities at fancy 
prices. The wording of the so-called " testi- 
monial " is very ingenious. We reiterate the 
old, old caution : Refuse to sign your name 
to anything for a stranger. 

Sebastopol Grange is reported as in 
good working order and prosperous. Secre- 
tary Geo. Harris, in a letter, refers to the 
installation on the 5th inst., and the visit of 
Col. Donahue and party, which was men- 
tioned in onr correspondence last week. 
Bro. Harris thinks that Sebastopol will soon 
have railroad connection with the outside 

Roseville Grange feels that January 
5th (installation day) was a day well spent 
for the good of the Order. Seemingly every 
office has been filled by the proper person 
and it is hoped that good feeling and har- 
mony may prevail throughout the year. — 
Mrs. M. F. Leavell, Sec. 

Greeting from Maine.— Bro. J. W. 
Lang, Member Executive Committee Maine 
State Grange, writes: " Maine sends her 
fraternal greetings from the pine-clad hills 
of the Atlantic to the vine clad hills of the 
Pacific. May joy, peace and prosperity 
attend the Patrons of the Eureka State." 

Invitation to National Grange. — In 
the State Senate, Jan. 15, Senator Langford 
offered a resolution inviting the National 
Grange of the United States to hold its next 
annual session in this State, and instructing 
the Governor to send an engrossed copy 
to the Master of the National Grange. 

Santa Rosa Grange installed its officers 
on the 12th inst., with the exception of the 
Assistant Steward, Pomona and Flora, who 
will be installed on the 26th. 

jan 19, 1889.] 



The Transfer of the "Patron." 

An adjourned meeting of the Board of Di- 
rectors of the Patron Publishing Company was 
held at the office of the Secretary of the State 
Orange at 10 a. m., January 11th. Present, I. 
C. Steele, President, J. V. Webster, Vice-Presi- 
dent, A. D. Logan, Treasurer, W. L. Overhiser, 
G. P. Louoks, S. T. Coulter and 
Secretary. Besides the above 
were present the following share- 

to ' jo participated in the meeting: W. 
iffi and Amos Adams of San Francisco, D. 
of Sacramento, D. C. Feely of San Jose, 
.. adge Blackwood and 0. Dennis of Hay wards, 
and T. Hooper of Rio Vista. 

A. T. Dewey, Manager, stated that Dewey & 
Co. could not afford to carry on the publication 
any longer under the contract made Oct. 15, 
1887, and with his partner was willing to sur- 
render all olaims under said contract, leaving 
the board free to make any arrangements or 
contract with other parties for the publication 
of the Patron. 

No propositions being presented, Mr. Dewey 
made an offer on the part of Dewey & Oo. for 
publishing a weekly Grange edition of the Pa- 
cific Rural Press, containing four or more 
pages of Grange matter on an average, as the 
official organ of the State Grange, and for issu- 
ing the Patron once a month aa the offioial 
monthly organ of the State Grange, which 
proposition embodied the essential features of 
the contract as it was finally adopted by the 
Board of Directors, upon a call of the roll, by 
a unanimous vote. 

The offer of Dewey & Co. to advance $1000 
on the advertising and subscription accounts 
due the Patron Publishing Co. previous to Oct. 
15, 1887, enabled the oompany (by the 
generosity of I. C. Steele) to provide for 
all debts due the association, whether any con- 
siderable amount is ever realized from the assets 
under the contract or not. 

On motion, the board accepted the proposi- 
tion, as finally submitted in writing, and the 
President appointed the following committee to 
draw up a contract: T. McConnell, S. T. Coul- 
ter, W. L. Overhiser, W. C. Blackwood and J. 

The following resolution was offered by the 

Resolved, That the proposition of Bro. Steele to 
give the California Patron Publishing Co. a receipt 
in full for his claim against said company, amount- 
ing to $1256.25, on condition that Secretary Chester 
accepts the $1000 offered by Dewey & Co. as part 
of the contract this day made by them with the Cali- 
fornia Patron Publishing Co. in lull for his claim of 
$1517.18, which has been accepted by said Chester, 
be acknowledged with gratitude by this company as 
only equaled by his other acts of magnanimity to the 
Patron and to the Order. 

Resolved, That Dewey & Co. give an obligation 
to said Chester for th*: amount of $1000 as provided 
in said contract on the terms offered therein, and 
upon receiving a receipt in full of said claim and the 
entry by the Secretary on the books of the company 
of full settlement therefor. 

Several directors objected to accepting the 
generous proposition of Bro. Steele, believing 
that means should be raised in some way to 
pay him in full, but the resolution was finally 
adnoted with the feeling that due recognition 
of Bro. Steele's self-saorificing spirit would be 
kindlier recognized at some future time. 

Brother Dewey and others having, with af- 
fectionate regard, alluded to the death of 
Brother Ohandler, who was for several years an 
active and zealous member of the Board and 
Executive Committee of the California State 
Grange, the following, offered by Brother J. 
Chester, was unanimously adopted: 

Resolved, That in the death of Brother Chandler 
this Board and Executive Committee here preser.t 
have lost one of their most estimable members, and 
one of the most generous promoters of their labors 
in the interest of the Order of Patrons. 

The labors of the day were completed after 
10 o'clock P. m. , and congratulations expressed 
by those present that the matter bad finally 
been so amicably, and it was hoped satisfacto- 
rily and lastingly, disposed of. 

It is hoped that the officers and members of 
the Order throughout California and Oregon 
will heartily and unitedly use their efforts to 
ratify this new arrangement with success by 
extending the circnlation and usefulness of the 
newly endorsed official organ. That relieved 
from much of the care of providing for and con- 
ducting an official organ, more time and atten- 
tion and hard labor ean be bestowed upon the 
work of reorganizing dormant Granges and 
instituting new Granges throughout the juris- 
dictions than has been possible during the past 
few years. 

As publishers, we pledge to do our very best 
to meet all reasonable demands that can pos- 
sibly be expected of us under the new arrange- 

With the help of all our old friends, and the 
many new ones we shall try to deserve, we 
hope to make a success of the Grange organ and 
do our part in the front ranks, and do it well in 
a grand forward movement of the whole Order. 

Fellow-Patrons and Matrons, what say you ? 

Bro. Mackie's Answer to "Pansy." 

Messrs. Editors : — " Pansy " has laid out a 
large field of labor for me in telling "the 
Grange what their correspondence should consist 
of, that influence and self-respect might be the 

In my contribution to that same number of 
the Patron on " Tulare Grange " I believe 
there is an installment — at least enough to 
show that I agree perfectly with all that Pansy 
has said. 

It is to me a puzzling problem that every 
class of society can unite, with the exception of 
the farmer. A brother Granger tells me in his 
queer, quaint way that disunion and poverty is 
reduced to a science among the farmers. It 
looks like it. We have trades unions, Knights 
of Labor, boards of trade, articles of agree- 
ment between merchants, railroad corporations, 
federated corporations of every kind, with 
trusts and united deviltry of everything that 
means monopoly and oppression in this free 
land of ours, but no union among farmers. 
These poor innocent sheep think that the ex- 
tent of their liberties and privileges is the right 
to vote for the wolf who should eat them. It 
never occurs to them to be represented by a re- 
spectable sheep who will see to the interests of 
mutton and wool. When will our politics ceaae 
to be influenced by Mason and Dixon's line ? 
When are we to contend for principles that in- 
fluence us to-day instead of the worn-out ante- 
cedents of partiea who have long ago outlived 
their usefulness and are permeated all through 
with ways that are dark and tricks that are 
vain? How will "Pansy" or "any other 
man " tell how a union among farmers can be 
effected which will consolidate farming inter- 
ests ? The Declaration of Principles of the 
Grange tells on what farmers should unite, and 
the Grange is presumed* to be the means by 
which this union shall be brought about. Then 
what ? What is a farmer ? He is the basis of 
society. Nearly all the wealth of the world is 
made from what he produces, but so situated 
that he is the most dependent instead of being 
what is his natural right, the most inde- 
pendent. He has permitted himself to be so 
situated that everything he buys to stock his 
farm with is at prices according to the pleas- 
ure of the merchant. If, like other men of 
business, he should need money in advance, not 
only must he give better security, at a higher 
rate of interest, but the avenues of access to it 
are blockaded with more expense and every 
means of vexatious hindrance. 

Then after labor and vexation of spirit, if 
the elements grant him a crop, the whole social 
fabric is united in giving him as little as possi- 
ble for it. And he assists society in this ne- 
farious business. In order to produce cheaply, 
he lives as cheaply as possible. A wretched ex- 
cuse for a dwelling, that the poorest tailor or 
shoemaker in a city would not dream of living 
in, is all that the farmer can afford, not enough 
often for common decency, let alone comfort. 
But then they have got used to this sort of 
thing and can do it. 

Whether it be a farmer, a mechanic, or a 
laborer, society will endeavor to reduce them 
to the minimum by which life can be supported. 
It becomes then the duty of all who labor for 
society to raise the standard of their life as high 
as possible in order to share with society all 
the benefits of modern civilization. In this, so- 
ciety is also benefited, for it is for the general 
good that each individual should be living, so 
as to make himself all that he is capable of be- 
coming — not in accumulation of wealth, but in 
all that belongs to the physical, mental, moral, 
and spiritual development of manhood which 
requires certain refinement of environment and 
freedom from embarrassing poverty. 

To reach this condition, farmers must unite 
on a sound business basis, to buy what they 
need as near headquarters, with as little hand- 
ling as possible. Then they must form a mar- 
ket for home produce where they can place 
their butter, eggs, etc., instead of having to 
peddle produce from store to store or from 
house to house; and for the heavier and more 
staple articles there should be headquarters in 
some commercial center, where their interests 
would be honestly looked after. 

All this looks as of the simplest form, but it 
is too complex for the slipshoddiness of the 
average farmer to comprehend. It is not for 
want of natural shrewdness, for in a horse 
trade they can outlie a Chatham-street Jew, 
outtalk an auctioneer and brag more than any 
peddler of cheap jewelry. They are not even be- 
hind in the tricks of trade, placing the best po- 
tatoes and strawberries, etc., always on the 
top, and only he and the consumer can know 
what is in the center. And as for general 
ability, he is oompelled to know a little of 
everything — to be a man-of-all-work. 

The farmer is not lacking in natural ability, 
general intelligence and business tactics, but 
fearfully lacking in union ideas. It is for union 
that we must work. For in that union which 
produces strength the farmer should be master 
of the situation, and at least command the re- 
spect of the millions who are dependent upon 

Please say to " Pansy " on the matter of that 
recipe for corned beef that she has it as I got 
it; and I find in other recipes since come to 
light the same proportion of li pounds of salt 
to the gallon. So far I have found such beef 
eatable enough, but as I do not like salt much 
better than an Indian, I could easily be per- 
suaded to put only one pound of salt to the 

gallon or just as much as will keep the meat 
from spoiling. Also my thanks to " G " for 
garden hints, and hope that he and others will 
continue the good work. J. W. M. 

Tulare, Jan. ISth. 

[Original 1 

The Order of Patrons of Husbandry. 

The following essay read at the anniversary 
meeting of Sacramento Grange last month is 
worthy of perusal: 

Worthy Master, Sisters and Brothers: — We 
have mec on this occasion to celebrate this day 
as the 22d anniversary of our beloved Order, 
and to honor the men and women who 21 years 
ago laid the foundation of the Grange and built 
thereon the beautiful superstructure contained 
in our ritual, which is acknowledged by those 
who belong to other societies to be the most 
beautiful in phraseology and sentiment ever in- 
dited by man. And when we learn the pur- 
poses of its organization, the benefit sought to 
be conferred on the agricultural classes in par- 
ticular and mankind in general, it commands 
our attention and wins our admiration, to- 
gether with our united efforts to advance its 
cause and carry into effect its principles, which 
are as grand aa any ever voiced by mankind. 

And pray in what way is the Grange to ac- 
complish the purposes of its organization? 
some one may ask. Allow me to aay its mis- 
sion is to go to the farmers of this country, in- 
viting them with their wives, the partners of 
their purses and cares (I am sorry to say ahe 
gets the moat of the cares, while he retains the 
puree), together with their manly sons and 
lovely daughters, within the secret recesses of 
a Grange home, and there, surrounded on three 
sides by impenetrable walls, while two strong 
and well guarded gates on the other ahut 
out from intrusion the outside world, the 
farmer learns facts he can hardly believe — that 
he is being systematically defrauded out of his 
hard-earned gains, and that, too, by those in 
whom he had reposed implicit confidence. 
More than this, he discovers that the people of 
our towns and cities are far in advance of the 
tillers of the soil in questions of political econ- 
omy, in business principles; that they are 
organized into societies to advance and protect 
their own interests, and reap such further ad- 
vantage as accrue to thorough organization. And 
here within the sacred precincts of our Grange 
home, the farmers learn a great truth — that 
they are the ones who have suffered the most 
and to the greatest extent, because they have 
been the last to organize for mutual help and 
protection. But having learned this lesson, 
they are quick to profit by its teaching, and 
embrace the opportunity presented through the 
Grange to regain our lost estate; and by thou- 
sands, yes, by hundreds of thousands, the 
farmers have united themselves together as 
brothers and sisters, to do battle in a common 
cause, to develop among ourselves a higher and 
better manhood and womanhood— declaring to 
the world that we wage no war against class 
or business that is just and legitimate. 
With malice toward none and charity to all, 
we demand for ourselves a just share of the 
profits of our labor. We don't propose any 
longer to permit ourselves to be defrauded out 
of 64 per cent of the profits and products of our 
farms for the benefit of those who toil not, 
neither do they spin; but we propose by intel- 
ligent co operation to reserve unto ourselves 
the greater part of this 64 per oent, and apply 
t in paying our debts, buying more and better 
clothes for our families, beautifying our homes, 
both inside and out, so that our wives may be 
proud, our children happy; while the brothers 
are delighted with homes presided over by 
lovely and loving wives, made lively and cheer- 
ful by the voices of happy and obedient chil- 
dren; filled with love and peace within, sur- 
rounded by plenty without. 

But, Worthy Master, while our progress thus 
far has been great, grand and glorious, we must 
not forget our comrades who have been over- 
taken by misfortune; and while Sacramento 
Grange is rejoicing in the strength of a fully de- 
veloped manhood, made bappy on this occasion 
with the amilea and presence of many of our 
sisters and brothers from sister Granges, we 
are called upon to pause and shed a tear, as we 
are reminded that some of our Granges have 
halted, while others have fallen by the way; 
and it would seem both meet and proper that 
we should seriously consider at this time the 
means and best methods to be used to revive 
and infuse new and living vitality into their 
lifeless bodies. To this end it might not be con- 
sidered improper for me to offer a suggestion, and 
as I aim to be practical in all things, I can best 
present my plan by asking one or two questions. 
First, I will ask our Worthy Treasurer, Bro. 
Reith, what ia it that induces men to buy or 
rent land for the purpose of raising wheat? 
He will answer: When land will produce 30 
or 40 bushels per acre, and you can realize 
$1.25 per bushel, then people are anxious to be- 
come wheat farmers. Why ? For the reason 
that it pays. I will ask the Past Master of the 
State Grange, Bro. Johnston: What haa in- 
duced so many people throughout this State 
to engage in horticultural pursuits ? He 
answers: The high prices realized for fruit in 
the past, with the expectation that good fruit 
and an unlimited market in the East will make 
it a paying business. 

I would ask the Worthy Lecturer of the 
State Grange: Why is it that, when hopa 
go hopping up to $1 per pound, so many 
butchers and bankers hop around to get good 

hop-land to go into the hop-raising business ? 
With his face all wreathed in amilea as he 
thinks of the many dollars that hopa hopped 
into his pockets, he observes: Take me for an 
example. Hop farms down the river, hop farms 
up the river, more hop farms out on the Cos- 
umnea river, my home a mansion in the capital 
city of California. And who will deny that 
hop-raising ia not a paying business ? 

By the foregoing observations, Worthy 
Master, you see the point I desire to make. If 
we would make the Grange what it was destined 
to be, the means to enable the agricultural 
classes to better their social, educational and 
financial condition, one important fact becomes 
self-evident: That while we ourselves can only 
know how well the Grange haa fulfilled its mis- 
sion as an educator, it yet remains our impera- 
tive duty to ourselves and to the Grange that 
we, who have been intrusted with its financial 
and business enterprises, see to it that they are 
made financial successes. We should know no 
such word as failure or defeat. With a store 
such as we have in Sacramento, where you can 
buy goods as oheap and in some instances 40 
per cent cheaper than you could before we 
started our business, and the stockholders en- 
abled to realize 10 per cent interest on their 
stock; with the successful operation of a 
Patrona' Mutual Fire Insurance Association in 
this county, insuring its members for less than 
one-fifth of one per cent, and possibly for one- 
tenth of one per cent, which has been done in 
New York, then will it be manifest to all that 
it pays to be a Granger. When men can feel 
the coin put or kept in their pockets, they will 
be only too anxious to join our ranks and reap 
with us all the benefits that accrue to the active 
members of the Grange. 

And now, Worthy Master, one moreobaerva- 
tion and I am done. To-day our beloved Order 
has attained her majority. She has overcome 
all the afflictions that youth is heir to, and to- 
day she starts out on her mission in all the 
beauty of full-grown maturity. May it be our 
part to advocate ita principles and defend ita 
honor, and be aure that no word or act of ours 
shall bring a dark spot or tarnish the name or 
fair fame of our beloved Order. 

Geo W. Hack. 

Valuable to Advertisers. 

This week we print a largely increased isaue 
of the Rural Press to accommodate the entire 
list of subscribers of the California Patron and 
Agriculturist, which has been consolidated with 
the Rural Press in a weekly official Grange 
edition. This " hitching teams " and doubling 
up the advertising power of the paper is an im- 
portant consideration for all our advertising 

It has been conceded that the Rural was the 
most effective weekly advertising medium on 
this coast for many years. Certainly hereafter 
its advertising value to those .who wish to 
reach the leading representative farmers, the 
most thrifty and reliable purchasers in the land, 
must be beyond comparison with that of any 
other jonrnal on this coaat, if not superior to 
any other in the United States. 

Official Circular to Granges. 

An official circular will be sent by the Secre- 
tary to each Grange in this jurisdiction, soon, 
giving the contract relating to the change in" 
the publication of the Grange organ and other 
matters of importance to every Patron. Let 
every member attend the Grange and keep 

A Brazen Fraud. — Our farmers should 
keep an eye open for the agent who sells the 
" wheat binder," who is swindling farmers 
in different parts of the West getting postal- 
card orders for one binder and raising them 
to 100. The "binder" is a small stick 
about 18 inches long, with a brass ferule on 
the end, on which there is a slot for fasten- 
ing a string which binds the wheat. — Salem 

From "Flora."— Sister Pauline Newkom, 
Flora of the State Grange, writes from Yuba 
City with good faith and interest in the 
Grange, alluding hopefully to our next 
session at Sacramento. 

The Carrier Dove for January contains 
a fair lithographic likeness of Bro. I. C. 
Steele, with a brief but very good historical 
sketch of his life. 

Sacramento County Pomona Grange 
will meet January 22, 1889, at Grangers' 
hall, Sacramento, at 1 p. m. 

Sixth Decree Certificates. — Certificates of 
Sixth-Degree membership have been sent to the 
Secretaries of Subordinate Granges for all Pa- 
trons initiated in the degree of " Flora " at 
the late session of the State Grange. 

The meeting and harvest feast at Haywards 
last Saturday waa all that could be desired, 
and reflected much credit on the offioers, Eden 
Grange and those who participated in the exer- 

The Fresno Jtepublican says the prospects 
for one or two competing lines of railroad from 
San Francisco and Stockton to that place are 
first rate. 



[Jan. 19, 1889 

Gulbadan's Song. 

All in a Garden fair 1 sale, and spied 

1 he Tulips dancing, dancing side by side, 

With scarlet turbans dressed; 
All in a Garden green at night I heard 
The gladsome voice of night's melodious Bird 

Singing that " Love is Best ! '■ 

The shy white jasmine drew aside her veil. 
Breathing (aint fragrance on the loitering gale, 

And nodded, nodded " Yes ! 
" Sweetest of all sweet things is Love ! and wise ! 
Dance, Tulip ! Pipe, fond Bird, thy melodies ! 
Wake, Rose of Loveliness ! " 

" Yet," sighed the swaying Cypress, " who can tell 
If Love be wise as sweet? if it oe well 

For Love to dance and sing ? 
I see— growing here always— year by year 
The Bulbuls die, and on their grassy bier 

Rose- petals scattering ! " 

All in that Garden green the Rose replied: 
" Ah I Cypress, look ! I put my leaves aside; 

Mark what is 'mid this bush ! 
Three blue eggs in a closely-woven nest, 
Sheltered, for music's sake, by branch and breast ! 

There will be Bulbuls ! hush I" 

All in that Garden green the Bulbul trilled: 
"Oh, foolish Cypress ! thinking Love was killtd 

Because he seemed to cease I 
My best Belov'd hath secrets at her heart, 
Gold seeds of summer-time, new buds to start; 

There will be Roses I peace I" 

Then lightlier danced the Tulips than before 
To waitings cf the perfumed breeze, and more 

Chanted the Nightingale. 
The fireflies in the palms fresh hnterns lit; 
Her zone of grace the blushing Rose unknit, 

And blossomed, pure and pale I 

— Sir Edwin Arnold. 

Women Don't Want to Vote. 

[Written for the Kural l>r— by Ahknatii Carver 

Coon dor.] 

There was silence in Car 1400. A big fat 
man with a big red face and a small red nose, 
squeezed himself into a seat with a pretty 
young girl and asked her to dine with him at 
the next eating-house. Then he shuttled over 
a bundle of documents, one of which be laid in 
her lap. 

"That," said he, in a loud voice, "is a bill 
to let women vote, got up by a strong-minded 
critter in my district." 

The girl took it up, looked at it, smelled of 
it, and then handed it back. 

" The truth is," contiuued the fat man in 
still louder tones, as though he meant to make 
the whole nation hear, " the truth is, women 
don't want to vote." 

" They don't, hey ? " said a lean woman who 
sat on the opposite side of the car, throwing 
back her veil and bracing herself up with a 
hand on each seat. " Hev you got any proofs 
handy ?" 

" Plenty, ma'am. Hundreds of 'em have told 
me so with their own lips." 

" And of their own accord, 'thout bein' 
jammed intu a corner?" said the woman, peer- 
ing around at the girl. 

" Yes ma'am," bleated the fat man; "abso- 
lutely of their own free will." 

" How many mile did they come to tell you 
that? " asked the women. 

"I never aked them how many miles they 
came," said the fat man, shooting a sarcastic 
glance at the woman across his small red nose. 
"I never ask impertinent Y ankee questions." 

"An* didn't yu ask 'em to dine with yu 
nuther ? " said the woman, smiling at the young 

The fat man cast a look of red indignation at 
the lean woman, and another silence would 
have ensued except for the tittering of a few of 
the women passengers, 

" I asked fur information," said the woman, 
after a two-minutes' pause. " My experience 
haint ben a mite like yourn. I beg your par- 
don, sir, but would you object to tellin' me 
where you keep yer proofs ?" 

" In my head," snapped the fat man. 

" Waal, that's whur I keep mine mostly," 
said the lean woman, " but I've got some on 
'em tu hum locked up in an ole hair trunk; but 
they're all jest to the contrary o 1 yourn; an' I 
didn't pay nuthin' fur nun on 'em, nuther. I 
didn't offer nobudy no dinners nur dimons nur 
Bilks nur satins nur eny kind o' vittals nur dry 
goods. Ton honor I didn't, an' I kent see 
intu it how our tu proofs should be so ontirely 
oppersite. I swan tu man I kent." 

The fat man stiffened up in his seat like a 
brick, a red brick, seated his eye-glasses across 
his little red nose and plunged into his news- 
paper with a deep and desperate plunge. 

The lean woman continued : 

" Come tu think on't, mister, I shouldn't 
wonder ef them women 'tyu speak on wuz tu 
young tu vote, enyhows. Mebby tha wuzzent 
more'n sixteen or seventeen at the most, ur 
mebby tha wuz hoaxin'. Tha du hoax like 
tunket sometimes. They pretend tha don't 

warnt a thin', wouldn't look at it, nur smell 
on't hardly, when they're hankerin' fur't the 
wust kind, an' wud grab it up quicker'n light- 
nin' ef yer back wuz turned. It makes me 
think of a dorg I hed charge on once. I hed 
charge on one twice't, but this wuz the fust 
charge. He wuz a fine huntin' dorg, full grown 
and handsome, but very young, scasely mnre'n 
a pup. My brother left him fur me tu keep 
while he went tu the war. We hedn't 
any huntin' fur the critter tu du on our 
primises, so I thought I'd train him 
up fur an ornamint, ur a sort o' house pet yu 
know — an teech him as many of the domestic 
vertews as he'd be apt ter hold. So I trained 
an' trained an' teecht him jest what things he 
must tech an' jest what he must leave unteched 
'til I thort he must be nigh perfect. Would a' 
gin' Mm a diplomer ef he'd axed fur one; but he 
didn't; p'raps he didn't hev so much faith in 
his trainin' as I did. My faith was perfect. It 
was pinned onter that dorg as fast as faith's pins 
could pin it. I hedn't never put him tu no 
great tests, I don't bleev in temptin' dorgs no 
more'n foaks, pertickilarly when ther young; 
but I hed faith tu bleev that a dorg who'd ben 
raired as I'd raired that dorg couldn't help bein' 
honest an' straightforrud tu say the least; but I 
got awfully deceived in that dorg. 

" One day father killed a chicken and laid it 
on the woodhouse bench. 

'*' Dorg won't touch that chicken, I s'pose,' 
said father. 

"'Oh no!' said I; 'you see he won't even 
look at it.' 

" An' sure 'nuff he trotted along by my side, 
parst the dead chick an' back agin, with his 
nose high in air. He wouldn't even lower 
his nose enuf tu look at it, much less smell on't. 
He even went so fur as tu turn his head the op- 
persite way as tho' he wuz turribly interested 
in the woodpile ur barn door. 

"'Well,' said father, looking at the dorg 
with admiration in his eye, ' I guess he's tu well 
fed, eny how, tu eat undressed chicken.' 

"Father was one who pinned his fiith as 
tirm on feed as I did on edgeroation. I thought 
well of it, too, fur an extra guard; so I went off 
saying to myself : ' Ther's nothin' like treatin' 
even a dorg well. Edgercate him and feed him 
well an' it makes an honest dorg of him.' Full 
o' these elevatin' thoughts I went tu the winder 
an' lookt owt, an' as sure as yu live thair wuz 
that air good dorgy — that air honest dorgy — 
that air well-edgercated an' well-fed dorgy, a 
kiverin' up that air chicken with autum leaves t 

" He warn't hungry an' didn't warnt to eat 
it, of course not, but yu see he had wild huntin' 
blood in his veins an' he sort o' hankered far 
Bumthin' like game. 

" I didn't keer so much fur the chicken, but 
tu think that air dorg 'ad took s' much pains to 
fool me. I tell yu what 'tis, I've lost my faith 
in dorgs an' in everybudy else who pretends 
tha' don't warnt things it's natral for 'em tu hev, 
and it's my advice tu yu, mister, not tu leave 
the ballot-box a lyin' round loose. I guess 
mebbe women's got sum o' the wild votin' blood 
o' the Adamses and Jeffersons and Ltnkenses in 
their veins an' they can't be trusted with the 
ballnt-box tho' they stick up thur noses an' say 
they don't want nothin' tu du with it. No 
sur-ee, tha can't be trusted tho' you bring 'em 
up tu despise it an' tu love the kitchen an' 
female prayer-meetin', an' feed 'em up with 
candies an' invite 'em tu dinner at evry ttition. 
They ain't hungry fur vittals, mebby, but they'll 
take the ballot the fust good chance tha git, yu 
better bleev." 

The lean woman ceased. The train rumbled 
up to the eating station. The fat man waddled 
out, but the young girl did not accompany him. 

Oolela, Cal. 

A Happy Home. 

I Written for the Rural Prsbs 1>v Ada E. Taylor. 1 
A happy home ! Ah, ye who have known 
such will never know and never fully appre- 
ciate the true blessedness and pure love those 
few words contain. They hold in their power 
the summit of all earthly happiness. The 
greatest care possible should be taken in en- 
deavoring to have a home where the air is 
filled with harmony and peace. Allow no cross, 
harsh words to enter such a sacred abode. The 
lack of thorough good temper is often the cause 
of a great deal of trouble and sorrow. The 
owners of sunny, cheerful and contented dispo- 
sitions are blessed far beyond measure, and all 
through the trials of life they will find it a gift 
that will stand them in good stead, and to 
which nearly all their happiness is due. " A 
soft answer turneth away wrath " is a good 
family motto, and is very often successful in 
soothing quarrels. Harsh, hasty words often 
destroy the peace of more homes than even 
drink — that fatal curse to family happiness, A 
happy, peaceful home is a taste of heaven on 
earth, and our taste should be carefully culti- 
vated, for such can be done, even though 
it seems hard for some at first. There 
is no excuse for unhappiness in any home, 
should every member of the household 
use soft, loving words to each other, and 
not get impatient because everything does not 
go just right. Too many men seem to forget 
that a kind word, a caress or a loving look are 
all the wages their wives get in return for 
their manifold labors. Every husband and 
father should leave all troublesome business 
cares behind as he turns his face homeward, and 
try to increase the joys of the family circle. 
How one's memory loves to dwell on one's 

youthful home; but oh, how dearly, how sacred- 
ly, one holds that memory if bis or her home 
was a happy one, if it was placed where no jar- 
ring, oross-grained words were allowed to en- 
ter. That was a home that calls one's memory 
back to days filled with joy and pleasure, and 
when the years were one long, unbroken sum- 
mer's day, without the slightest cloud to fleck 
its heavenly purity. Ah, how little we know 
how much depends on our own selves for mak- 
ing such a home. We are all too liable to 
blame others and look at their faults and over- 
look our own. If we would commence with 
ourselves to be happy and cheerful, we would 
soon find out it would be catching among the 
others. Let every one try, and see what a 
speedy cure it will be for crossness and irrita- 
bility of temper. 

"Speak not hastily ! words are living; 
They are serpents with deep stings, 
Or they may be bright words flying 
With a love-light on their wings." 

The Other Side. 

[Written for the Rural I'kkbb by Dorothy Shirley.) 

How often are the praises of a " sunshiny 
woman " sung by poets and novelists I Who- 
ever expects to find sunshine radiating from a 
man's presence ? 

Yet in the case of husband and wife, the man 
thould be the stronger and nobler by very 
virtue of bis position as head of the house. 

" Every lassie has her laddie," the old song 
tells us, but they seem to be very queerly 
paired off sometimes in this funny old world of 

If girls would only learn to think of the char- 
acter and habits of the man in whose hands 
they lay the result of their future life, instead 
of bis heavenly eyes and drooping mustache, 
there would be far less weary, heartsick women 
to regret their wedding-day. 

" To love, honor and obey." A man to whom 
a girl could safely promise these three things, 
would be one she could always rely on, lean on, 
and rest content in assurance that be would 
" love, cherish and protect" her — his part of 
the sacred marriage vow. 

How could he better cherish her than by 
maintaining a pleasant, cheerful demeanor in 
her presence ? 

If she is tired and overworked, your very 
cheeriness will, in spite of herself, infuse itself 
into her tired brain. 

No doubt you have been working hard as 
well as she, but it is done now for the day; and 
unfortunately women grow up heir to the va- 
rious little trifling petty cares that would set a 
man crazy if laid upon bis shoulders. 

Any tired housekeeper would be much more 
cheertul over her washtub if she knew she 
could drown the remaining duties of the day in 
her last tub of suds. But these minor duties 
which keep tired hands and feet busy till bed- 
time are all for the comfort of you and yours. 
Remember this and be cheerful, ye " man of 
the house ! " 

Do not be exuberant in your cheerfulness, 
but be quietly happy and contented in your 
home, and show due appreciation of the com- 
forts her busy hands keep ready for you. 

If she is a sensitive, loving woman, a fit of 
the blues in you will set her wondering where- 
in she has failed in wifely duty; she will rare- 
ly attribute it to business cares, and she will 
see from the supper you ate that you are not 
ill. She will wish she had taken time to crimp 
her hair last night, and wonder if you are 
thinking of Daisy Rosewood, who was so much 
prettier than she, and who, she knows, tried 
awful hard to get you. 

Just tell her once in awhile that she is the 
dearest, sweetest little woman you ever knew, 
and watch her face color up and brighten. She 
will look happier for hours — you may even hear 
her singing softly about her work; she has been 
too tired of late to care to sing. 

Tell her a joke once in awhile, and hear her 
hearty laugh once more; consult her about your 
business, and above all give her a pleasant look 
and smile when you look at her. Perhaps she 
has not been out of the house for a week; carry 
her sunshine to her, in your manner. 

Wants or Wishes. 

" I desire to insert this small advertisement in 
your paper to-morrow morning," she said. 

"This," said the advertising clerk, looking it 
over, " will go among the ' wants.'" 

" Have you no ' wish ' oolumn ?" 

" No, mum." 

" Then, sir," said the young lady from Bob- 
ton, haughtily, " you need not insert it. I simply 
wish a situation as governess. That is all. It 
is not a case of want. I» there any newspaper 
printed in English in this place V— Chicago 

A Uxique Match-Box. — Jack Wallace has 
quite a novelty in the snape of a match-safe. It 
consists of a section of a black oak tree, about 
six inches long, cut just where a branch springs 
from the trunk. In the joint is an old worn- 
out mule shoe, with the nails bent just as it 
fell from the animal's foot. Jack's explanation 
is that, fourteen years ago, one of the Ten 
Eicks, while teaming in Trinity county, picked 
up the shoe and hung it on a twig growing out 
of the trunk, where it remained undisturbed for 
years. The twig had grown to a sturdy brauoh, 

three inches thick, in the meantime, the wood 
growing over the shoe and holding it as tightly 
as in a vise. Some time ago a friend cut out the 
section holding the shoe and presented it to 
Jack, who bored holes into it for matches and 
placed it on the counter. — Redding Democrat 

The Eclipse as Seen from Howell 

[Written for the Rural Press by Mallie Stafford J 
Happy it was for the thousands of eager 
sight-seera that the day was a lovely golden 
one, amid the recent long and dreary rainy 
period. Our point of observation, though 
about 100 miles south of the direct line of to- 
tality, was yet one highly favorable to the 
viewing of the splendid spectacle, being on the 
northern slope of Howell mountain, in Napa 

It was during our late New Year's lunch 
that we first noticed that singular diminution 
of the sun's brightness, so peculiar in eclipses, 
and immediately our little party hastened to 
the top of the hill as the best point of observa- 
tion. Here we had a clear and unobstructed 
view. The dark shadow of the moon had al- 
ready crept across the western margin of the 
sun, describing a dark crescent on the luminous 

With the aid of our smoked glasses we slow- 
ly and silently watched its progress and the 
singular change in color that nature was assum- 
ing. At the same time a chilliness pervaded 
the atmosphere, unlike that of night or cloudy 

We did not fail to observe and admire the 
beautiful crescent-shaped images, formed by 
the sun's rays, glancing through the foliage of 
trees, small twigs and branches, forming a lace- 
work of crescents, shadow and sunlight, of ex- 
quisite and singular beauty, which is one of the 
most interesting as well as among the most 
beautiful and singular phases of an eclipse, and 
peculiar only to eclipses. 

About the grand and glorious orb of light, a 
few thin, transparent clouds lingered, but not 
enough to mar the scene. 

With almost breathless interest we watched 
the opaque body, now rapidly and silently shut- 
ting out the glorious effulgence of day. What 
a grand and impressive sight ! Now, now is 
the supreme moment ! It is almost obscured, 
save on the lower rim a stream of splendor, like 
a thin jet, pours out irradiating the dark, rosy 
and em.:rald glow of the landscape. We lower 
our glasses and view with naked eye the mag- 
nificent spectacle, a sight so rare and grand that, 
once Been, remains in memory while life lasts. 

Surrounding what aeems to be the black ball 
of the moon is a corona of softened light, re- 
minding one of the coronal of glory, seen in 
pictures of the old masters around the brow of 
Christ and the Madonna, but a light indescrib- 
able and different from anything the eye has 
ever beheld. 

The soft and beautiful circle is unbroken, 
save at its lower edge, where streams even at 
this most critical moment a transcendent 
gleam of that rare splendor whose full glory 
has momentarily been eclipsed. It lingers but 
a moment, the beautiful corona of softened 
light ! 

We gaze awe-struck and Bee deep in the blue 
vault of the heavens; the stars of night show 
forth like magic. Close to the sun a most brill- 
iant orb appears. What a rare transformation 
of nature ! This effect of weird darkness is 
hightened and intensified by the near presence 
of the shadowy and somber mountains on the 
south and west, and the dark belt of pine and 
stately redwoods on the north. 

Far away to the east a rosy and morning-like 
glow on the horizon greets the vision, as if her- 
alding the approach of the god of day. 

In the west also and far to the north and 
compassing the valley and the grandeur of the 
mountains, there shines that radiant glow on 
the horizon, rendered still more lovely by the 
thin and vapory clouds that linger like re- 
luctant visitors loth to depart ere they have 
witnessed and played a part in this rare and im- 
pressive scene. 

A few seconds only elapse, and it has passed 
the period of totality; like a beautiful vision 
the lovely corona disappears, and on the west- 
ern side of the black opaque body of the moon 
a thin golden crescent emerges, which growing 
larger, dispels the darkness and gradually 
floods all nature with warmth and light. 

At our point of observation, the darkest pe- 
riod, in which the eclipse was almost total, did 
not exceed more than 20 or 30 seconds, but 
short as it was, it was long enough to allow ot 
a fine view of the unparalleled spectacle, and 
note the pulsation in the time-beat of Nature, 
as if the life forces of the universe had for the 
time being suspended respiration, and old Earth 
had ceased in her orbit and hung a motionless 
object in the darkness of immensity. 

There was a noticeable effect on certain 
species of animated nature, particularly on the 
birds and domestic fowls. As the darkness in- 
creased, the chickens and barnyard fowls, with 
one aooord, sought their homes, and naturally, 
as at night, went to roost. 

A few moments later, when the god of day 
asserted his power and might and shone forth 
in splendor, they all hopped down, and with 
much talk and cackle in earnest speculation, 
strode forth into the light of day, in wonder, 
doubtless, at the most unaccountably short 

Jan. 19, 1889.] 



Dressing Well With Small Expense. 

[Written for the Rural Press by M. W.] 

"How are you? I knew you three blocks 
away and waited for you." 

" How did you know it was I at that dis- 
tance ? " 

" Why, by that light-blue veil and those 
light, tan-colored gloves.' 

" Is that a reflection on my toilet ? You 
know I cannot afford a veil and gloves lo 

suit every dress." 

The above conversation was forced upon 
my ears as I stood at the corner of a street 
a few days since ready to take a car when 
it came along. I looked at the last speaker. 
Her veil was a pronounced blue, her gloves 
light tan, her dress a dark maroon, her 
parasol black, and her hat a brown straw ! 
Yet she had the appearance of a lady of 
education and refinement. How often we 
see this bad taste in dress. If a lady can 
only afford one veil or one of any other 
article of dress at a time, why will she per- 
sist in getting it the most pronounced gay 
color? Why not in such a case decide at 
once to take black ? It is well known that 
black goes with anything. With a black 
parasol, gloves, veil and wrap, any dress can 
be worn. I say if a lady can only afford one 
of any of these articles. But in fact it is no 
more expensive to have two or three veils, 
etc., than one — it all amounts to the same 
at the end of a year. It is simply expending 
a few dollars more and in the question of 
veils a few cents more, at one lime, and 
surely any lady would do that to earn the 
reputation of being a lady of taste. You 
wear these articles no oftener, and it is reaU 
ly a satisfaction when, for instance, you put 
on your brown dress to select the veil, gloves, 
etc., to harmonize. You may say you can- 
not take the time to hunt them up, or you 
don't care. Then pay some attention to this 
subject for the sake of your friends who 
have taste for harmony in colors, and 
don't allow your own bad tas.te to grate upon 
their sight. If you are in a hurry to start on 
your shopping tour, business, work, or what- 
ever may call you on the street, and you do 
not feel as though vou could take time for 
these details, then consider the subject the 
night before and make the necessary prep- 

During the past few weeks I have noticed 
many hats and bonnets trimmed with white 
ribbon. It is not only out of season, but 
when the ribbon is cheap and soiled is pos- 
itively disgusting. White is more appro- 
priate for the early spring, and then for 
children, or for ladies who are in their car- 
riages, but decidedly too conspicuous for 
street wear, and especially when put on (elt 
or coarse straw hats or any material which 
represents the " rough and ready," and 
white is considered by those of genteel taste 
vulgar except for the house, or evening or 
any dressy occasion; also for a picnic when 
worn by young people, arid then it should be 
in wash goods such as mull, lawn, linen, or- 
gandie, batiste, etc., but never in silk or satin 
as I have seen at picnics composed of real 
ladies and gentlemen. I have also noticed 
on the street ladies wearing black gloves with 
the inside gores of white and large coarse 
stitching on the back of white silk. Can 
anyihing be more conspicuous or more vul- 
gar ? They should only be worn with a 
harlequin dress, and then in a masquerade 
or on the stage. 

I have heard people — and especially gen- 
tlemen — say that such or such a lady was 
beautifully dressed, and yet they could not 
tell what she wore. Such a dressed lady is a 
true artist — nothing conspicuous or loud, 
but showing a perfect sympathy, so to speak, 
in the entire toilet. Such a person would 
never mar her appearance by adding some- 
thing noticeably loud, no more than she 
would put a blot on a beautiful picture; nor 
will she ever give her friends a chance to 
say, " I knew you three blocks off." 

Lincoln on Jefferson. 

George N. Stroat of Nebraska City has 
an autograph letter written by Abraham 
Lincoln in 1859. It is an answer to an in- 
vitation to attend a banquet in Boston on 
the anniversary of the birth of Thomas 
Jefferson. The letter concludes with the 
following tribute to the author of the im- 
mortal Declaration of Independence: 

" All honor to Jefferson, to the man who, 
in the concrete pressure of a struggle for 
independence by a single people, had the 
coolness, lorecast and capacity to introduce 
into a merely revolutionary document an 
abstract truth, applicable to all men and all 
times, and so to embalm it there that to-day 
and in all coming days it shall be a rebuke 
and a stumbling-block to the harbineers of 
reappearing tyranny and oppression," 

OUNG jEfol-KS' QoIdUMjN. 

Mollie's Success. 

" I do declare, wife, those hens are more plague 
than profit. We don't get eggs enough from 
them to amount to a row of pins, and they are 
always getting out and doing some mischief. I 
have a good mind to kill every one of them." 

"Oh, papa, don't 1 don't I" exclaimed little 
Mollie. " Let me take care of them. I know 
I can do it, and they shan't scratch up any 
more beds or do mischief anywhere." 

Mr. Howard looked at bis little daughter in 
surprise, and said: "1 guess you wouldn't 
make out much in the hen business. No, 
the best thing to be done is to kill them all 

Mrs. Howard said : " Yon might let Mollie 
try, James. I believe I would, really." 

" Oh, yes, do, papa. I have heard you say 
there was nothing like trying. Now do let 


" Well, Mollie, I will, and I'll tell you what 
I will do. You take care of the hens, and you 
may have your choice of any one out of the flock 
to pay for the trouble. You may have all her 
eggs, and chickens if she has any, to do what 
you please with. You can sell them, and who 
knows but you may get rich where I have 
failed." With this Mr. Howard went off 

The first thing Mollie did was to put on her 
suobonnet and go out and get the hens into the 
henhouse. She then fastened the door, which 
her father often neglected to do, so no wonder 
his hens got out and made trouble. To tell the 
truth, the reason Mr. Howard's hens did not 
lay their master many eggs was because he did 
not care for them as he ought; he was generally 
very busy with other matters, and so neglected 

Mollie chose for hers a black and white one, 
which she called Speckey. She made up her 
mind to take good care of them all, and as 
there were only sixteen of them, it did not 
seem like a very burdensome task. It was not 
long after Mollie took charge of the hens before 
eggs began to be more plenty than they had 
been for a long time. Speckey laid her full 
share, and every penny her eggs brought in 
Mollie put away in a bank which she purchased 
for the purpose. Her brother Frank, who was 
a little older than Mollie, called it her "hen 

In due time there were seventy-five little 
chickens to be cared for. This made Mollie 
happy, but still she was not quite satisfied, for, 
strange to relate, Speckey seemed to have no 
ambition to raise up a family for her benefit. 

"Oh, dear, mamma !" she said to her mother 
one day, "Speckey never will do anything. I 
wish I had taken Whitey for mine. She has 
got thirteen chickens already." 

But " it is always darkest just before the 
dawn." Only a few days after this, Speckey 
seemed inclined to follow Whitey's example. 
When Mollie went out to feed the hens as 
usual, Speckey was on her nest. Mollie did 
not disturb her, bnt looked again two or three 
hours later and found her still there. Upon 
discovering this Mollie started for the house as 
fast as she could run, and was in so much of a 
hurry that she did not notice the cat which lay 
on the kitchen doorstep blinking at the sun, 
and stepped on her tail, stumbled over the dog 
standing near, and as she fell, caught hold of 
the table-cover, pulled it off, and with it a 
pitcher. The cat yelled, the dog barked, the 
pitcher went down with a crash, and Mollie 
screamed. This brought her mother and 
Frank to the scene of action. Frank said he 
thought a cyclone had struck the house. Mrs. 
Howard remarked that a cyclone couldn't have 
made much more racket, at any rate. Mollie 
picked herself up, and then said: 

"Oh, mamma, Speckey is going to set. 
Please give me some eggs, and come out and 
help me put them under her." 

Frank asked her why she didn't put the eggs 
under Speckey herself. To which Mollie re- 
plied : 

" Of course I can't do it. I don't feel well 
enough acquainted with the. hen 1 " 

" You're afraid; that's what's the matter," 
retorted Frank. 

Mrs. Howard righted things somewhat, rep- 
rimanded Mollie for her haste and carelessness, 
and then picked out thirteen nice eggs and went 
out with Mollie to help set Speckey. 

Frank thought he would have a little fun at 
his sister's expense, so he told two of his mates 
about the "great contract," as he called it, 
which Mollie had made with her father, and 
how she had just put thirteen eggs under old 

The boys declared it would be fun to fool 
Mollie, so they robbed a wild goose's nest they 
had found that day and substituted one of the 
eggs for one of those in Speokey's nest. 

In three weeks' time Speckey came off with 
what Mollie supposed were thirteen chickens, 
but you and I know that one of them was a 
little gosling. Mollie soon discovered that one 
of her chickens was a "homely thing." And 
when it grew to be a little older, it would run 
into every pool of water it could find, much to 
Mollie's and Speckey 's alarm. Poor Speckey 
would screech and flutter around till the little 
goose took to dry land again. Mollie said that 
chicken didn't know anything, and one morning 
when she found it dead, she was glad of it, for 

it had been no comfort to anybody. When the 
boys got around to tell her the trick they had 
played upon her, she waB vexed enongh and 
would not speak to any of them for two or 
three days, as she said they had imposed 
upon her. 

The rest of the flock lived through all the ills 
that chickens are heir to, and were in fine con- 
dition for the market in the fall, so Mollie sold 
them, and when she came to add the money she 
received, with her egg money in the bank, found 
she had $8 in all. With this her father bought 
her a sheep and two lambs. The next spring 
these grew to a flock of six, and in the fall she 
sold them to her father for $25. This, with the 
" wool profit," as Frank called it, amounted to 
$30. The boys declared she was nothing more 
nor less than a "bloated bondholder," and ad- 
vised her to retire from business. She took 
their advice, invested her money in a sealskin 
muff and boa, of which she was very proud, and 
she had reason to be, for she had earned them 
all herself. — Mary Morrison in Portland Tran- 

G(00G> J^EtOtLTH. 

Injurious Effects of Noise. — A writer in 
the Popular Science Monthly asserts that noise 
is one of the most icjurious influences of city 
life. It may not be sufficiently loud to attract 
the attention of those accustomed to it, but, if 
continuous, it acts as inevitably upon the 
nervous system as water in dropping upon a 
stone. Experiments made upon animals show 
that when they have been subjected for a num- 
ber of hours to the vibration of a tuning-fork, 
their nerve centers become irritated, as certain- 
ly as muscular fibers would be affected by an 
acid or electric shock. The injurious effect of 
ordinary noises has been recognized by the 
authorities of European cities, and in some 
cases the nuisance has been suppressed. 
Heavily laden carts are not admitted to certain 
streets of Berlin, and in others they are only 
allowed to pass on condition that the horses 
walk. The street cars at Munich have no bells, 
and those of us who live in places where these 
bells are not used on Sunday can testify to the 
relief attendant on the consequent " peace and 
quiet." The amount of the matter seems to be 
that the city dweller must regard noise aa one 
of the necessary evils of his condition — one to 
be borne philosophically, and requiring a large 
stock of grace and patience. Happy, indeed, 
are they who, through the long hot months, are 
only disturbed in their morning slumbers by 
the song of the birds or the crowing of cocks. 

A Bug in the Ear. — If you get a bag in the 
ear, drown bim out and be quick about it too. 
Writers say when a bug gets into the ear, do 
not be frightened, bnt drown him with oil or 
warm water. There is no philosopher, remarks 
Dr. J. Herbert Claiborne, Jr., in the Medical 
Classics, who could sit unmoved with a bug or 
fly stamping a tattoo upon his eardrum. Yes, 
be frightened, for it will facilitate your move- 
ments. Sweet oil is perhaps the best thing to 
keep him from moving — that is, the first de- 
sideratum. The oil, by its thick consistence, 
will so entangle and bedraggle its legs and 
wings that the intolerable noise will be stopped. 
If oil be not at hand, use any liquid that is not 
poisonous or corrosive. Water will probably 
be within the reach of every one. This is also 
more liable to float him out, too, than either 
sweet oil or glycerine. It has been suggested 
to blow tobacco smoke into the ear to stupefy 
the insect. We cannot indorse this advice; 
tobacco smoke blown into the ear of a child 
has been known to cause alarming symptoms. 
When the movements of the intruder have 
been arrested, syringe the ear gently with 
warm water. All manner of insects and bugs 
have been found in the ear, but you can never 
tell in a given case who the rude caller is that 
is knocking at the door of your brain till you 
have him out. 

Prevention of All Infectious Diseases. — 
The science and practice of medicine and sur- 
gery are undergoing a revolution of such magni- 
tude and importance that its limit oan hardly 
be conceived, says Dr. Austin Flint in Forum. 
Looking into the future, in the light of recent 
discoveries, it does not seem impossible that a 
time may come when the cause of every infec- 
tious disease will be known; when all such 
diseases will be preventable or easily cur- 
able; when protection can be afforded against 
all diseases such as scarlet fever, measles, yellow 
fever, whooping-cough, etc., in which one at- 
tack secures immunity from subsequent oon- 
tagion; when, in short, no constitutional dis- 
ease will be incurable, and such scourges as epi- 
demics will be unknown. These, indeed, may 
be but a part of what will follow discoveries in 
bacteriology. The higher the plane of actual 
knowledge, the more extended is the horizon. 
What has been accomplished within the past 
ten years as regards knowledge of the causes, 
prevention and treatment of diseases far tran- 
scends what would have been regarded a quar- 
ter of a century ago as the wildest and most im- 
possible speculation. 

Dangers of Close Shaving. — It is said on 
good authority that very close shaving is a dan- 
gerous thing to follow up for any considerable 
time. One who claims to know writes as fol- 
lows: "Do you know what a close shave 
means ? I never did until I looked at a face the 
otner day through a microscope which had been 

treated to this luxurious process. Why, t 
entire skin resembled a piece of raw beef, 
make the face perfectly smooth requires not 
only the removal of the hair, but also a portion 
of the cuticle, and a close shave means the re- 
moval of a layer of akin all aronnd. The blood- 
vessels thus exposed are not visible to the eye, 
but under the microscope each little quivering 
mouth holding a minute blood-drop protests 
against such oruel treatment. The nerve tips 
are also uncovered, and the pores are left unpro- 
tected, which makes the skin tender and un- 
healthy. This sudden exposure of the inner 
layer of the skin renders a person liable to have 
colds, hoarseness, and sore throat, and it is 
only that the face and neck are pachyderma- 
tous — " 

Rules for Fat People and for Lean. — To 
increase the weight: Eat, to the extent of sat- 
isfying a natural appetite, of fat meats, butter, 
cream, milk, cocoa, chocolate, bread, potatoes, 
peas, parsnips, carrots, beets; farinaceous foods, 
as Indian corn, rice, tapioca, sago, cornstarch, 
pastry, custards, oatmeal, sugar, sweet wines, 
and ale. Avoid acids. Exercise as little as 
possible; sleep all you can, and don't worry or 
fret. To reduce the weight: Eat, to the ex- 
tent of satisfying a natural appetite, of lean 
meat, poultry, game, eggs, milk moderately, 
green vegetables, turnips, succulent fruits, tea 
or coffee. Drink limejuice, lemonade, and acid 
drinks. Avoid fat, butter, cream, sugar, pastry, 
rice, sago, tapioca, cornstarch, potatoes, car- 
rots, beets, parsnips, and sweet wines. Exer- 
cise freely. 

Onions and Beef. — What is the most 
strengthening food for a convalescent ? Well, 
you know the beef-tea theory has been ex- 
ploded. The most life-giving and digestible 
food that can be given to one just recovering 
from an illness is chopped beef. Just take a 
pound of raw beef, cut off all the fat, slice two 
onions, and add pepper and salt. Then chop 
the onions and meat together, turning thern 
over and over until both are reduced almost to 
a pulp; then spread on rye bread and eat as 
sandwiches. People talk about celery being a 
nervine, but let me tell yon that there is noth- 
ing which quiets the nerves without bad re- 
sults like onions. The use of them induces 
sleep and much strength is obtained from 
them. — Ex. 

Effects of Lights on the Eyes. — The prac- 
tice of having night-lights in children's bed- 
rooms is pronounced very injurious by well- 
known physicians. Instead of allowing the 
optic nerves the perfect rest afforded by dark- 
ness, the light keeps them in perpetual 
stimulation, with the result of causing the brain 
and the rest of the nervous system to suffer. 


Tested Recipes. 

[Written for the Rural Press by Ada E. Taylor.] 

Gocoanut Pudding. — One-half pound butter, 
one small cup white sugar, whites of eight eggs 
whipped to a froth. The white portion of one 
cocoanut grated. Grease the pan witn butter 
and bake. Desiccated cocoanut answers as 
well as fresh. To be eaten with cream and 

Ice Cream Cake. — Take the whites of five 
eggs, 1£ cups of sugar, one-half cup of butter, 
one cup of milk, three cups of flour, and four 
teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Separate this 
mixture and color half with strawberry color- 
ing; flavor this with vanilla, and the other part 
with lemon. Put in the white and then the 
pick. Bake slowly. 

Deliciout Apple Sauce. — Pare and slice thin 
as many apples as you wish. Put them in a 
tin pudding-dish, with enough sugar to make 
them sweet, and a little water. Bake slowly 
until soft. They will turn a rich red and have 
a flavor far exceeding stewed apples. 

Bread Pudding. — Have the pudding-dish 
nearly full of fine bread-crumbs, pour over 
enough boiling milk to more than cover them. 
Warm one-half cup of butter, and mix thor- 
oughly with one cup of sugar and three eggs 
well beaten; stir this gently in the pudding, 
and flavor with lemon. Bake until a delicate 

Pudding Sauce. — Dilute half a glass of cur- 
rant jelly with a teacupful of hot water; stir 
in two tablespoonfuls of batter and the same 
of sugar. Set it over the fire, and when it boils 
add a teaspoonful of cornstarch wet with a lit- 
tle cold water; as soon as it thickens it is done. 
Flavor with lemon. 

Plum Pudding. — Chop half a pound of fresh 
beef suet, mix with it a pint of stale bread- 
crumbs, a cup of flour, a cup of brown sugar, a 
cup each of raisins and currants, a pound of 
citron cut fine, the juice and grated rind of one 
lemon, a wine-glass of brandy, one cup of 
blanched almonds chopped fine. Dissolve a tea- 
spoonful of soda in a little hot water, add to it 
half a oup of molasses and three beaten eggs. 
Mix with the other ingredients and put in a 
greased mold; boil steadily for eight hours. To 
be eaten with brandy sauoe. 

Cream Pie. — Half a pound of butter, a tea- 
oup of sugar, four eggs, two tablespoonfuls of 
flour, well mixed with a pint of sweet milk; 
stir. Flavor with vanilla. Bake in deep pans 
lined with puff paste. 

Baking Puddings. — Paddings bake much 
nicer when the dish is set in the oven in a pan 
of hot water — custards especially. 



[Jan. 19, 1889 

A. T. DKWT£Y. W. B. KWEB. 

Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Office, 220 ^ariei St., N. E. cor. Front St., S.F. 
tr Take the £ leva tor, Ao. It Front 

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Larse advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
In extraordinary type, or in particular parts of the paper, 
a special rates. Four insertions are rated In a month. 

DEWEY & CO., Paifnt Solicitors. 

A. T. DBWBT. W. B. BWBB. «. ■. 8TR0K6 

Our latent forms <jo to press Wednesday evening. 
Registered at S. F. Post Office aa second-class mail matter. 

Saturday, January 19, 1889. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— The Albright Cling Peach, 
49. R. W. Waterman, Governor of California, 57. 

ELuTORlALS. — A Foothill Peach; Desert Lands in 
Lassen, 49. The Week; Changes in the State Board 
of Horticulture; M.eting of the Fruit I'nion, 66. 
Gov. R. W. Waterman; Mixed Farming; The Labor 
Question, 57. 

SHEEP AND WOOL— The Wool-Growers' Pro- 
gram, 50- 

THE DAIRY.— Dairy Progress in Oregon, 50. 
THE VINEYARD — Exper.ence In Orape-Grafting, 

THE LUMBERMAN.— The Lumber Interests, 51. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL.— Apricot Scale, Codlin Moth 
and Plum Knots, 51- 

THE IRRIGATOR.— Irrigation in Inyo; Irrigation 
Meeting at Tracv, 51. 

PATRONS OF H U8BANDRY.— The (iood Time 
at Haywards; Sacramento Joint Installation; Merced 
I Irange; Colorado 8tate Grange; W. M. Brigham at 
National Capital; Grange Elections; The Late Senator 
Chandler; Insurance Fight; The Transfer of the Patron, 

Ti.iiHOME CIRCLE.— Gulbadan's Song; Women 
Don't Want to Vote; A Happy Home; The Other Side; 
Wants and Wishes; A Unique Match-Box; The Eclipse 
as SeeD from Howell Mountain, 54. Dressing Well 
With Small Expeose; Lincoln on Jefferson. 55 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.— Mollie's Success, 

GOOD HEALTH — Injurious Effects of Noise; A Bug 
in the Eir; Prevention of all Infectious Diseases; Dan- 
gers of C ose Shaving; Rules for Fat People and for 
I.-mij- Onions and Beef; Effects of Light on the Eves. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Tested Recipe*, 55. 
FRUIT MARKETING.— The Year's Work of the 

Fruit Union, 58. 
AGRICULTURAL NOTES.— From the various 

counties of California, 60 
THE VETERINARIAN. - Splenic Apoplexy, 
Splenic Fever, and Texas Fever in Cattle; Diseases 
Among Horses In San Diego County, 62. 

Business Announcements. 


Agricultural Implements— Baker Si Hamilton. 

Agricultural Implements— Hawley Bros. Hardware Co. 

Agricultural Implements— Frank Brothers. 

Real Estate— Briggs Fergusson ss Co. 

Shorthorn Cattle Sale — Kit lip & Co. 

Pumps— Bean Spray Pump Co., Los Gatos 

Carbon Bisulphide— J. H. Wheeler. 

Santa Kosa Nurseries— R. W. Bell. 

Drugs— J. G. Steele & Co. 

Horoes— C. L Taylor. . 

L ly Roots— R. Jordan, Nipa, Cal. 

Seeds— Ely & Co., Pniladelpbia, Pa. 

(.rape Cuttings — EUen Vineyard Co. 

Pacific Nurseries— F. Ludemann. 

Hooted Lenoirs— A. Dr.ihms, Sonoma, Cal. 

Horses— H. Wilsey & Co., Petaluma, Cal. 

Orange Trees -Fresno Nursery Co. 

< iraoges— Japanese Tree Importing Co. 

Situation Wanted — G. S. Laurie, Mt. Hermon, Mass 

teTSee Advertizing Columns. 

The Week 

Bright and cold has been the weather over 
the greater area of California during the week. 
We say it is cold, and shiver and shudder most 
gracefully, and yet after the most biting night 
we go ont early in the morning to find the pud- 
dles innocent of ice, and the only sign of the 
severe winter weather the beautiful hoar frost 
which one has to fight with the rising sun to 
get a Bight of. But suoh is the usual California 
winter. It is cold enough to answer the pur- 
pose ; we had just as Boon have a hoar frost 
as three feet of snow. 

It is beautiful weather for winter work, and 
a vast amount of it is being done. £ rery tree 
of fashionable sort will be put out. The gen- 
eral report is that the nurseries are clear of suoh 
stock. There has also been a vast amount of 

plowing done for late cereal crops. No one 
complains of the winter of 18S9 so far, except 
that the crop of immigrants does not meet ex- 
pectations. Bat that is not worth repining 
about; so long as the industries of the State are 
progressing so rapidly, there is no question 
about population. It is better to have it in- 
crease gradually. 

Changes in the State Board of Horti- 

The telegraph as we go to press brings the in- 
formation that a joint session of the Senate and 
Assembly Committees on Viniculture and Viti- 
culture was held Tuesday to consider Senate 
bill No. 36 and Assembly bill No. 4, which relate 
to the reorganization of the State Board of Hor- 
ticulture and to increasing its efficiency. Both 
measures, with some slight changes, were favor- 
ably agreed upon and will be so reported. The 
bill as thus approved was given its first readiug 
in the Assembly Wednesday morning, and ac- 
cording to all appearances will meet with no 
obstacle in its course. 

This being the fact, it is of interest to state in 
a general way what we believe to be the 
changes proposed. We learn these from a re- 
port made by a committee of the Board ap- 
pointed at the Ohioo meeting to formulate a re- 
port upon the matter. The report contained 
the following points: 

1st, that the appropriation be increased to 
the extent of $20,000 per year, $5000 to be paid 
to the Treasurer quarterly, in advance. 

2d, that the horticultural year commence 
April 1, 1889. 

31, that the office or position of Inspector of 
Fruit Pests be abolished. 

4th, that the sum of $400 per month be al- 
lowed for competent office service. 

5th, that a sum not exceeding $1000 be al- 
lowed for traveling expenses. 

6th, that the expenditures necessary to be 
made in experiments in the different districts, 
to be determined by the board, on application 
of one or more of the fruit-growers in such dis- 
tricts, the board to select suoh person or per- 
sona to make such experiments, and to pay 
the expenses thereof. 

7th, that all County Horticultural Boards 
be required by law to report quarterly to the 
State Board in writing, of the condition of the 
fruit interests in their several districts; what is 
being done to eradicate insect pests; also, as 
to disinfecting, as to quarantine against new 
insects; as to carrying out of all laws relative 
to the greatest good of the fruit interests. 

We understand that the bill which has made 
such rapid progress at Sacramento does not in- 
clude the item on appropriations, as that be- 
longs to the general appropriation bill, but the 
other propositions we suppose are incorporated 
in the measure. 

The first item of general interest in the new 
measure is the abolition of the office of State 
Inspector of Fruit Pests. The unsatisfactory 
character of this office has been a matter of 
some discussion, the ditfionlty lyirjg in discharg- 
ing the prescribed duties of the office without 
adequate arrangements therefor. The old law 
provided for local inspection, quarantine, etc, 
but left the compensation for such local work 
to the county boards of supervisors, who acted 
either spasmodically or not at all. Thus the 
State Inspector, who had the appointment and 
supervision of these local officers, found himself 
constantly and continually balked by looal 
negligence or obstinacy because the men he ap- 
pointed to do the work required by the law 
could get no compensation. There were other 
respects in which the State Inspector, no mat- 
ter how earnest or diligent he might be, 
could not carry out the provisions of 
the law governing hiB office. To no one 
have these facts been more painfully ap- 
parent than to State Inspector W. G. Klee, 
and he has long contemplated resignation, and 
in fact did place his resignation in the hands of 
the Board some time ago — the resignation to be 
acted npon by the Board when sucb action 
would be thought to facilitate the changes in 
the manner of the work which are outlined 
above. He would have resigned at a certain 
date, but was informed by the Attorney-General 
that the office conld not remain vacant and that 
it was his duty to hold the place until the law 
is changed. On auch advioe Mr. Klee handed 
in the form of resignation noted. 

Mr, Klee's work has been so universally sat- 

isfactory both to the board and to the public 
at large that his retirement will be regretted. 
He has worked most zealously, energetically 
and faithfully, and has done a vast amount of 
good by his visitations and advice and by his 
numerous timely publications. It is, of course, 
not his fault that the defects in the public 
machinery prevented his carrying out all the 
duties placed upon him. He retires by his 
own volition so that bis incumbency of the 
office may not stand in the way of the changes 
contemplated. Mr. Klee's last work, which is 
just out from the office of the State printer, 
is an exceedingly practical and valuable 
pamphlet describing and prescribing remedies 
for some of the most prominent fruit pests — 
a work to which we shall allude further at an- 
other time. 

Concerning the other provisions of the new 
law in extending the offioe work of the board 
and in providing for local experimentation 
under its auspices, we have not space to re 
mark at this time. 

We writ? of this matter hastily as we go to 
press, and will probably recur to it. Meantime 
we would like to hear from readers of the Rural 
concerning the propositions involved. 

Another Improvement for Our Readers 

By reference to our ue* rates of subscription, 
it will be seen that we now offer subscribers 15 
months for $3, when paid strictly in advance, 
which is ten per cent better terms than ever be- 
fore presented. We have also made our rates 
so that any who could not afford to pay a whole 
season in advance oan get the benefit of our em 
phatic inducements for advance payments on 
shorter periods. 

Combining the subscribers of the California 
Patron and the Rural Press into one larger 
list makes it possible for us to announce better 
terms to all who will pay in advance even for a 
single quarter. 

It also renders it more agreeable for corre- 
spondents to labor for a larger circle of readers, 
affording a stimulus for them to give more la- 
bor to perfect their contributions for a large 
circle of readers. 

The Local Land Office. — During the quar 
ter ending Die. 31, 1SS8, there were sold in the 
S. F. land district 55,38!) acres of Government 
land, the receipts for which were $102,795 
There were recorded 155 homestead entries, the 
fees on which amounted to $1470. There were 
also received fees on 23 timber-culture entries, 
$220; commission on 3312 acres thus located, 
$92; fees on 111 timber-land entries, $1110; on 
226 pre-emption filings, $678; on 1 home dec- 
laration, $3; on 11 coal-land declarations, $33; 
on 1 mineral-land application, $104. Fees from 
testimony reduced to writing amounted to $700. 
The greatest amount of land looated was in 
Mendocino county, and the greatsst amount of 
agricultural lands were taken up in Monterey 
and Sin Luis Obispo counties. 

Sugar Beets at Anaheim — A meeting was 
held at Anaheim last Saturday to learn whether 
farmers would guarantee the planting of an 
acreage of beets, sufficient to insure the build- 
ing of a sugar factory. The Chronicle's dis- 
patch says that representatives were present 
from Fullerton, Fairview, Placentia, Santa Ana 
and the entire valley, and great enthusiasm was 
manifested. Late experiments with sugar beets 
in that neighborhood have given results highly 
satisfactory; and it is said that 10,000 acres can 
be sowed to that crop as soon as definite ar- 
rangements are concluded. The movement has 
aroused the liveliest interest, and residents 
thereabout seem sanguine that a sugarie will 
be established within the year. 

Corn in California. — An Eastern paper, 
announcing the departure of one of their citi- 
zens for California, where be is to take up his 
residence, says: " He will never Bee such a 
corn crop in the Golden State." Whereupon 
the Citrograph remarks: " As the crop was 
8000 bushels on 159 acres, we think be will see 
a much larger one if he goes to the right places. 
We have frequently Been over 90 bushels to the 
acre raised on damp land, in the river bottoms 
and along the first mesas. And, as he sold his 
crop at 31 cents a bushel while the price here is 
about 55 cents, the difference becomes still 
more apparent. It foots up $16.53 per acre in 
Illinois and $49.50 per acre in California." 

The Meeting of the Fruit Union. 

As we go to press ou Wednesday, the An- 
nual Meeting of the California Fruit Union is 
in progress. President P. E. Piatt of Sacra- 
mento and Secretary H. A. Fairbank, assisted 
by B. C. Brown of Santa Cruz, are guiding and 
recording the proceedings. The meeting opened 
promptly in the otfise of the State Board of 
Horticulture, but the room was soon seen to be 
too small, and an adjournment was had to the 
new headquarters of the Viticultural Commis- 
sion at Piatt's hall, where there is a good, spa- 
cious auditorium. 

The meeting is a grand success in point 
of numbers, and this we now conceive 
to be a surety of wise action, as we 
argued last week. The reading of the 
annual report of Secretary Fairbank was the 
feature of the first session, It is given in full 
upon another page of this issue of the Rural. 
It is, as the reader will see, a very interesting 
document, and was received with marked ap- 
proval by the meeting. After the reading of 
the report, short addresses on the outlook for 
California fruit at the East were made by 
Messrs. Snow of Boston, Thomas of Chicago 
and others, and an adjournment was then taken 
until evening — too late to follow the proceed- 
ings further in this issue. Next week we will 
give our usual outline of the transactions. 

Never a Better Time. 

The favorable offar contained in our new list 
of subscription rates should be sufficient to in- 
duce all who possibly can to pay up for their 
paper. Few will find as profitable an invest- 
ment elsewhere. We call especial attention to 
the inducement offered for subscribers in 
arrears to settle up during the initial months 
of the year and favor the publishers as well as 
themselves by securing the benefit of cash in 
advance terms. 

Thrashing Maize. — The Springfield (Ohio 
Democrat says that a Mr. Wilson lately rigged 
up his thrashing machine for thrashing corn, 
and thrashed over 100 bushels for one of his 
neighbors. This corn was put in excellent con- 
dition for market by the machine — in fact it 
was sold to a grain-buyer at Plattsburg and 
pronounced in good order. Mr. Wilson thinks 
that in a few years all the corn sold by farm- 
ers to shippers will be shelled and cleaned in 
this way. Those who witnessed the operation 
say that every part of the plant is utilized; the 
tassel, stalk, shuck, blade and cob are all made 
into one homogeneous mass of feed, which stock 
of all kinds relish as much as the beat timothy 
and clover hay. 

" California on Wheels " continues its 
triumphant march eastward, attracting throngs 
of admirers and proving a brilliant success. The 
gentlemen in charge report the utmost kindness 
from railroads, journalists and everybody. 
Visitors at Minneapolis numbered 15,000; and 
the later dispatches say that Wisconsin folk 
have fairly " gone wild " over the exhibit. The 
train met its first climatic obstacle between Mil- 
waukee and Chippewa Falls, being snowed in at 
a little town where the snow lay 22 inches on 
the level and there were drifts of greater depth 
all about. Although the weather was very cold, 
the products- had not suffered materially. 

Sorghum-Suoar Patknt — It is telegraphed 
from Washington that in the suit brought by 
the Attorney-General against Magnus Swanson 
for the cancellation of tbe patent for a method 
for tbe manufacture of sugar from sorghum 
cane, the demurrer of Swanson has been over- 
ruled and the case set for trial. Commissioner 
Caiman thinks this action of the court settled 
the point of law as to the right of the Govern- 
ment to bring suit for cancellation of patents in 
cases where employes make discoveries while 
employed by the Government. 

Quarantine Guardian. — The supervisors of 
Santa Clara county have appointed H. A. 
Brainard official Qiarantine Guardian, with 
salary at the rate of $900 a year, the board re- 
serving the right to discontinue the office at 
any time. Mr. Brainard is well informed on 
the horticulture of his county, and will, no 
doubt, make a good officer. 

The Supervisors of Yolo county have revoked 
the $5 bounty on coyote scalps. 

Jan. 19, 1889] 



Gov. R. W. Waterman. 

Pertinent to the session of the State Leg- 
islature, now in progress at the State capital, 
we present the following biographical sketch 
of the Chief Executive of California: 

Robert Whitney Waterman, seventeenth 
Governor of California, was born in Fair- 
field, Herkimer county, New York, Dec. 15, 

His father was a merchant and died while 
Robert was quite young. Two years later 
the son removed to the West and located at 
Sycamore, III. Up to his twentieth year he 
was a clerk in a country store. In 1846 he 
engaged in business for himself as a general 
merchant in Belvidere, III. In 1847 he 
married Miss Jane Gard- 
ner of that pace. They 
have had seven children, 
six of whom are living — 
two sons and four daugh- 
ters. In 1849 Mr. Water- 
man was postmaster at 
Genoa, III., under President 
Taylor. In 1850 he went 
to California with the eirly 
tide of the gold-seeking im- 
migration, and engaged in 
mining on the Feather 
river. Two years later he 
returned to Illinois, loca- 
ting at Wilmington, and 
engaging in an extensive 
general mercantile busi- 
ness, at the same time giv- 
ing considerable attention 
to agricultural pursuits. 

In 1853 he publi hed the 
Wilmington Independent. 
He was a delegate to the 
convention held at Blonm- 
ington, III., in 1854, that 
gave name to the Republi- 
can party, and was an early 
friend and associate of 
Abraham Lincoln, Lyman 
Trumbull, Richard Yates, 
Drtvid Davis, Owen Love- 
joyand Rithaid J. Oglesby. 

While Governor Water- 
man has never been known 
as a politician, he has al- 
ways taken a lively and 
clear-sighted interest in the 
affairs of the nation. He 
did effective work during 
the campaign of Henry 
Clay, for whose character 
he has always had an ardent 
admiration; also for Gen. 
Tavlor in 1848, and for 
Gen. Scott in 1852. He 
took a very active put in 
Fremont's campaign, and 
also in the senatorial con- 
test between Lincoln and 
Douglas. He held the of- 
fice of postmaster at Wil- 
mington, It'., under Presi- 
dent Lincoln, and, not- 
wi hstanding numerous and 
important duties and inter- 
ests at home, at the out- 
break of the war he enlisted 
over 1000 men and also 
rendered valuable service 
as bearer of dispatches for 
Governor Yates, making 
several trips to the front in 
1861-2-3-4-5, and after- 
ward actively taking part in 
the reorganization of the 
hospital service at Cairo, Bird's Point 
M< und City, 111., and Fort Holt and 
cah, Ky. 

In 1873 he returned to California and es- 
tablished his home at San Bernardino the 
lollowing >ear. He had alieady acquired a 
practical and valuable mining experience, 
and soon started out as a prospector. After 
undergoing many hardships and meeting 
obstacles that would have discouraged most 
men, he was finally successful in d scover- 
ing a series of silver mines in a local ty 
which has since come to be known as the 
Calico Mining District, in San Bernardino 
county. He had always retained his liking 
for agiicultural pursuits, and with the in- 
creased means thus placed at his command, 
he soon made his Hot Sp> ings ranch, on the 
mountain-side near the city of San Ber- 
nardino, of the nnst charming and 
beautiful homes ; n the State. This place, 
with its picturrsq ie surroundings is the ad- 
miration of thou ands of visitors every year. 
During the Presidential campaign of 1884, 
he was one of the principal projectors and 
builders of a large " wigwam" or pavilion in 
San Bernardino, for the use of po'itical 

meetings. At the Republican State Con- 
vention held at Los Angeles, Aug. 27, 1886. 
Mr. Waterman was nominated for Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, and in the following Novem- 
ber he was elected by a plurality of 2500 
votes, the Democratic State ticket being 
successful, with but two other exceptions. 

He came to the Chair of the Senate with- 
out previous experience as a presiding officer, 
but acquitted himself in a manner that com- 
manded the respect of that body and of the 
people, and succeeded in winning over his 
severest critics of opposite political faith. 

Upon the death of Governor Washington 
Bartlett, September 12, 1887, Lieutenant- 
Governor Waterman was called to the duties 
of Chief Executive, being inaugurated the 
following day in San Francisco. The oath 
of office was administered by Justice McFar- 
land of the Supreme Court. 

During recent years Governor Waterman 

pounds of butter to the cow daring the last year . 
A flock of 50 sheep, young cattle, work 
horses and brood mares, Berkshire hogs, and 
improved breeds of poultry constitute the bal- 
ance of his live-stock. In this system of farm- 
ing there is a chance of utilizing the waste in- 
cidental to the rancher and of making the busi- 
ness prr finable. 

The Labor Question. 

There is juet now considerable discussion on 
the labor supply and needs of the State, but it 
seems to be fostered and promoted rather as a 
daily newspaper sensation than as a serious 
economic question. So far as getting up excite- 
ment and angry wrangle by spreading reports 



hts engaged in numerous business enter- 
prises in various parts of the State. He is 
the owner of the famous Stonewall gold 
mine in San Diego county, and has extensive 
cattle, dairy, fruit and grain ranch properties 
in Southern California. He is president of 
the San Diego, Cuyamaca & Eastern rail- 
way, and is prominently connected with 
many nth<»r public enterprises tending to the 
devtl. pintnt of the State. 

" Mount Pleasant," near Chinese Camp, 
Tuolumne oounty — long the home of our worthy 
and kindly correspondent, the late John Taylor 
—has been sold to Mr. Hiniker of San Jose. 
The children — so one of them writes us from 
Vallejo— left the old place with deep regret, 
averse to a haviog it pass into the hands of 
strangers; but with the loved father and mother 
both gone, its charm was all departed. 

Grow More Buhacu — The Fresno Repub- 
lican thioks that the culture and curing of bu- 
bach for insect powder could be carried on with 
profit much more widely in this State. 

Mixed Farming. 

A Rural reporter made a flying trip from 
Petaluma recently, through the western por- 
tion of Sonoma county to Bloomfield, a small 
country village, about 14 miles from Petaluma, 
and situated in the oenter of a very fertile val- 
ley. This section has been devoted to raising 
grain, potatoes, and dairying, from an early 
date, and of late years its adaptability for de- 
ciduous fruits has induced planting of large 
orchards, especially of the apple, pear, and 

The advantages this section possesses in Boil 
and climate for mixed farming has changed 
somewhat the policy of former years, and a 

practice of uniting dairying and farming has that there are organized efforts among producers 
been adopted by a majority of the residents of {m ^ overthrow of the Chinese Exclusion Act 

and the like, the effort of the press is alto- 
gether reprehensible. Of oourse people are 
obliged to employ Chinese in some cases or al- 
low their crops to go to ruin, and they will con- 
tinue to do so because of the strong instinct of 
self-preservation, but that these parties are 
planning and working for the old-time unre- 
stricted Chinese immigration is false. So far 
as our acquaintance with these agricultural pro- 
ducers goes, they favor the employment of peo- 
ple of their own race and do, in fact, praotice 
it just as far as possible, and are pleased to find 
that the available labor supply other than Chi- 
nese is continually increasing. But, of course, 
they still say that they are still to a certiin 
extent dependent upon Chinese, which is mere- 
ly the fact, but it is seldom that the view is 
held by producers that there is need of muoh 
greater supply of Chinamen than is now avail- 
able. This fact was fully shown in the experi- 
ence of the fruit-growers, which was fully set 
forth in the Rural daring the last fruit har- 
vest. By the employment of families who came 
to the fruit regions from all directions, the 
growers were saved from using Chinamen ex- 
cept in the more difficult labor of picking and 
packing heavy baskets. By far the most of the 
lighter and pleasanter work of cutting and peel- 
ing fruit, spreading on trays, etc, was done by 
white persons of both sexes and all ages. This 
fact is set forth in the remarks of A. T. Hatoh 
at a recent meeting of the State Board of Trade, 
which are reported as follows: 

Mr. Hatch said that when women and 
children had been employed to pick fruit it had 
answered admirably. There are thousands of 
families in this State who could take a camping 
outfit and go on to the ranches during the fruit- 
picking season, and not only make money, but 
be benefited by the change of scene and climate. 
In Solano county it requires about 5000 persons 
to pick the fruit. Much of this is Chinese 
labor through necessity. Chinese labor has not 
and does not enhance in value. Chinamen are 
paid $1 a day, and they are employed simply 
in consequence of the inability to procure ef- 
ficient white labor. With reference to the 
quality of laborers obtained at employment of- 
fices, Mr. Hatch said the poorest quality was 
got from those offices. 

The last remark of Mr. Hatch is but the ex- 
perience of many others who have had men 
sent indiscriminately to them from the city. 
There are good men to be found at the employ- 
ment offices, of course, and the institutions are 
often very useful to employer and to employed. 
But to order a lot of so many men from city 
haunts and trust to them the most delioate and 
systematic work of the fruit harvest is a very 
dangerous proceeding. The percentage one is 
likely to get of drunken and irresponsible out- 
casts is so great that a fruit-grower is hard 
pressed when he orders a large lot of men from 
the city. 

If this is the case, even where the employer 
has an agent to select men in the form of the 
manager of the intelligence office, who, in most 
cases, we do not doubt, does as well as he can 
in most cases from the applicants before him, 
bow muoh more dangerous it would be to fill a 
vacancy by such a means as one of the city 
newspapers seems to consider as a sovereign 
one, which seems to publish the need and then 
run cut-rate trains from the city to the farms. 
We are quite sure that few employers would 
take the risk of harboring such men as oome to 
them in that way. 

The whole subject is one of importanoe, it 
is true, and should be discussed and inquired 
into, but not from the standpoint of the sensa- 
tional newspaper, or of the demagogue. If any 
of our readers can make useful suggestions as 
to the demand and supply for the coming sea- 
son, we should be glad to hear from them. 

this prosperous neighborhood. Mr. Wm. P. 
Hall, an old resident, has gained a very high 
reputation as a successful farmer, and we here- 
with give some daU connected therewith. 
His farm contains 770 acres suitably divided 
in fields of from 40 to 80 acres. Continued ro- 
tation of crops and systematic manuring has 
kept his land fertile and as capable of large 
production as it was 30 years ago, when it was 
a virgin soil and only used for pasturing cattle. 
His system of rotation is to have a orop of 
wheat or barley follow a orop of beans or pota- 
toes, and then a crop of oats or hay, after 
which it is used for pasture for five years. 
Meequit grass seed is sown on the stubble, 
which will grow well, but is gradually crowded 
out by the native wire grass. During the year 
1888 his orop of wheat averaged over 45 bushels, 
of barley over 75 bushelp, of hay over three 
tons, and potatoes over 80 bags (100 pounds) 
to the acre. 

Mr. Hall's dairy of 80 oows (graded Short- 
horns and Holsteins) made an average of over 180 



[Jan. 19, 1889 

it would appear that some modifying aotion 

would be necessary. 

Receipts and Expenditures. 

The affairs of this Union have been oon- 
dncted as economically as possible; in fact, in 
our humble opinion, a Braall amount expended 
during the busiest portion of the year, at least, 
for more skilled help, while not absolutely nec- 
essary, would doubtless have been appreciated 
by those who were, through the organization, 
consigning their products. The difficulty which 
was, and will continue to be experienced, being 
to secure at that particular period, and for so 
short an engagement, adequate assistance. 

The following balance gives the exact status 
of the condition of the Union on the 10th of 
January, 1889: 

Kl UIT CDa^keting. 

The Year's Work of the Fruit Union. 

Annual Report of Secretary Fairbanks. 

To the President and Member* of the Califor- 
nia Fruit Union:— One year ago we had the 
pleasure of presenting the second as we now 
have of submitting the third annual report of 
the organization now assembled. 

At that time, we said we could, with pleas- 
ure, point to the many advances made by the 
Union during the year, and now, as we glance 
backward over the busy season but barely fin- 
ished, and at this time review the work accom- 
plished, we can see that still further progress 
has been made in the last eight months in the 
effort to place our luscious fruits in the hands 
of the many on the other Bide of the mountains, 
while at the same time keeping in mind the 
fact that there is no small cost attending the 
raising, packing and shipping of our products, 
which must be returned to the producer to- 
gether with a small percentage to compensate 
him for his capital invested and the risk of 
actual loss he incurs on every pound of green 
deciduous fruit which he intrusts to the tender 
mercies of the transportation companies. The 
most important step forward taken during the 
year has been the establishing of the auction 
method of selling our fruits in Chicago. The 
plan had met with such success in Boston and 
New York the preieding year that many fa- 
vored the method for Chicago, but there were 
those who argued that this fact was no criterion 
to go by, as the auctioning of fruits in either 
of these first -mentioned markets was no inno- 
vation, so that it was not without opposition 
that the trial was made. 

The result has borne out the most sanguine 
expectations. While it is conceded by the 
warmest adherents of the plan that, at private 
Bale, a few (and the number is very limited) 
boxes will sell at a figure slightly in advance ot 
the highest price realized at auction, it is also 
claimed, and the assertion seems to be substan- 
tiated by the actual returns, that the total sales 
of a car at auction will be fully as large and 
often exceed the gross results realized by the 
old method of selling; while the method has 
the still further advantage of allowing the 
shipper to know immediately on the arrival of 
his consignment what it is sold for, which ena- 
bles him to decide whether to continue ship- 
ping, to dry or to sell to the local buyers, 
while at the same time the returns reach him 
within 11 days from date of shipment, thus 
obviating to a great degree the necessity of se- 
curing advances on the orop. So marked has 
been the success of these sales that we notice 
our Florida friends are following in our foot- 
steps and are putting their oranges on the 
Chicago market through the medium of the 

Stock in the Union. 

The increase of stock issued during the year 
has been very small, only S278.75 having been 
received from delinquents and from new issue, 
representing a total number of shares sub- 
scribed and added to our list for the year of 
335, so that at present our organization is rep- 
resented in 27 cr unties of the State by 12,658 
shares held by 409 growers and shippers. 

There is yet considerable due on the origin- 
ally subscribed stock, the amount reaching 
nearly $1600 and representing some 3200 

This in all probability will never be taken 
up, and it would seem that some aotion should 
be taken to cut loose from this dead weight, as 
it does neither the organization nor the various 
delinquents any good and serves only as a 
stumbling-block in the way of getting together 
a quorum of the stock at any of our meetinga. 

At the outset it was deemed best to allow all 
dilatory subscribers ample time, but now that 
three years of aotive business operations have 
been concluded, it would appear that none 
would have cause to complain were their 
names in some way dropped from our list of 

It might not be out of place to mention in 
this connection that our attention has been 
called a number of times by various members to 
the advisability of some change being made in 
Subdivision 5 of Seotion 5 in our by-laws, a 
clause which readB that — 

Subdivision 5 — When aBy stockholder shall 
cease to be qualified as Buch, he may deliver 
up to the secretary his certificate of stock, 
which shall thereupon be canceled and he shall 
be repaid by the corporation the amount he 
shall have paid thereon. 

The reasons given for the necessity of making 
some change in this particular are briefly stated 
as follows: 

Suppose that one of our growers, who 
should take, say, ten shares of stock, and so en- 
title himself to all the privileges of the Union 
in the matter of reduced freight rates and 
systematic distribution, and should in many 
other ways receive benefits vastly out of pro- 
portion to the small amount of capital invested, 
upon which he has alto received six per cent 
annual interest in the way of dividends, should, 
after two or three years of fellowship, Bell his 
property, he can, nnder this section, surrender 
his stock, and receive in return the small 
amount he originally paid into the treasury, 
and for which he has already received an 
equivalent many times over. 

From a legal standpoint it may be necessary 
to continue this clause in operation, otherwise 


166 07 Expense. Incidental 

208 95 Stationery and Printing 

2,720 36 Telegraphing , 

5 80 Advertising I 

20 75 Coal , 

) Stock 114,264 26 

95 12 Telephone 

I Cnmmis ion Account 18,966 25 

768 61 Fre ght and Loading Due 

9,439 73 Profit », d L 88 i 

Dividend Account No. 1 439 92 

Shippers' Rebate 306 42 

Reserve Fund 142 96 

85 S»lary 

00 Office Rent 

66 Postage 

09 Bank 

60 Exchange i 

90 Traveling Expenses 

91 Cash 

60 Office Fixtures 

$B4,o:> 3 

From the above balance it will be seen that 
with the single exception of the telegraphing ac 
oount the expenses of the preceding year have 
been very materially reduced. The explanation 
of the heavy increase, amounting to nearly $1500, 
in this acoount is that where the auction method 
of selling is pursued the entire invoice, even to 
the minutest detail, must necessarily be tele- 
graphed, in order to allow the auctioneers an 
opportunity to issue catalogues in advance of 
the arrival of the car, a proceeding which, of 
course, greatly increases the cost over the old 
manner of advising. 

It will be noticed that our total receipts from 
all sources have been $19,189, and the total die- 
bursements $12,195 02, which, with the funds 
in the treasury at the beginning of the season, 
leaves on hand $262 91 cash and $1 1,523 09 de- 
posited in the treasury at Sacramento. 

Th n re is still due to stockholders on dividend 
No. 1 $438 92, and on the rebate allowed ship- 
pers $306.42. 

Shipments for the Year. 

The shipping for the season has, in the aggre 
gate, been quite successful. At the same time 
the fact has been very forcibly brought to the 
notice of all who have shipped, that when they 
have in the Bast a full crop, as was the case the 
past season, we cannot hope to compete with 
them and pay the rates of freight we are now 
charged by the transportation companies. For 
instance, they can raise and sell their domestic 
peacheB and grapes at a profit of 1 J cents per 
pound, as was largely dooe this year, while we, 
at the lowest rate given us on this class of fruit, 
must needs pay one half a cent per ponnd more 
than this for freight &\one; while to pay all nec- 
essary expenses incurred in growing and ship- 
ping to Eietern markets and make the business 
even fairly prosperous our fruit must sell for at 
least five cents per pound in a wholesale way. 

The above, with other causes which are ex- 
plained further on, served to limit the number 
of cars and the length of the shipping season as 
well. Our first car this year left Winters, May 
18th, the same date as the rir t car of the pre- 
ceding year, but our final car was forwarded 
from Wrights Nov. 14th, ten days earlier than 
last season. 

The following table shows the districts fur- 
nishing shipments and the distribution of the 



~Q l« ZiS, 

a — 








St. Paid 1 : 








4 1 












2 7 
14 .. 









12 .. 
2'J .. 

8 .. 
16 .. 

1 .. 
« .. 
1 -. 
15 .. 
125 1 

19 .. 
176 .. 

25 .. 
1 .. 

20 2 



10 3 
1 12 97 
32 3H 346 

Totals 45 27123 77 24 261 4951 3 56'27i 850 

It might be well to say in explanation that 
the agents at St. Panl and Minneapolis are in 
hearty accord and work together, so that it 
matters little to whioh place a car may be 
billed, as on its arrival both cities are supplied 
from the same car. The railroad faoilities be- 
ing somewhat better for sending the oar first 
to Minneapolis and then, after a portion has 
been removed, forwarding it to St. Paul, it 

transpires, more cars were billed to the former 
place. As a matter of fact nearly the same 
amount of fruit has been sold in each city. 

Comparing this table with the one pre- 
pared for the season of 1887, we see that the 
gain of 90 cars has been made chiefly in the 
shipments from new points, such as Colfax, 
Santa Rosa, Cordelia and Mayhewe, with a 
heavy increase from Sacramento; while the older 
shipping places, such ae Vacaville, San Jose, 
Natoma, Wrights and Davisville, fall way be- 
low their last year's record. 

From a careful compilation of some 9000 du- 
plicate account sales, as rendered the various 
shippers, we learn that the total number of 
boxes shipped was 282,040; crates, 253 323; 
pounds, 12,602.180. 

Where the Money Goes. 
The gross sales for these amounted to $773,- 
117 42, from whioh was deducted $345,156.28 
for freight, $2430.02 for cartage and $77,298.06 
For commission, giving a total gross charge of 
$124,884 36, which would leave $348 233 06 to 
be returned the shippers, or about 2 92 oents 
per pound. These figures, of course, do not 
show the actual net returns to the shipper, as 
the cost of picking, packing, boxes, etc., does 
not enter into the account sales as rendered. 
The amount expended in defraying these ex- 
penses is variously estimated, but the one 
which seemingly comes nearest the medium fig- 
ure is 85 cents per 100 pounds. With this as 
a basis, we find that from the figures given 
above we will have to deduct for the neces- 
sary expenses incident to shipping $107,118 53, 
leaving $241,114 53 as the aotnal money re- 
turns to the grower, which gives an average of 
1 91 cents per pound on shipments of all vari- 
eties of fruits. Thus it will be readily seen 
that while the growers are receiving $241,- 
114.53, the commission men are the richer by 
$77,298.06, while the transposition companies 
receive the lion's share and pocket $345,156.28, 
or nearly one dollar and a half for every one 
which finds its way into the producer's purse. 

Notes on Different Fruits. 
The car-lot cherry shipments were very few 
in numbers, a fact due largely to the late rains 
which rendered quite a portion of the Alameda 
county crop unfit for snipping and so reduced 
the supply. 

Apricots were sent in large quantities and 
did muoh better than last year. 

Btrtlett pears, during a portion of the sea- 
son, sold unusually low, a fact which was ex- 
plained by our agents as being due to the fruit 
arriving extremely green, so that after the re- 
tail stores and stands were filled np with the 
pears which they had to hold to ripen before 
they could realize from them, prices necessarily 
dropped, as only the Urger buyers felt inclined 
or oould afford toeffect further purchases of the 
fruit which daily continued to arrive. 

The later shipments all paid remarkably well 
and netted the shippers fancy prices. 

Peaches, during the early part of the season, 
or up to about the 10th of August, sold re- 
markably well, as they carried in first-class con- 
dition; but the later shipments of this variety 
of fruit coming into competition with the 
home-grown article, barely brought freight, 
proving conclusively that for Eastern shipment 
those varieties ripening before the date men 
tioned are vastly superior, being even prefer- 
able to the very late varieties, although 
these, to a limited extent, will command good 

In all markets even medium-sized freestone* 
are very much preferred to even a very large, 
highly colored clingstone. 

Prunes and plums for some reason did not 
sell as well as last season. Of the varieties 
shipped, the Tragedy and Japan clearly lead in 
prices obtained. 

Grapes, until nearly the close of the season, 
sold remarkably low, a result brought about en- 
tirely by the poor condition of the fruit on ar- 
rival. On every car and from all quarters 
came back the report: "Car arrived, with 
grapes badly started," etc. In fact, the re- 
turns were so discouraging that many either 
dried their fruit or allowed it to remain on 
the vines. So poor a season for grape ship 
ments has not been experienced for a dozen 
years— a fact largely attributable to the unusu- 
ally severe hot weather which we had during 
the months of July and August, a heat which 
literally burned the grapes up as they hung on 
the vines. 

The uncertainty of condition on arrival on 
the one hand, and the certainty of a high freight 
charge on the other, served to reduce our 
shipments very materially, as fully 100 more 
cars would have been forwarded had the returns 
justified the venture. 

Fall and winter pears, notwithstanding the 
fact that our crop was a light one, have not 
brought their usual prices, and for a time some 
thought this was due to the method of selling, 
but as the season advanced the cause was very 
obvious, as those growing the product found the 
fruit was not keeping even here, although not 
subjected to the trying experience of a change 
of climate. The facts were, our two compara- 
tively dry winters had rendered the worms un- 
usually aggressive and caused the years to melt 
right down, thus necessitating the immediate 
placing on the market of those varieties which 
are generally laid away for the late fall and 
winter trade. 

A new departure was inaugurated during the 
last months of shipping, being that of sending 
late pears through to the extreme East. The 
results on the four or five cars so sent were, to 
a certain extent, gratifying, as showing the 

possibilities of opening up a market there for 
this fall and winter stock. 

Prices for Different Fruits. 
A table giving the net prices realized per 
pound in the various cities has been prepared 
and is appended. It shows the net money per 
pound in cents and fractions of a cent returned 
to the grower by the firm shipped to in the 
East, but does not of course include the oost of 
cultivation, preparing for market or package. 






















w York 





Plums S. prune 


2 a 







2 5 

c homes 






4 8 















2 8 


2 6 






3 4 

Neciarines . . 











1 .6 





1 8 




1 3 




1 1 









Facilities for Shipping. 

The time made by the special trains this sea- 
son was very satisfactory, there being fewer 
late arrivals even than when sent by passenger 
train, but the time made by the cars receiving 
freight service was equally as unsatisfactory. 
Where in former years cars reached their desti- 
nation in from eight to ten days, this season a 
run of ten days was the exception, and the time 
was more often from 15 to 23 days, a delay 
which proved ruinous in nearly every instance. 

The question of suitable oars has also assumed 
very considerable proportions. During the 
entire shipping season the utmost difficulty 
was experienced in securing cars to load. While 
trains were being run, cars provided with any 
sort of a coupling could be sent without diffi- 
culty to either Omaha or Chicago, as the trains 
ran through solid to both cities; but, even dur- 
ing the dispatching of trains, the same difficulty 
was experienced in securing cars for points 
divergent from Omaha or for the cities east of 
Chicago, while in the passenger-train shipments 
of both the early and late season the most vex- 
atious delays were of daily occurrence. 

We are glad to say that finally, after repeated 
and continuous effort, the loading faoilities at 
Sacramento, where the greater portion of 
the active work of the executives is done, 
have been in a measure improved, and 
another season (possibly at a slightly in. 
creased cost in the item of drayage) small 
shipments oao be handled with much greater 
dispatch than in previous years. 

Difficulties to get East of Chicago. 

The unfavorable conditions surrounding the 
securing of the low rate of freight to New York 
and Boston, made it extremely difficult to sup- 
ply those markets as we desired, and it was 
often only by the most determined ifihrt that 
we were enabled to arrange for the five 
cars east of Chicago to arrive on the days when 
they desired them, and at the same time keep 
all the other agents supplied, as the great 
secret in securing remunerative returns from all 
markets lies in giving them a continuous sup- 
ply, not overdosing them one day, then neglect- 
ing them the next three. 

To the uninitiated this may seem perfectly 
easy to accomplish and a matter which oan be 
readily arranged on paper by formulating a 
schedule, and possibly it might, were all the 
cars shipped the property of a single firm or 

But as it is, with many of the cars being 
loaded by from 1 to 25 parties, each having 
their various preferences and desires which 
cannot be entirely ignored, while at the same 
time there enters into the difficulty two other 
factors equally as important, being the well- 
established facts that certain markets will pay 
fancy prices for some varieties of fruits, while 
in some other way the same variety will barely 
bring freight and certain kinds will carry 
to some points and pay well, while if sent to 
farther markets the shipment might prove a 
total loss, and at the same time one must al- 
ways bear in mind that the locality from which 
the fruit comes which fills the car has also a 
great deal to do in determining the destination, 
as a variety of a kind of fruit from one section 
of the State will carry well to Boston, while 
the same variety of the same kind of fruit from 
some other locality barely carries, in good con- 
dition, to Omaha, the matter is one which 
gives the one in charge no end of cause for 
worry and sleeplessness, and seems also prolific 
of cause for dissatisfaction among our con- 
signors. There are doubtless many who con- 
sider the effice of manager a sinecure. To all 
such we would say that we are confident we 
may, in the name of the manager for the coming 
year, whoever he may be, extend to yon a 
hearty invitation to make a visit to the office 
of the Union in Sacramento any time during 
the busy season and there examine into the 
daily routine of work which occupies the time 
of the several officers. I am certain that then 
you would have a much better idea of the 
possibilities of the office in developing tact and 
patience and also of the amount of actual hard 
work done than you have now. 

Points for the Future. 

Finally we would say that the possibilities of 
good to the members, through co operation 
with the plans of the Union, are but dimly 
realized by the many, and in fact they are as 
yet but partially developed. 

In the simple matter of selection of agents, 
in the various cities, great care has been taken 

Jan. 19, 1889.] 

fACiFie f^UftAb PRESb 

to select the best houses, and being now in a 
position to be very exacting as to requirements, 
we are satisfied that in the various places where 
the Union has appointments, no better firms 
exist than those representing our interests. 
These agents are all under heavy bond, and 
there is no possibility of a loss to any of our 

We can assure you the commission charged 
the ooming year will be no higher than that 
charged by any reliable organization or party 
which essays to handle your product for you, 
and the advantage you gain while dealing with 
responsible parties is greatly increased by the 
fact that should the commission, whatever it 
may be that is charged, prove more than suffi- 
cient to defray economical running expenses, 
the surplus, instead of swelling the bank ac- 
count of the party or organization handling 
your product, is relumed to you, in the form of 
a rebate, our organization thus being pre- 
eminently a co-operative one. 

Such being the facts, we fail to see the wis- 
dom displayed by some in shipping indiscrimi- 
nately, as to cities and consignees, on the ad- 
vice of any one who may come along and solicit 

As a matter of fact, carloads of fine fruit the 
past season were sent to small towns, which, at 
the best, could not dispose of any such quan- 
tity within a week, the limit of the life 
of the fruit being not over three days, while 
at other times carloads were consigned to 
parties with no trade and to markets already 
full, simply on the strength of a handful 
of telegrams, displayed, in many instances, 
from wholly irresponsible parties, quoting 
fancy prices for various fraits, but whose actu 
al returns, made after perhaps a couple of 
shipments, had been intrusted to them on the 
strength of such representations, did not come 
within 75 per cent of the prices even at which 
they wired the first car was selling on arrival. 

Taking all these things into consideration, 
we would strongly urge that whenever any may 
think they have cause for grievance, they state 
it openly, and whether the fault lies with them- 
selves or some one else, have it thoroughly 
and satisfactorily settled, and, if possible, rem- 
edied, then, laying aside any ill-feeling, which, 
for any cause, may have been engendered, all 
with one accord work together for the advance 
ment of our organization, which has already, 
from so small a beginning, despite strenuous 
antagonistic efforts, given promise of being 
productive of an indefinite amount of good to 
all fruit-producers, whether they may be work- 
ing with us or otherwise, and by an earnest, 
untiring, combined effort, make the Union one 
of the strongest organizations of our well- 
favored State. Respectfully, 

H A. Faikbank, S c'y- 

Our Agents, 

Our Prirhos can do much in aid of our paper and tht 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents In their labors of canvassing, by lending their In- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We Intend to send non> 
but worthy men. 

A. F. J bwbtt — Tulare Co. 

F. B Logan— Southern California. 

H. G. Parsons— Northern California. 

Gso. Wilson — Sacramento Co. 

W. W. Thkobalds— San Diego Co. 

.Iohn L. Dotlr— Napa Co 

J. C. Hoaq — -an Francisco. 

J. G. H. Lahpadius— San Francisco. 

Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
quested to examine its contents, term of sub- 
scription, and give it their own patronage, and 
as far as practicable, aid in circulating the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its influence in 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription 
rate, $3 a year. Extra copies mailed for 10 
cents, if ordered soon enough. If already a 
subscriber, please show the paper to others. 

Wells,R!chardson &Co's 





Always gives a bright natural color, never 
turns rancid. Will not color the Buttermilk. 
Used by thousands of the best Creameries and 
Dairies. Do not allow your dealer to convince you 
that some other kind is just as good. Tell him the 
BEST is what you want, and you must have Wells, 
Richardson & Go's Improved Butter Color. 
Three sizes, 25c. 50c. $1.00. For sale everywhere. 

WELLS. RICHARDSON & CO. Burlington. Vt 




Sewing Machines. 

Simple In Construction, Light Run- 
ning, Most Durable and Complete. 
Visitors always welcome. 


108 & 110 POST ST., S. F. 

Improved Screw Propulsion. — The latest 
method of increasing the speed of vessels is a 
screw which is so designed that the center 
linee of two following blades from spirals run 
in opposite directions. The blades are so 
curved that one has its leading part near the 
machinery, the other has it near the center, so 
that each blade cuts into the water in advance 
of the following. It is claimed that greater 
Bpeed result?. 

Cheap Money for Farmers ! 


large sums below market rates. S. D. HOVEY, 
318 Pine street. San Francisco. 

We take pleasure in calling the attention of our read- 
ers to the Se d advertisement of Z. De Forest Ely & Co., 
of Philadelphia. Ely's Garden Manual is a beautiful 
catalogue, full of valuable information to every one 
making either a vegetable or a flower garden, and all 
shou d send for a copy, as it will be mailed free to all 
our readers who apply for it. 

Bridging the Missouri. — The firat bridge 
over the Missouri river was built at Kansas 
City 21 years ago and was regarded as a bold 
undertaking. Now 16 bridges for railways 
span that stream, namely, at St. Charles, 
Booneville, Glasgow, Sibley, Randolph, Kansas 
City, Leavenworth, Atchison, St. Joseph, Rulo, 
Nebraska City. Plattsmoath, Omaha, Blair, 
Sioux Oity and Bismarck, and eight or ten more 
are not unlikely to be built in the next ten 


Sena stamp for luu-puge Illustkated Oatalooqb of 


Quns, Pistols, Cartridges, Air Guns, Hunting Coats, Leg- 
gings, Loading Implements, Base Ball Goods, Lawn 
Tennis, Boxing, Fencing and Gymnasium Goods, Ham- 
mocks, etc. 

Fine Gun work done by first-class smiths. 

525 Kearny Street, San Francisco, Oal. 




723 Market Street, History Building, 

jtSTOrderg for rvrrytuino in the Music Link promptly 
attended to. 




(KOHLER .V CHASE, Agenta. 



Before Buying a Sewing Machine. 
It is the leader in practical progress. Send for price list 
J. W. EVANS, 29 Post St., S. F. 


An Automatic Organ Combtned vslth an 
Ordinary Mve-Octave Ore an. 
BODY CAN PLAY the latest and rrost difficult music of 
every class. Every home should have one. Send for 
descriptive circulars, prices and terms to 
KOHLER Si CHASE. 137 Si 139 Post St., 
Dealers in all kinds of Musical Goods. 

son mi n (•i.iiniv to t:ick up advertisements and" 
show cards of Electric Goods oo trees, tenet* and. 
Btumjjikeg, in conspicuous places in town and couniry. in ill part" tf tli»J 
■United States and Canada. S toady employment ; wngfo, #2.50 per. 
■ 'lay ; expenses advanced ; DO talking required. Local work" 
■for all or part of time. No attention paid to postal cards. ADDRESS. m 
IWLTH STAMP, J.CEHORY Sc CO., CthAVlneSls., Cincinnati,*)." 

The German Savings and Loan Society, 

626 California Street. 

For the half-year ending December 31, 188S. a dividend 
has been declared at the rate of five and one-tenth (5 1-10) 
per cent per annum on Term Deposits, and four and. one- 
fourth (4J) per cent per annum on Ordinary Deposits. 
Payable on and after Wednesday, January 2 ,1889. 

GEO. TOURNY. Secretary. 


Climax Spray Pumpsi 

Cheapest and B st Spray Pumps on sale. Unequaled 
for durability, convenience, simpl city and ea'e <f work- 
ing. Send for circulars and prices of different sizes. 


California Fire Apparatus DH'fg Company 
18 California Street, San Francisco. 

cur TBIS OUT. 


" Greenbank " 98 degrees POWDERED CAUS- 
TIC SODA ftests 99 3-10 per cent) recommended by 
the highest authorities in the State. Also Common 
Caustic Soda and Potash, etc, for sale by 

Manufacturers' Agents, 
104 Market St. and 8 California St., S. F. 



University Avenue, Berkeley, Cal. 



References to parents of pupils who have entered the 
University from this school. Send for circular. 

T. S. BOWENS. B A., 



1634 Mission Street, San Francisco. 

Prepares Boys and Young Men 


College, University and Business. 
Christmas Term opens Wednesday, Aug. 1st. 

REV. E. B. SPALDING, Rector. 

The Santa Rosa Boys' School, 



Desiring thorough preparation for College, University or 
Business. Location healthful, grounds ample, looms 
large, well lighted, warmed and ventilated. Influences, 
moral and social, of the very best. Number of pupils 

Winter Term will q egln January 2, 1889. 

Address the principal, 
Rev. SEWARD M. DODGE, B. A., Santa Rosa, Cal. 


uUUU young Women 
educated for business. 
"Interest Made 
Easy" will be sent by 
mail for 12 desirable 
names. Send for the 
College Journal. 

E. C. ATKINSON, Principal, Sacramento. 





Can be made to throw from the 
tffl'j finest spray to a solid stream in an 
instant, therefore it cannot be 
clogged. Price, $1, postage paid. 



throws a continuous spray for thirty minutes without w >rkine the pump. Send for Circular and Testimonials. 

BEAN SPftAY PUMP CO., Los Gatos, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

For Coughs, Colds, Croup, Asthma, Bron- 
chitis, Influenza, Los* of Voice, Incipient 
Consumption, and all Throat and l.unt' 
Trouble!. J. K. GATKS & CO , Proprietors 
417 Sansome St., San Francisco. 




Dr. Ricohd's Rbstokativb Pills, a specific for exhausted 
vitality, physical debility, wasted forces, nervous de. 
rangemcnts, constitutional weakness, etc., approved by 
the Academy of Medicine, Paris, and the medical celeb- 
rities of the world. Agents, J. G. STEELE & CO., 
035 Market Street, Palace Hotel, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

iteTSent by mail or express anywhere. B x of 50, 
$1.26; of 100, 82.00; of 20", $3.60; of 400, $«.00; prepara- 
tory pills, $2.00. 

WSuho roa Circulars. 




Typewriting, Telegraphy, Modern Lan- 
guages ana all the branches of the regu- 
lar BUSINESS COURSE are Included In 

Combined Course ai $75 for Six Months. 

" OUR COLLEGE LEDGER," containing furl particu- 
lars regarding the Col lege Departments, Courses of Study, 
Terms, etc., will be mailed free to all applicants. SEND 



No Vacations. Bat and Evknino Skbsk-ns. 

Ladies admitted into all Departments. 
Address: T. A. ROBINSON, M. A. President. 



24 POST ST., S. P. 

College Instructs in Shorthand, Type Writing, Book- 
keeping, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the En- 
glish branches, and everything pertaining to business, 
(or six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
individual instruction to all our pupils. Our school has 
its graduates In every part of the State. 
£*~Sbnd FOR Circular. 

E. P. HEALD, President. 

C. S. HALEY. Secretary. 


44 Third Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

This Fire-proof Brick Building Is centrally located, In 
the healthiest part of the city, only a half block from 
the Grand and Palace Hotels, and oloso to all Steamboat 
and Railroad Offlcos. 

Laundry Free for the use of Families 


Terms, Board and Room, SI. 00 per Day 

And upward. 




Apiarian Supplies Manufacturing Depot. 


Apply to MRS. J. D EN AS, 
P. o. Box sot. Napa Oity, Oal. 

P ACIFI6 fr URAlo PRESS. r j AWt 19> 18 89 



Livermore Locals. — Herald, Jan. 12: 
Many of our farmers were bothered last month 
to find good sowing weather- — it rained just 
often enough to prevent good work. Njw, 
however, the soil works wouderfully well, and 
seed aowers are running in every direction.... 
Pruning is progressing rapidly in our vine- 
yards. Till oolumns of smoke from the burn- 
ing brush rise high above the valley James 

Concannon's carload of grape cuttiugs, for 
Mexico, will be shipped in a few days. They 
are being packed in mass in large boxes, at the 
planing-mill The shade trees in the North- 
ern and Southern Additions are being trimmed 
this week, and the missing places filled. The 
loss is very small — not to exceed three per cent 
of the locusts. Of the ailanthus, the percent- 
age is much larger.... An ailanthus tree on 
Chestnut street is sending forth its leaves and 
making a vigorous growth. It is somewhat 
out of season, but the weather seems to off er 
no obstacle. . . .Dr. Forbes purchased a chicken 
from Geo. Lindf the other day, and while pre- 
paring the fowl for the oven, found lodged in 
its gizzard a ten-cent piece, a piece of a watch 
chain, a copper rivet, a gun cap, and sundry 
other articles. 


Amador Oranges — Jackson Ledger, Jan. 5: 
John Northup leftatour office last Satiuday a 
box of this season's oranges, the product of his 
orchard near Lancha Plana. They were fine- 
looking as well as fine-tasting. The tree from 
which they were gathered is 17 years old and 
has borne from 700 to 1000 oranges for several 
years past. This year it yielded about 1000, 
and most of these he brought to Jackson and 
sold to the dealers in a few minutes. The tree 
is a seedling, and decidedly the most thrifty of 
its kind in his orchard. He has three other 
orange trees in bearing, but this one has done 
better than the rest, probably from the fact 
that it is better located as regards soil and 
has received more attention. It has been liber- 
ally irrigated in the dry season. The degree of 
cold in that section does not affect it in the 

Fine Potatoes. — We received last Saturday 
a sample of new potatoes from John Daveggio 
of Plymouth, large in size and excellent for 
cooking. The seed was planted Sept. 20th, so 
that in a trifle over three months the ripe prod- 
uct was gathered ! There has been no frost of 
sufficient severity to arrest their growth, and 
the vegetable grew to maturity in an astonish- 
ingly short space of time, even in mid-winter. 

Mountain Apples. — We were presented this 
week with a box of mountain apples of the 
Rhode Island variety, by F. M. Whitmore, 
from bis orchard in the mountains. They are 
among the finest apples we have seen, and in 
flavor they fully sustain the reputation of apples 
grown in the middle foothills of this county. 
The apple-growing business of that region 
would soon develop into a flourishing industry 
if the transportation difficulty could be over- 
come. As it is, the hauling them over 'the 
rough roads we have is a serious if not insur- 
mountable obstacle to getting to the outside 
markets in prime condition. 


Large Plantings — Oroville Mercury, Jan. 
11: John C. G.ay'a men at Mc. Ida O.ive 
Farm, five milts southeast of Oroville, finished 
setting his 50 acres of White Adriatic figs to- 
day. This grove is adjoining his 65 acre olive- 
grove. C. J. Nickerson'a men, working under 
the direction of Mr. Jackson, are putting in a 
30-acre grove of almonds on the Nickerson 
tract just east of town. 

Contra Costa. 

Canning Project. — Item, Jan. 9: The pros- 
pect of Martinez having a cannery in the near 
luture seems bright just now. Steps for the 
establishment of such a business have already 
been taken. The prime movers in this enter- 
prise are Dr. John Strentzel, Joseph Black and 
J. H. Borland, all gentlemen of intelligence 
and energy. The company is to be incorpor- 
ated as the "Martinez Canning Co." with a 
stook of $50,000, in 5000 shares of $10 each. 
Fish, fruit and vegetables are to be canned in 
this establishment and its capacity to be 15,000 
cans a day. The sum of $10,000 will be re- 
quired for the necessary machinery and a 
further sum of $10,000 as a working oapital. 
This amonnt, representing 2000 shares, is to be 
subscribed by the 15th day of February. It is 
designed to have the oannery ready for opera- 
tion by the 1st day of April next. 


Fresno Oranges. — Expositor, Jan. 7: 
There are in Dr. Leach's yard at least eight 
bearing seedling orange trees. The trees are 
very thrifty, the trunks and leaves being free 
from insect pest. Tbey are all loaded with 
golden spheres. The fruit, both in size and 
flavor, is equal to that raised in Sin Bernar- 
dino county, while the skin of the oranges is 

Australian Ferns. — Dr. Leach, president 
of the Fresno Fair Ground Association, is about 
to introduoe the Australian fern. Of all the 
evergreens in Southern California this tree is 
the most beautiful. It has a leaf which re- 
sembles the fern, only it is much ooarser. The 

tree is a quick grower, while its symmetry is 
perfect. The trunk is very straight, while its 
boughs taper from the first branch to the last. 
As an ornamental tree it hasn't an equal. The 
doctor will set out 100 at the fair grounds. 


From the Ranges. — Eureka Times, Jan. 10: 
L. C. Becknith, of Mandala, arrived in this 
city yesterday, and reports the stock in his 
section of the country in excellent condition. 
He says there have been no frosts and that 
leaves are still to be seen on the raspberry 
bushes; that while the grass on the cattle- 
ranges is better than on the sheep-ranges, 
owing to the sheep eating it down very close, 
still sheep are improving in condition. 


Cleveland Bays. — Bishop Creek Register, 
Jan. 3: Wm. R >wan returns this week with 
two Cleveland Bay stallions, which he pur- 
chased in Los Angeles at $2500 each. Mr. 
Rowan was practically the pioneer in the line 
of blooded horse raising in the valley, by 
systematically introducing the Norman stock. 
His late purchases are another style of horse- 
flesh, and we believe the first of their breed 
brought to Inyo. This completes the necessary 
quota; theie is stook here now to fulfill almost 
every possible requirement — the Norfolk, 
Hambletonian, Cleveland Bay, Clydesdale and 
Norman. This list, and the increased showing 
annually made in the line of improved horse- 
flesh, shows the energy with which our stock- 
raisers have grasped the situation since the 
mustang days of only a few years ago. 

Raisins — Lone Pine seems to be the leading 
locality when it comas to fine grapes. A few 
days since a sample box of raisins came up 
from J jhnny Stewart of that place, which he 
calls "sun dried grapes," but which, just the 
same, are equal to any foreign rait>in ever 
coming within our observation. 


Prolific Porker. — Susanville Advocate, 
Jan. 10 : John T. Mat tin of this place has a 
profitable sow that has, within the last 13 
months, given birth to 32 pigs. The value of 
the first litter (12) at this date is $160; of the 
second (11), $100; of the third (9), $18; value 
of the mother, $45; total present value of all, 
$323. They are ready for sale at these figures. 

Los Angeles. 

Pomona Points.— Progress: The largest in- 
dividual freight bill paid in P imona in many a 
day is that of $9S0 which Rev. C. F. Ljop 
lately paid on 500 olive trees of the choicest 
varieties, that he bought in Southern France 
last summer .... It is estimated that over 40,000 
strawberry plants have been set out in Pomona 
thus far this season, and as many more will 
soon be set out here. There is always a good 
market for strawberries in this region. .. .The 
largest tax payer in this locality is Richard 
Gird, of the great C iioo ranch. His taxes 
this year have amounted to over $8700. 


Cattle — Alturas Independent, Jan. 10 : The 
Dorris meadow south of town is literally cov- 
ered with cattle which have been gathered in 
within the past two weeks. Almost daily one 
can see the vaqueros passing along and driving 
cattle to winter quarters. As a general thing 

the animals are in good oondition Mr. G. 

K. Williams of South Fork was in town the 
first of the week. He says his boys have been 
gathering up cattle for the past four weeks, and 
are feediug as fast as they can get them in. A 
great many of his cattle are still out on the 
range, and some of the old cows are getting 
quite thin. 


From Twenty Hens — Calhtogian, Jan. 9: 
Libt year Mrs. W. Eoeling kept 20 hens — 
Brown Leghorn and Plymouth Rock sti ain — from 
which she derived the following inoome, aside 
from the eggs required for use in the family: 
For broilers, $20; for eggs sold, $15; total $35. 
There is money in keeping fowls if a person 
only understands how to keep and feed them. 
At the above rate, Mrs. Ebeling would derive 
a handsome income annually by keeping 500 
fowls. But where so many are kept together 
the result generally is not correspondingly 


A Royal Cluster. — Auburn Herald, Jan. 
12: While in Newcastle the other day we saw 
a cluster of oranges that was well worth a 
day's travel to see. The cluster consisted of 
29 oranges and oocupied about 15 inches 
of space along the branch. There were 
originally 31, but two of them had dropped off. 
They grew in the grove of J. W. Smyth, of 
Horseshoe Bar, and were large, of a uniform 
size, perfectly smooth, and free from spat or 
blemish. The golden fruit of Hesperides could 
not have excelled them ! They can now be 
seen at the Placer exhibition in San Francisco. 

San Diego. 
A Vast Barley-Field. — San Diego Sun, 
Jan. 7: A rancher just in from the neighbor- 
hood of the great Warner ranch, which belongs 
to ex-Guv. Downey, said this morning that 
seed-barley was being hauled from Temecula to 
sow 5000 acres of the Governor's property. A 
big toroe of men with gang plows was to be 
set to work this week to push the work of sow- 
ing. This is a portion of the territory through 
which the new Ouyamaca road passes, and with 
the speedy completion of this much-needed 
outlet to a market, the rancher said, large ad- 

ditional tracts would be planted to grain and 
set out in frnit trees by the f aimers. 

San Bernardino. 

Returns from Raisins. — Courier: The new 
Cook & Langley cannery on the Barton ranch 
has packed and shipped 45 carloads of raisins 
this season, and for every carload of raisins the 
growers received on an average of $1000, mak- 
ing $45,000 paid out to the ranchers in the val- 
ley tor the one item of raisins. This, too, is 
the company's first season. Besides this, there 
was a large crop of deciduous fruit, for which 
the ranchers received good prices. 

San Luis Obispo. 

Busy Workers. — P^zo Cor. Tribune: San 
Jose valley is flourishing. One can see Stock- 
ton "gangs" and large teams in every {direction 
tilling the soil. Men are at work as if they 
meant business. Some are plowing, some are 
sowing, some are harrowing, some are making 
garden, some are building— all are alive and 
working with determination. The valley will 
all be put to crops this year. Feed is already 
several inches high all through the valley and 
over the mountains. Stock is looking finely, 
we have the best of soil, a splendid climate, 
and one of the healthiest places in the State. 
With plenty of good water and wood, it is a 
most desirable place to live in. 

Santa Clara. 

The February Fair.— San Jose Mercury, 
Jan. 12: A meeting of the Board of Directors 
of the Horticultural Hall Association was held 
S iturdav. with Directors Cyrus Jones (chair- 
man), Wm. L. Manly, A. B. Huuter, G. W. 
Tarletou, S. B. S lunders. M. S, Bowdish and 
Mrs. Newhall present. Mr. Hunter acted as 
secretary. . . .The proposition to hold a winter 
fair was broached. Mr. Jonei stated that 
many persons had spoken to him about the 
matter. . . .The question was put and it was de- 
cided in favor ol a fair by a vote of 4 to 3. On 
being shown that the moon was full Feb. 15th, 
it was decided the fair should be the week begin- 
ning Fib. 11th. Mrs. Newhall, A. B Hunter and 
8. B. Saunders were appointed a Committee on 
Decoration. Messrs. Tarleton and Bowdish 
were appointed to visit the western side of the 
valley and secure a display of oranges. Daring 
a general conversation on the sui j ct, it was 
brought out that the prospects an favorable 
for securing a showing of new potatoes, also of 
tomatoes and other vegetables. The main 
stress will be laid on citrus fruits, however, 
and it is desired to have as many oranges as 
can be secured within the valley. It was sug 
gested by Mrs. Newhall that special attention 
should be paid to decorating the hall properly 
and completely, more so if possible than it has 
been before; also that the floral exhibit should 
be made complete, and Santa Cruz be invited 
to co-operate in this connection. The presi 
dent was requested to report to the Board of 
Trade that they had decided to hold a fair and re- 
quest the Board to co operate. It was resolved 
to invite tha people generally to oo operate in 
holding the fair. 

A New Year's Fire — San Jose Herald, 
Jan. 2: At 3 a. m. yesterday, at Mountain 
View, A. Trixon's barn was discovered to be 
oo fire. The flames soon communicated with a 
new barn recently built by J W. Laner, and in 
a short time both buildings were in ashes. 
There were several horses in Mr. Liner's barn 
and they were saved. L. Leibe, the harness- 
maker, had a valuable horse in Mr. Trixon's 
barn. When the fire was discovered the door 
was opened, but the horse was not there. 
Many believe that he was stolen. Both barns 
were partially insured. It is believed that the 
fire was of incendiary origin. Mr. Laner lost 
several tons of hay, a cart and agricultural im- 
plements and other valuables. 


Big Pig — Sonoma Index Tribune, Jan. 5: L. 
Modini ot this place has a 1 3 monttis-i.ld hog of 
the Berkshire breed that measures from tip of 
snout to end of tail 8 feet 4 inches. In hight he is 
3 feet 3 inches at the shoulders and in girth 6 
feet 4 inches. The exact weight of his hog- 
ship is not known, as he has never been 

Thriving Vine. — Santa Rwa Democrat, 
Jan. 12: J. W. Tread well, ol the Faloonhurst 
vineyard, calls attention to a yearling vine, of 
Cratb's Black Burgundy variety, which has 
put forth a growth of 18 feet in one year. He 
says some of the older vines in his vineyard 
have attained to a growth of 12 and 14 feet in a 
year, but in vines so youthful a growth of 18 
feet is remarkable. 

A High Priced Stallion. — It is said that 
the recent offer made by a Kentucky gentleman 
for Anteeo was no less a sum than $20,000. 
The association will not sell the famous horse 
at those figures. It want* $25,000, on which 
amonnt the income from his services as a breed- 
ing stallion has paid good interest. The associa- 
tion has concluded to send him to Kentucky, 
where he will remain one season. 


Cheese Factory. — Visalia Times: J. C. 
Coho, lately of Gilroy, has commenced the 
manufacture of oheeae on the ranch of D. C. 
Hayward, seven miles west of Traver. Several 
samples have been disposed of in this city, and 
those who have tasted the cheese pronounce it 
superior to anything found in this market for 
years. It is made from pare cream, without 
any dilution whatever of skimmed milk or 

other ingredient*. Mr. Coho expects to manu- 
facture enough to supply the Tulare county 

District Land Office —Register Miller of 
the U. S. Land Office in this city has kindly 
furnished the Timet with the following state- 
ment relating to the business transacted in his 
offioe for the year 1888, viz. : Number of home- 
steads filed, 883; timber cultures, 324; pre- 
emptions, 1538; final homesteads lived out, 124. 
Entries — commuted homesteads and pre-emp- 
tions paid out and purchases at cash sales, 
703. Proofs have been made during the year 
representing title to 132,320 aores of land. 
Total cash receipts during the year, $294 972.- 
62, which exceeds the amount of cisti received 
in any previous year since the office was es- 
tablished. The receipts for the last quarter 
amounted to $93,972 22. 

Harrowing Alfalfa Fields — Several pro- 
gressive farmers of this county have tried the 
experiment of harrowing their alfalfa pastures, 
with the object of killing out the objectionable 
fox tail grass, and also improving the growth 
of the feed. The plan has been a successful 
one, and those who have tried it are earnest 
in their advocacy of this method of cultivating 
alfalfa, especially in old pastures. This is the 
season of the year for such experiments, as a 
harrow run through alfalfa grounds to-day will 
effectually eradicate all obnoxious weeds and 
can in no wise affect the al'alfa. 


Wild Horses in the Mountains — Eiireka 
.Sentinel, Jan. 5: Net many people know that 
there are wild horses in the mountains of 
Nevada. Such is nevertheless the case, and at 
least three bands have been seen in this county 
along the high range near the Lander line. 
There is one group of seven or eight animals 
that is seen every summer on the very top of 
Sbacknasty mountain, southwest of Cortez. 
An old gray stallion seems to be the king pin 
of this herd; nothing but mares are ever seen 
in his company, and he is said to guard them 
with fatherly care. Last summer some of the 
cowboys gave chase to the band for two or 
three days. When hotly pursued, the old 
stallion was seen to drop to the rear and vig- 
orously bite the others to make them accelerate 
their speed. He allows none to esoape, and if 
a "tame " animal falls in his way, it is taken 
along also. In a remarkably short time a do- 
mestic animal becomes as wild as the rest. 
Several are known to have been lost in this 
way. These wild horses look large and fine 
when climbing the precipitous mountains. 
They go anywhere a mountain sheep will go. 
When canght they are found to be not much 
larger than Peter Breen's greyhound. They 
have interbred and bred down until there is 
nothing left of them either in size or endurance. 

Corn. — Reno Journal, Jan. 12: The im- 
pression seems to prevail among those who are 
not familiar with the producing power of 
Nevada soil that corn will not do well herp. 
This is a mistaken idea. On the Keyser & 
Elrod ranch on the head of the Carson river at 
an altitude of nearly 6000 feet above the sea 
level, some as tine corn was raised last season 
as ever matured in the Mississippi valley. 
List Beason they only planted three acres, but 
the yield was very heavy and the kernels 
plump and the ear large. 


Prunes in Southern Oregon. — Roseburg 
Revieic: Myrtle Creek and the surrounding 
country is taking the lead of the county in 
prune culture and the amount produced per 
acre is marvelous. There have been shipped 
from this plaoe this year about 80,000 pounds 
of dried prunes, and the proprietors of these 
orchards reoeived a net inoome of from $150 to 
$300 per acre. The prune industry in Djuglas 
county is yet in its infancy, and the people of 
Myrtle Creek have taken a step in advance of 
other sections in leading ont in this line. 

Experiments in Grass Growing. — Fossil 
Cor. Oregonian : I will report experiments in 
growing some perennial grasses on buncbgrass 
land. Alfalfa and Johnson grass did well on 
deep sandy land, and sainfoin on both sandy 
and ordinary buncbgrass land, all withont irri- 
gation. I tried English and Italian rye grass, 
fall meadow oat grass and fall fefcue, all if 
which lived through our unusually dry sum- 
mer, but did not go to seed. However, I 
wait anxiously to see what they will do next 
year when they will have roots to begin growth 
from. I think sainfoin will pay the Eastern 
Oregon farmer for summer and fall pasture, as 
it was green and growing when the bunchgrass 
was dry. One quality of our buncbgrass is too 
often overlooked; that is, it cures on the ground 
like hay and is not injured by frost. 

Range Notes — Horses are looking well on 
the raDge, but cattle and sheep are rather poor. 
The last season was a poor one for the growth 
of bunchgrass, and we bear on all sides the old 
saying, "The range is gone," but it is not en- 
tirely. We must fence pastures and save grass 
for winter range. By so doing we can carry 
our horses and cattle through an ordinary win- 
ter without feed, but in case of a very severe 
winter they oan be fed, though if they are 
soattered on the range tbey cannot be gotten to 
the feed. Under present conditions, we must 
run less stock and of a better quality and care 
for them better, and our profits will be just at 
large and investments much safer. 

Jan. 19, 1889.1 




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[Jan. 19, 1889 

JTJhe *V"etef^inari^n. 

Splenic Apoplexy, Splenic Fever, and 
Texas Fever in Cattle. 

Editors Press: — Several parties have writ- 
tan me recently concerning these diseases. 
Splenic apoplexy is undoubtedly one of the 
most frequent forms of anthrax in cattle. It is 
remarkable for its sudden appearance, its 
extreme fatality, and its rapid coarse. It 
will occur among all kinds of cattle, but es- 
pecially those out at pasture, and supplied with 
contaminated water. It is also attributed to 
bad or too nutritious food, too sudden changes 
of diet, and other ordinary influences, but near 
ly every outbreak may be traced to contagion, 
direct or indirect. This used to be cited as an 
example of a disease of a specific character, 
originating spontaneously, but we know now 
that the apparent commencement of the attack 
is simply when the bacilli begin to manifest 
their effects. For some time they must have 
been increasing in the system. Until lately, 
then, investigators have not been accustomed to 
look for causes in the pa9t, except the most re- 
cent, and until actual experiment proved con- 
servation of the spores in all their power of de- 
velopment, we were right not to attribute cases 
of this kind to others which preceded them 
some time. Also, we have ouly lately learned 
the various forms which anthrax may assume. 

Symptoms. — The appearance of the disorder 
among a number of cattle is denoted frequently 
by death of some of them in a very short time. 
Several may be found dead in the morning; 
others may be affected but withstand the dis- 
ease longer, though death usually occurs within 
24 hours. Fever and general symptoms are 
present, and in the early stages the animal is 
excited. The temperature is much increased. 
Abdominal pains appear, the patient is very 
uneasy; the puUe is rapid, small, and fluttering; 
breathing accelerated and labored. I' tin is 
expressed upon pressure of the loins; there is a 
stiffoess and staggering gait; also, a discharge 
of saliva from the month, and muscular twitch 
ings over the body. Djbility sets in rapidly. 
Tne loe:es and urine are bloody. The pulse is 
imperceptible, and paralysis supervenes, so that 
the animal is recumbent. Convulsions occur in 
the latter stage, and the animal dies generally 
by necr:enia and coma. In all cases death is 
ushered in by rapid and extreme fall of the 
internal temperature. 

Treatment.— Curative measures have not 
been found nseful. Prophylactic means com- 
prise those recommended for anthracoid cases 
in general. Dogs and pigs have been known to 
die from eating the evacuations, althongh some 
animals can withstand anthrax. The high 
temperature of birds, or their highly oxygen- 
ated blood, defends them in the majority of 
cases. On the other hand we have positive 
proofs of cases of aathracoid disease in fish. 
When bacilli are introduced into the subcutane- 
ous areola tissue of an animal which will not 
become affected, an abscess forms and so the 
organisms are confined and then thrown off. 
M. Pasteur has announced that by a special 
method of culture he has so modified the bac- 
terium of fowl cholera that inoculation with 
the altered fungus secures immunity from fut- 
ure attacks. 

Prof. Toussaint, tlv distinguished physiolo- 
gist at the Toulouse Veterinary school, France, 
has announced that anthrax blood, from which 
the bacilli have been removed by filtration, is 
effeotual for what he terms "anthrax vaccina- 
tion." He says that when employed according 
to certiin rules the heating, for a very brief 
time, of blood infected with bacteria trans- 
forms that fluid into a vacoine as certain in ef- 
fect as that of Pasteur. The mode of entry of 
the anthrax bacillus into the organism has been 
the object of comparatively recent research. 
MM. Pasteur and Toussaint simultaneously ar- 
rived at the result that in almost every case 
the food is the vehicle, and wounds are the 
points of entry. 

Toussaint proved this by careful post-mortem 
examinations in which he found the lymphatic 
glands in connection with the mouth and 
pharynx in the large maj ority of cases earliest in- 
volved. Pasteur found that only animals with 
injured mouths, who fed on forage watered 
with culture fluid containing the bacillus, be- 
came affected, and that when harsh, irritating 
food was given, almost all the animals experi- 
mented upon succumbed. 

Post Mortem Examination. — Post-mortem 
examination of cattle that have died from 
splenic apoplexy shows the Bpleen enormously 
distended by the dark blood, which gravitates 
freely, since the tissue of the organ is broken 
down. The blood, tissues in general, serous 
mucus, etc., present the characteristic anthrax 
lesions, which are especially marked in the 
bowels. The contents of the intestines and 
bladder are mixed with blood. 

Texas Fever 

Is an anthracoid enzootic of the region of the 
Gulf of Mexico, whence it is spread through the 
cattle districts of the United States by con- 
tagious influences. It closely resembles splenic 
aooplexy. I have seen numbers of cas-s of 
Texas fever when in Tex*s with the U. S. 
army, an 1 have frequently b >en called in to 
treat and make poat-mortem examinations of 
cattle which have died from this disease, I 

found that it differs from splenic apo- 
plexy in the following points: The urine 
is a reddish-black, sometimes coffee-col- 
ored, and frequently with a fool odor. If 
allowed to stand for a day it gives a brick- 
oolored precipitate. Sometimes the urine is 
streaked with blood. Abdominal pains seldom 
present, mucous membranes grayish. The ticks 
are considered an important aid to diagnosis in 
doubtful cases. They tell whence the animal 
came, or the exposure it has encountered. " A 
sick creature covered with ticks and showing a 
high fever heat on thermometer " is almost sure 
to be suffering from Texas fever in the early 
stages (Chicago National Live-Stock Journal). 
Texan cattle do not suffer so much from the 
disease as those that are traveling through from 
other States and become infected by contagious 
influences. The disease is not so rapidly fatal 
as splenic fever, it generally lasting three or 
four days, and prevails during the hot summer 

Prevention. — The prophylactic means are 
most important. All animals dying from 
anthracoid affections should be removed 
from the pasture before post-mortem ex- 
amination. The carcasses should be bnrned 
in the bides, or, the skins having been 
thoroughly slashed with a knife, should 
be bnried in quick-lime. Ordinary burial is not 
sufficient, for the spores of the bacilli pass to 
the surface of the ground (some say they are 
carried there by earth- worms); thus each grave 
becomes a fruitful center ot contagion. All 
ejecta, blood, etc., from diseased animals should 
be collected and mixed with quick lime. Pigs, 
dogs and poultry should not be allowed to feed 
on blood, flesh, etc , of anthracoid victims. 
It must also be remembered that the disease is 
communicable to man by inoculation, so it is 
very necessary to be extremely careful in mak- 
ing post-mortem examinations. The flesh 
ought never to be used for the food of any 
animal. It gives rise to malignant carbuncles 
in man. The milk of animals suffering from 
anthracoid diseases is a vehicle of contagion, its 
properties are altered, and its odor and color 
changed. The list of human disorders of an 
anthracoid nature obtained from animals is 
rapidly increasing i happy indication that 
they will in future ba prevented by removing 
their causes. day, doubtless, we shall 
see human and veterinary practitioners co- 
operating in this matter for the bent fit of man- 
kind. A E Bczard M. R. C. V. S L. 

No. 11 Seventh St., S. F. 

Diseases Among Horses in San Diego 

Editors Hkess:— Many of the horses in this sec- 
tion ot the county are affected with what some call 
nasal gleet; others think it is glanders. 

There is no veterinary surgeon near. The disease 
has prevailed for about three years and the number 
of affected animals has gradually increased. 

We are anxious to know its real natu-e. Is there a 
State veterinary surgeon? If so, does the Uw make 
it his duly to vUii and examine diseased stick? 

Does nasal gleet or any other disease "run into 
glanders?'' Are the submaxillary glands adherent 
to the bone in all well-developed cases of the latter 
disease? Will you kindly give us through your 
paper some light on this subject?— J. A. PkUETT, 
M. D., Fall Brook, San Diego Co. 

Editors Press:— From so many of the horses 
being affected, as described bv Dr. Pruett, I am 
very much afraid they are suffering from glan- 

There is no State veterinary surgeon. 
Nasal gleet (ozena) never terminates in glan- 

Glanders and Farcy are employed to desig- 
nate merely phases or manifestations of the same 
diseased condition. This condition is termed 
" glanders " when the specific or diagnostic 
smyptoms and lesions are conneoted with the 
mucous membrane of the nose, npper air- 
passages and the lungs, together with lymph 
vessels and glands adjacent thereto; and "farcy " 
when the morbific agent seems to locate itielf, 
and is inducing specific changes in the skin and 
subcutaneous connective tissue with the lym- 
phatic vessels and lymph-glands belonging to 
these. Although glanders is peculiarly a disease 
of the equine speoies, it is undoubtedly capable 
of transmission to many other animah, and to 
none probably oftener than to man. (There are 
many authenticated cases on record in this 

There is no doubt that glanders is due to an 
introduction into the system of a micro- 
organism. Bacterial forms have been met with 
in this disease; in fact, they are always present, 
but they frequently are so minute that with the 
aid of the most powerful microscope, and under 
the most favorable circumstances, they have 
failed to be recognizsd; they must be developed 
by cultivation before being found by the micro- 
scopist in many cases. 

The submaxillary lymphatic glands when 
first participating in the morbid processes going 
on in the course of the development of the dis- 
ease, become full and enlarged, partly from in- 
filtration in the true gland-structures, but chief 
ly from the same condition occurring to the sur- 
rounding connecting tissue among which they 
are placed. The feeling is at first of a soft and 
doughy character, attended sometimes with a 
trifling amount of pain. Gradually this soft 
swelling is replaced by a condition of grrater 
firmness and less sensibility. The swelling, 
whether of one or both glands, is more marked 
as increasing the bulk of the gland aotero-poste- 
riorly than across the space. With the acquire- 
ment of the modulated condition we also 

notioe that the ability to be moved from 
place to place by pressure with the fingers is 
much impaired, gradually to be lost altogether, 
the gland becoming fixed both to the super- 
adjacent connective tissue and to the j aw. Al- 
though this phenomena or condition ot the sob- 
maxillary lymphatic gland or glands may usually 
be regarded as diagnostic of chronio glanders of 
the horse, it is yet certain that many cases 
occur where this peculiarity is absent I met 
with one case in particular when recently on an 
official tonr of inspection of the horses in Contra 
Costa county, where there was an entire ab- 
sence of any enlargement of either of the glands, 
and yet I knew that the horse was deeply in- 
fected with the specific poison. There are also 
other cases where some of the abnormal condi- 
tions generally noticed in glanders are absent, 
sometimes being little or no noticeable discharge 
from the nostrils; and in some the ulcers on the 
Schneiderian membrane of the nose are not suf- 
ficiently near the exterior part to be noticeable. 

I think it very necessary for horse-owners 
generally in your district to engage the services 
of a thoroughly qualified veterinary surgeon — 
one who is well experienced in this dreadful 
disease — to make a thorough investigation of 
the animals with suspicious symptoms. It is in 
the power of the connty supervisors to appoint 
a veterinary surgeon to inspect horses for 

A. E Bdzard. Iff, R C V. S. L. 

No 11 Seventh St., S. F. 

Percheron-Norman Stable. 

Messrs. H. Wilsey & Co., importers and 
breeders of horses, have erected a fine structure 
on Main street, Petaluma, and known as Peta- 
lama stables. It is built of brick, 84 feet wide 
by 1 .'!5 feet long, two stories and bisement, on 
a lot running back to the creek 632 feet. The 
appointments and arrangements are complete 
with blackpmith-shop, ladies'-rcom, office and 
stable with 70 stalls, five feet fonr inches wide, 
besides box-stalls and sheds and compaitments 
back of the main building. 

The lower half of the basement, which is well 
lighted and has ventilators every six feet run- 
ning to the top of the building, is used for the 
imported stock. The present stud consists of 
the following: 

Imported Lord McDuff, two years old. a bay 
with dark points, weight 16.32 pounds, who took 
first premium and gold medal at Sonoma Connty 
Fair in 1888. 

Duran, two years old, dark bay with dark 
points, weigh* ] fi 15 pounds. Imported from 
France in 1887. Took first premium at Napa, 
Sonoma & Marin District Fair in 1888. 

Victor, coal black, two years old, weight 
1580 pounds. 

Att Ha, three years old, weighs 1750 sounds. 
Took first premium and gold medal at Sonoma 

Norman Stallion Attllla. 

County Fair in 1888, first premium at district 
fair of Napa, Sonoma and Marin in 1888, and 
first premium and diploma at State Fair in 1888. 

Mr. Wilsey has had a large experience in im- 
porting horses, and has taken in the Percheron, 
Norman, Shire and other leading breeds. Sinoe 
1880 he has personally attended to the selection 
and importation of over 100 notable animals, and 
gained an enviable reputation as a sagacious and 
successful importer and breeder of fine horses. 

The engraving presented herewith is a portrait 
of Attilla, the three-year old Norman, faultless 
in form; color, jet black, with small, pointed 
ears, large full eye, smooth, bony head well set 
on a high-crested neck; long and well-formed 
barrel; short back, heavy across kidneys, broad 
and full breast, and with well-muscled limbs 
and perfect feet. He is 16 hands high and 
weighs over 1700 pounds, and is a horse of fine 

Petaluma Incubator Factory. 

Mr. L. O. Byoe, proprietor of the Petaluma 
Incubator, has established his factory in Hop- 
per's new briok building, Main street, Peta- 
luma. It has a frontage of 40 feet and extends 
63 feet in length, with two stories and base- 
ment. The basement will be used for storage 
and engine-room. The office and show-room 
will have a frontage of 30 feet and 12 feet wide. 
An elevator will be placed in the building to 
connect with the basement. 

The hatching of eggs by artificial heat has 
grown eaoh year, and the Petaluma Incubator 
has been gaining favor each year as a reliable 
and practicable egg-batcher. During this year 
we shall give an extended description of this 
faotory, with details of making this popular in- 

"Noonday 10,000." 

Mr. Samuel Gamble of Oakland has just ar- 
rived from Kentucky, where he secured the 
celebrated stallion Noonday. He is a very 
handsome, stylish brown horse and comes from 
the most noted strains of standard-bred trot- 
ters. His season will be made at the Oakland 

Noonday is five years old; bis sire, Wedge- 
wood, record 2:19, 4th heat; the sire of Ft- 
rona, 2:15, 4th heat; first dam Noontide, 2:20±, 
trial 2:15; sired by Herold the sire of Maud S, 
2:08jf; second dam Midnight, the dam of Jay 
Eye See, 2:10; third dam by Lexington, sire of 
the dam of Ancel, 2:20; tonrth dam by im- 
ported Glencoe, sire of the grandam of Farona, 

Mr. Gamble has had a large experience and 
acquired an extensive knowledge as a breeder 
of horses. The complimentary notices his 
horse h is received through the press from the 
best authority among horsemen warrants us in 
predicting a successful season for this high- 
bred stallion. 

Don't Fail to Write. 

Should thla paper be received by an) subscriber who 
doea uot want it, or beyond the time he intend* to po% 
for it, let him uot rail to write ua direct to stop It. A postal 
card (costing one cent only) will suffice. We will Dot know- 
ingly seud the paper to any one who does no* wish it, but 
if it is continued, through the failure of the subscriber to 
notify ua to diacontiuue it. or of some irresponsible party re- 
quested to stop it, we shall positively demand payment for 
the time IMisent. Look carefully at TBI label on 




On Tuesday, Jan. 29, 1889, 
PREWITT & GOFF, of Winchester, Ky., 


Ninety (90) First-Class Shorthorn Cattle 

AT Till 

Bay District Course, San Francisco, 

Representing old reliable families. Pedigrees recorded 
or a-iepied for record. Several circpetent judges have 
pronounced this the best large lot of cattle th v ever 
si*. Ten of i Ik in prtmium animals in Kentu 'ky last 
seison. Refer, by permi-tton, to Hon. John O. Carli-le, 
Hon. Wm Q P. Bre kenridge, Hon. J. C. L. Blackburn, 
J. H. Pickrell. Secretary National Herd Book Association, 
Chicago, and Mr. Wm. Warfleld, Lexington, Ky. 

i^TSftle to commence at 11 A. M. sharp. 

KILLIP & CO., Auctioneers. 

erv- r Catalogues apply to No. 2 2 Montgomery 
Street, or at the Biy Dis riot "Ljsck. 

'THE H. H. H. Horse Liniment pnt* 
* new life into the Antiquated Horse I 
For the last 14 y»ar» the H. H. H. Horse 
Ldniment has been the leading remedy 
among Farmers and Stockmen for th* 
onre of Sprains, Brnisee, Stiff Joints. 
Spavins, Windfalls, Sore Shoulders, eto. 
*nd for Family U«e la without an equal 
cor Khenmatism. Neuralgia, Aches, Paine 
Brnises, ( 'ntsand Sprains of all characters 
lhe H. H. H. Ldniment has many iralta 
tSons, and we caution the Pnblio to see 
that the Trade Hark " H. H. H." is ol 
svery Bottle before purchasing. For sale 
iverywher* for 60 cent* and fl.OC roe 

For Rale by «ll Druasrlets. 


Opposite the Plaza, 

First Class- Free Coach to and 
from the Depot. 



Manufacturers of all kinds of 


Grape and Berry Baskets, 
Cor. Front and M St*.. SACRAMENTO. 



The two cheapest and best Mills made in the State. 
Manufactured and eold by 


Cor. Alameda & Montgomery Sts., 8 AN JOSH, O \1_. 
IS' - i for Circulars. 

Back Filbb of the Pacific Rural Pskss (unbound 
can be had for $3 per volume of six months. Per year 
(two volumes) SS. Inserted in Dewey's patent binder, 
60 eents additional per volume. 

Jan. 19, 1889.] 



Landg hj pale apd Jo Let. 


The undersigned offers for Bale, on good terms, his 
CLOVERDALE OAIKY FAKM of 600 aces, situated on 
Squirrel Creek, 2 miles west of Gra«s Vallev. It is well 
watered by springs and has excellent irrigation facilities, 
commodious farm buildings, orchard of 160 trees and 6 
acres of vineyard. A fine herd of Holstein, AyiBhire, 
Jersey, and Durham (thoroughbred and grade) cattle for 
sale with or without the ranch. Holstein and Ayrshire 
premium bulls on lowest terms, including "Tehama," 
which, on account of kinship to the herd, can no longer 
be used in breeding. A good dairy route is also included 
in this offer. 

H. B. NICHOLS, Proprietor. 


Best, location in the State of California for beautiful 


Located near the thriving city of CHICO, Butte County, 
California. Subdivided from the heart of the famous 


he well-known property of 


Town Lots and acreage property, from fractions of an 
acre upward. TERMS REASONABLE. For further 
particulars, address: 


Real Histate Agents, 

Onico, Butte Co., Cal. 




On Exceedingly Liberal Terms. 

The 8. E. quarter of Sec. 13. T. 21. R. 23, and all of Sec. 
16, T. 23, R. 24, in the artesian belt in Tulare county, will 
be rented at a nominal rent for winter sowing, if applied 
for soon. The if reater part of this land is rich, level and 
all ready for the plow. Address L. E. Smith, Hixley, 
Tulare Co., Cal , or Ranch Owner, office Rural PaEi.B 
San Francisco, Cal. 

FOR $5000. 

A Ranch in El Dorado county, near Placerville, con- 
ains 160 acres, nearly all fenced in with a four-strand 
barbed wire fence, a good house of 11 rooms, hard 
finished, two brick chimneys, cut stone basement with 
cut stone steps, a good barn and stable, chicken house, 
work shop and other out houses, a good well of water, 
one water ditch for the land. 1000 fruit trees, all in bear- 
ing, Peach, Apple, Fig and Cherries, 1000 Grapevines; 
80 acres cleared and ready for the plow, all neirly level; 
about 25 acres woodland, pines, etc., all of which can be 
cleared; three cows and two calves The Ranch is five 
miles from Coloma and nine miles from Placerville 
The soil is a red loam, the house stands on the county 
road and the stage passes it twice every day. A span of 
horses, a new harness and wagon, plow, barrow and 
other farming utensils to be given with the Ranch. The 
Title, U. S Patent. For further information address 
"RANCH," Box 2361, San Francisco, or care of Illus- 
trated Publishing Co., 220 Market St., S. F. 

Agricultural and Grazing 


7975 Acres of fine grazing and agricultural land, in- 
cluding 4000 head of fine grade stock sheep; abundance 
of water; 9 miles from Merced City, and near Merced 
River; price, $7.25 per acre; 1000 acres good wheat land. 


Merced, Cal. 

624 Matket Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


Ranch of 2O0 acres on Coquille River, Coos County, 
Oregon; 40 acres bench land 1C0 acres bottom, 80 acres 
under cultivation; lj miles from Coquille City, one half 
mile from steamer landing. An abundance of fine 
spring water on place. Price, $1500 cash, or will ex- 
change for California property in vicinity of San Fran- 
cisco Bay. For further particulars apply to 
059 Clay St., San Francisco, Cal. 

and all kinds of Pumping Machinery built to order 
Awarded Diploma for Windmills at Me 
chanlca' Fair, 1885. Windmills from $66. Hors< 
Powers from $50. F. W. KROGH & CO., 61 
Benin Street. Ran Francisco. 

(Formerly Sec'y & Land Officer of immigration Ass'n. 

C. H. STREET & CO., 





Send 10 cents for C. H JStreet & Co.'s map and description of California and colony landB (74 pages). Land for 
sale in large or tmall tracts; on the coast or in the interior; valley, hill, mountain, open, timber, mineral, or nun 
mineral land; improved or unimproved; with or without irrigation; suitable for stock, dairy, giain, fruit, or gen- 
eral farming; for investment or actual settlement; for cash or on installment; will show Government land. C. H. 
Street & Co., 415 Montgomery St. 

c c 



Specially Adapted for SEEDING and 


All Genuine bear TRADE MARK, 
Have Steel Clod Crushers, DOUBLE FLEXIBLE GANG-BARS. 


Adjustable Reversible Coulters, 

Which, when worn, may hi turned end for end, thus giving double the amount of wear. 


No Other Harrow Combines these Points. 

DUANE H. NASH, Sole Manufacturer, 




and Los Angeles, Cal. 

And STAVER & WALKER, Portland, Oregon. 



Sample Htvlca of II i.l.l. n Xntiic and 

8,1. I nn.. Hi... hi of Haiwi Tr.,... tt.™. U aim. Pn" 

.1«s Cm.nnrtin,*. O.n. 

.vr k 7.,^.„;,..i.,» 1 i.,.,,a™.. ah 







" ROYAL T0PSMAN,' ; Just Imported. 

Five years old, over 1800 pounds, sound and kind, good action, well bred and a first-class horfe lor breeding. 


Inquire of C. L. TAYLOR, 428 California Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


W. C. PRICE & CO. 

General Produce Commission Merchants, 

327 & 320 Front St. and 301 & 303 Clay St 

Removed to 320 DAVIS ST., San Fran co 





7^ nnn tons capacity, nt^ nnn 

f U.KJKJVJ storage at Lowest Rates. • *~>,\J\J\J 

ObI. Dry Dock Co., props. Office, 803 Cal. 8t room 18 




A Small Tract 

of Tim 

Best Fruit & Vineyard Land 


Central California! 

Reasonable Prices and Easy Terms. 

Natoma Water & Mining Co. 




Suitable for Fruit, Vines and Vegetables, in subdivisions 

5, 10 and 20-Acre Tracts. 

The tract now offered in subdivisions is situated on 
the south side of the American river. 18 miles from the 
city of Sacramento, the Capital of the State, adjoining 
the town of Folsom, and on the Sacramento and Placer- 
ville Railroad. 

Two hundred acres are now planted in fruit, in full 
bearing; the balance of the land, 800 acres, if now ready 
to plant either in fruit or vineyards. 

Thn soil is of a very super, or quality, being a deep 
rich loam, well drained, anu capable of producing evcrv 
vaiiety of fruits or vegetables, including the prach, 
appl •, apricot, cherry, pear, plum, piune, nectarine, 
quince, fig, almond and walnut. 'I he typographical feat- 
ure of this locality is the gentle slops of the land, intur- 
ing perfect drainage. 

Facilities for Irrigation. 

Water for irrigation and other purposes will be fur- 
Dished to all who desire it at the Company's rates. The 
water is taken from the American river, near Salmon 
Falls, and the ditch has a capacity of 3000 miners' inches 
and a never-failing supply of water. All of the land 
now offered for sale lies ' elow the ditch, and conse- 
quently fan be ir igated therefrom. ThiB is a very im- 
I ortar.t item and greatly increases the value of the land, 
as by irrigation a sure crop can always be depended 
up^n, even in the drieet of seasons. The irrigating 
ditches run directly through the tract, and in addition 
to this, an unfailing supply of pu e and toft water can 
be obtained from wells at a depth of from 10 to 100 feet, 

Transportation Facilities. 

The transportation facilities, a very important factor 
to all fruit growers, are of the very best; the Sacra- 
mento and Placerville Railroad running through the 
orchard its entire length and having a receiving depot in 
the most centr 1 location on the tract, so that no fruit 
has to be hauled more than half a mile. 

Why the Land Offered is a Profitable 

The soil is of the best, being sandy loam and sedi- 
ment, and adapted to the choicest quality of all varie- 
ties of fruits and vegetables. The property is located in 
that portion of the State where all fruits ripen early, 
and naturally command the highest prices. 

The property is also situated iu the central part of 
California, and in the center . f a great fruit -producing 
section, and immediately adjoining the principal markets 
of the coast— by the quick transportation facilities which 
it eDjoys. 

The company w'll assist purchasers of their lands by 
giving them employment in preference to all others, 
furnish them water for irrigation at very low rates, 
assist them by their knowledge of the property in plant 
icg the different varieties of fruit and vines on the lands 
to which they are best adapted, furnish pasture for 
stock, and in fact they wijl at times be prepared to ren- 
der such assistance to purchasers that will be of benefit 
to them in cultivating, selling and shipping their prod- 

The products of the lands of the NATOMA WATER 
AND MINING COMPANY have always commanded tho 
highest market prices both on the Pacific Coa't and in 
the Eastern market. The f uit Is loaded in the cars on 
ths property and is transported intact, to its destination 
in the East and other markets, a facility of transporta- 
tion that is of the greatest impo tance, and with these 
great advantages prosperity is assured, and to day there 
is no better field for solid and profitable investment on 
the Pacific. Coast, as these lands arc offered at prices be- 
low those of other lands not so ac'vantageously located, 
and net paving an immediate income. 

The portion of the property set out in orchard is all 
in bearing; thus purchasers will at once receive an in- 
come, thereby enabling them to pay for tho land from 
the products. Good soil, abundance of water, healthy 
climate, easy of access, clofe proximity to schools anil 
churches, with lew prices and easy terms combine to 
make the purchase of these lauds the most nrofitablo in- 
vestment ever offered. 

For maps, photographs, price-list and tub Information 
apply to 


Real Estate Agents & Auctioneers 


Lick House Building. San Francisco, 


E. K. ALSIP & CO., 1015 Fourth St., Sacramento, Cal. 

C. H. SCIIUSSLKU, Esq., Superintendent of the Na- 
toma Water and Mining Uf rnpany, Natoma, Sacramento 
county, Cal. 



[Jan. 19, 1889 

fieeds, Wants, ttc, 


A limited number of strong roots of our native 
(Eastern) fngrant Water Lily (Nmipraji Odorata) 
for sale at $4 pot dozen or 50 cents